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private ? Did he not, on the con lights in which it has not generally trary, in all places and at all times, been viewed even by his admirers, we refuse to converse on the subject of must repeat that we do not mean his own labours, turning off every wholly to dissent from Mr. Carlyle's attempt at commendation with a few doctrines. Harsh as they may seem words of depreciation, and hastily to be, we recognize in them more directing the conversation to some real mercy than in the theories and other point ? And as to that morbid practices of men who pique themsympathy with scoundrels which Mr. selves on their benevolence. Nay, Carlyle holds in such just abhorrence, as we have said before, we think where can we discover any trace of such men

as Mr. Carlyle much that weakness in John Howard ? wanted at present, and likely to Has Mr. Carlyle forgotten the fact effect much good in spite of their which Howard puts so prominently exaggerations. He may not succeed forward, that his sympathy was in inducing the State to enlist idlers mainly exerted on behalf, not of and shoot them if they desert from thieves and felons, but of innocent labour; but he will, perhaps, prevail men? Howard tells us himself that on all promoters of idleness to cease the circumstance which excited him from the ill-judged squandering of to activity was seeing some who, money by which idleness is created by the verdict of juries, were declared and perpetuated. So also with other not guilty; some on whom the grand men of like stern modes of thought. jury did not find such an appearance Those who utterly condemn all indisof guilt as subjected them to trial; criminate alms-giving, and would and some whose prosecutors did not have the man who commits charity (?) appear against them, after having in the street, highway, or doorway, been confined for months, dragged fined for his folly, and the recipient back to gaol and locked up again till flogged for his wickedness, may fail they should pay sundry fees to the in this, but still succeed in pouring gaoler, the clerk of assize,' &c. It upon all careless distributors of was on behalf of these innocent men, money the contempt which their and of the poor debtors who were folly merits. Those, also, who promade to share their sufferings, that test against the mock-humanity of all Howard's sympathies were ex

the blockade of the African coast, cited. As to the thieves and mur though they may make no impression derers, there is no evidence that he upon an impracticable prime mifelt any

other interest in them than nister, may be the means of rensuch as was naturally excited by dering any similar philanthropic seeing them exposed to dangers crusade henceforth impossible. which were no part of their sen Once more, then, we tender our tence. He did not deem it just, thanks to Mr. Carlyle and the even to the most depraved of man Reactionists for their hearty abuse kind, to sentence them to hard labour of Model Prisons, Indiscriminate or the gallows, and to superadd an Alms - giving, Universal Suffrage attack of gaol-fever. Beyond this and Ballot-box Panaceas: but we John Howard does not appear to

must still cling to Hero, have shown more sympathy with John Howard, as a man worthy of scoundrels than Mr. Carlyle himself all admiration, and a very proper would

approve. We contend, then, model for all country gentlemen who that John Howard was in no sense have hitherto yielded to the temptathe first patient who suffered from tions of the Law of Settlement, to the the "Benevolent-Platform Fever;' neglect and injury of the Poor on and we further contend that he was their estates; to all victims of the in all respects a much truer hero Benevolent-Platform Fever;' and to than it pleases Thomas Carlyle to all and sundry of whatever rank or represent him.

position in life who find themselves At the same time, however, that we tempted to prefer talking philandefend John Howard and attempt to thropy at public meetings to acting place his truly great character in Christianity at home.

our

LEAVES FROM THE NOTE-BOOK OF A NATURALIST.

PART IV.

ner.

Arabia to Egypt, wrapped up in old world, is the country of won myrrh, is a very different task from ders. Take up a steady-going book the porterage of a dead body thence of travels, or the Arabian Nights, and thither. what region like Africa ? Open a Some, again, declare that the bird volume of natural history, the older never died at all ; but that when the better, and the African marvellous Age .clawed him in his clutch,' and forms throw all the others into shade. he found himself not quite so jaunty Did not the phenix live there, and as in the vaward of his youth, he make its appearance among the He collected the choicest perfumed woods liopolitans only once in five hundred of Araby the blest, waited patiently years ? He came on the death of for fire from heaven to kindle the his sire in shape and size like an spicy' pile, burnt away what we eagle, with his glorious particoloured have heard termed · his old particles, wings of golden hue set off with red, and came forth as if he had drunk of dutifully bearing from Arabia the the renovating elixir of life. body of his father to his burial-place But what right had the phenix to in the temple of the sun, and there such pleasant immortality ? piously deposited the paternal corpse Because he never ate the forbidden in the tomb.

fruit. But how did the phenix carry

Moreover, there is a place in him to the grave,-as the kite car Arabia, near the city of Buto, to ried Cock Robin, I suppose ?

which Herodotus went on hearing of No, madam; he brought his re some winged serpents; and when he vered, deceased parent, in this man arrived there, he saw bones and

He first formed a large egg of spines of serpents in such quantities myrrh, and then having by trial as it would be impossible to describe : ascertained that he could carry it, he there they were in heaps, and of all hollowed out the artificial egg, put

sizes. Now this place is a narrow his parent into it, stopped up the pass between two mountains, opening hole through which he had intro into a spacious plain contiguous to duced the body with more myrrh, so that of Egypt; and it is reported, that the weight was the same as the says he of Halicarnassus, that at the solid egg of myrrh, and performed commencement of spring, winged the funeral in Egypt.*

serpents fly from Arabia towards If you would see the manner of Egypt, but the ibises meet them at his death, turn to the Portraits the pass, and kill them ; for which d'Oyseaux, Animaux, Serpens, Herbes, service the ibis is held in high reArbres, Hommes et Femmes d’Arabie verence by the Egyptians. I et Egypte, observez par P. Belon du The “serpent allé' that fled near Mans;and there you will behold Mount Sinai, figured by Belon, was · Le Phenix selon que le vulgaire a probably one of this ghastly crew of costume de le portraire' on his fiery invaders. funeral pile, gazing at a noon-day

And here a word for Ilerodotus, radiant sun with as good eyes, nose,

who has been accused of all sorts of and mouth as ever appeared over Munchausenisms. It will be genemine host's door, with the following rally found, that whatever he says choice morsel of poetry :

he himself saw has been corroborated O du phoenix la divine excellence ! by modern eye-witnesses. In the Ayant vescu seul sept cens soixante ans, case of the phenix he writes,Il meurt dessus des ramées d'ancens :

They say that he has the following Et de sa cendre un autre prend naissance. contrivance, which, in my opinion,

It is to be hoped, for the sake of is not credible ;' and then he relates the son, that this is the correct ver the story of the egg of myrrh, and sion. The carriage of ashes from of the son's carrying the father's

* Herodotus, Euterpe. VOL. XLI. NO. CCXLIV.

† Paris, 1557.

Euterpe, 74.

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body into Egypt. Again, he heard and who, nowadays, does not ? of winged serpents, but says he saw upon the happy change which has the bones of serpents, which he passed over that noble and now welldoubtless did; and after describing conducted establishment, since Mr. the black ibis which fights with the Mitchell, favourably known for his serpents, at the conclusion of the attainments in that branch of science, chapter he evidently alludes to the and gifted with the command of a report, when he says that the form ready and accurate pencil, has held of the serpent is like that of the the office of secretary. A healthy water-snake, but that he has wings and comfortable airpervades the without feathers, and as like as may place. The habits of the animals be to the wings of a bat.

are studied, and confinement made When we take a glance at the map, as little irksome as possible. Comand see what an enormous area of munications are opened with foreign African territory is still an undis powers, and new forms continually covered country, even in this age

of flow in consequent upon a wise enterprize, can we wonder that ro liberality. mance has been busy with the vast I am just returned from visiting and unknown tracts? Many of the the greyhounds about to be sent by animals which are known to us are the Zoological Society to Abbas of extraordinary shape and habits; Pasha, who has already caused one and it was but the other day that young hippopotamus to be taken Professor Owen described a

from the White Nile. It is now species of anthropoid apes, the under the kind care of the Hon. C. Gorilla, more horrible in appearance A. Murray* at Cairo, where it safely than any phantom that Fuseli ever arrived on the 14th of November imagined. Look at the proportions last, when it was flourishing, enjoyof the giraffe, with its prehensile ing a bath of the temperature of the tongue and its mode of progression, river, and delighting everybody by by moving two legs on the same side its amiable and docile qualities. This together, so that both feet are off most valuable gift was accompanied the ground at the same time. But by a fine lioness and a cheetah; and we must not multiply examples which Mr. Murray was further informed will occur to most of our readers. by his Highness the Viceroy of

A few years only have elapsed Egypt that a party of his troops resince the giraffe has been made fami mained out on the White Nile, exliar to modern Europeans, and in no pressly charged with the duty of country have so many been kept securing a young female hippopotogether as in the British islands. tamus, destined also for the society. In the garden of the Zoological If fortune be but propitious—if no Society they have bred regularly casualty should arise to disappoint and well, and the offspring, with one our hopes, it is not improbable that exception, have lived and thriven. in the merry month of May two hipStill there are three huge African popotami may be presented to the forms which have never yet wondering eyes of the visitors to the their appearance in that extensive Regent's Park. The Romans, who and noble vivarium the African saw in their day every known creaelephant, the hippopotamus, and the ture that the Old World produced, African rhinoceros, of which last there were made familiar with this uncouth are several species. By the enter form-this huge incorporation of life prize of the society, aided by the ---at their shows and shambles of men prudent zeal of Nir. Mitchell, we and beasts, when both fell slanghmay soon have the satisfaction of

tered as the crowning excitement of beholding the two first of these gi the arena. But no living hippopogantic pachyderms in the garden

at tanus has as yet been seen on British the Regent's Park.

ground. And here we cannot but congratu

The King of Dahomy, the steps late those who delight in zoology- of whose throne are formed of the

* Zoologists owe a large debt of gratitude to Mr. Murray, for the unwearied activity, tact, skill, and care, which he has exerted to procure curious living animals for this country.

skulls of his enemies, and who commands an army of plump, well-fed Amazons, had never seen a peacock. The Zoological Society, longing for an Africun elephant, sent over to his majesty a gift of pea-fowls, the cocks having first been shorn of their tailor rather back-feathers; for the feathers springing from the back arrange themselves into that magnificent iridescent circle, and are supported by the caudal feathers, when Juno's bird shines out in all his splendour, and as the nursery-maids term it,' spreads his tail.'

But why dock the peacocks ?

Because, if they had been sent with their trains on, they would have presented such a ragged appearance to the royal eyes, after being cooped up on their voyage to say nothing of the irritation to the system of the birds themselves from their bedraggled and begrimed plumage, or of the accidents of pitch and tar---that the king might have well questioned the faith of those who had filled his mind with the glories of this recipient of the eyes of Argus, and his blood - drinker might have been called into action. No, the train - feathers were most wisely cut, and, with the birds, a well-executed drawing of a peacock in all its glory was sent, and his majesty was informed, that when they moulted, and the new feathers came to perfection, the effect would be similar to the drawing, but very superior.

With the present a letter-grandis epistola- was sent, besealed and beribanded, together with a list of the society from which the present came. His majesty listened in silence while one name well-known to scientific Europe after another was pronounced, and the king made no sign; but when that of Lord Palmerston was enunciated, the royal voice in. terrupted the recitation of the beadroll with, 'Ah, I know that man !

Then the peacocks were paraded, and, even in their curtailed state, adınired, and the king gave directions to his Amazons to seek out a wild female elephant, with a young one of an age fit to be separated from the mother; and when they had found her, their orders were to kill the hapless parent and to save the

offspring as a gift to the Zoological Society of London.

The lamented death of Mr. Duncan, who take him all in all was, perhaps, the very man of all others for keeping up our relations with this grim potentate, may possibly act unfavourably for the interests of the society, but we have so much confidence in the energy of the management, that we doubt not that this misfortune, great as it is, will not be suffered long to cloud the fair prospects which were opened to the longing eyes of naturalists and the sight-seeing public.

Just look at the announcement which the council of the Zoological Society have been enabled to make for the current year. They state that they have already received advice of collections of various importance, which are in progress of formation, or already shipped from :

Singapore-by Capt. the Hon. H. Keppel, R.N.

Ceylon — by A. Grant, Esq. M.D., and A. Grace, Esq. Deputy Queen's Advocate.

Bombay-by Alexander Elphinston, Esq., and A. Shaw, Esq. H. E. I. C. Civ. S.

Whydah — by J. Duncan, Esq. H. B. M. Vice-Consul.

Sta. Lucia—by Lieut. Tyler, R.E.

South Carolina — by J. Davis, Esq. M.D.

As long as the president and council do their duty in this way, and consider the instruction and amusement of thousands, as they have done, by lowering the price of admission on Mondays to sixpence, they will receive the support of the public; and they deserve it.

Of the African form of rhinoceros, three species - Rhinoceros bicornis, Rhinoceros keitloa, and Rhinoceros simus--are preserved in the wellarranged zoological collection of the British Museum, which much to the energetic care of Mr. Gray; nor do we despair of seeing some, if not all, of these great pachyderms in life and health in the Regent's Park. Last year the Asiatic rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Indicus) died there, after a healthy existence of fifteen years in the garden. The cause of death, apparently, was inflammation of the lungs,- a disease

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which the damp and foggy atmo runs his horn at last into the ele. sphere arising from the undrained phant's belly, and how the blood of clay soil, which carries off so many the elephant runs into the eyes of of the animals confined there. When the rhinoceros and blinds him, when will the Government take in hand the roc, or ruk, pounces upon the the long-promised work of draining combatants, and carries them both that park? All

ye dwellers in off in his claws. The elephant used that captivating but-during certain to tickle him with his trunk, and months, when moisture is most pre stroke his ears, now and then giving valent-dangerous locality, read the his tail a sly pull; upon which the well - written and well - considered rhinoceros would cut a clumsy caper, report of Mr. Donaldson. The com wheel round, and nibble the elefortable dowagers now take their phant's trunk with his huge flexible airings without fear of the dashing, lips. He was fond of going into the well-mounted highwaymen, who capacious tank, which served as a formerly took toll in Marylebone bath for him and the elephant, who Fields; but malaria still lurks there, were alternately let out into the shrouded in the mist that rises from enclosure; the gambols before-menthe marshy ground and that orna tioned having been played through mental but unblessed lake-for no the iron railing, when the elephant stagnant water resting upon a basin was expatiating in the great enelo. of clay can ever carry healing on sure, and the rhinoceros was out in the wings of its evaporation.

the small space before its apartment. But to return to the deceased rhi When the rhinoceros first took to noceros. On dissection it was mani the water, there was a marked diffest that the animal had broken a ference between his obstinate sturib, probably in throwing itself pidity and the sagacity of the eleheavily down to rest in its uncouth phant under the same circumstances.

This fracture might have The bottom of the tank, which is sur. injured the lungs at the moment, mounted by an elevated coping, graand the subsequent anchylosis pro dually inclines from the entrance, till, bably produced a pressure which at the opposite extremity, it is deep accelerated the disease. Shortly be enough to permit an elephant of full fore death the animal strained to height, and of the massive proportions vomit without effect, with the ex of poor Jack, to submerge the whole ception of some froth tinged with of its gigantic body; and most gratiblood at the mouth; and soon after fying it was to see Jack enjoy the wards bloody matter was discharged cooling comforts of an entire subat the nose. These are not pleasant mersion, now dipping his huge head particulars ; but these lines may beneath the surface, and presently meet the eyes of some of those in raising it again, again to plunge it terested in the management of the out of sight. The rhinoceros walked animals, and may afford hints for in well enough down the gradual the future.

descent, and when he got out of his Poor fellow, he was stupidly good- depth swam boldly to the opposite natured in the main, and would let extremity. Once there, however, he the visitors rub his nose or his horn seemed to have no idea of the possi

- which, by the way, he never per bility of returning, but remained mitted to grow, but kept it constantly plunging and making fruitless efforts rubbed down – or tickle him about to get out over the raised coping the eye, or place their hands in the while he was in the deep water, folds of his stout mail-like buff coat, where the wall went sheer down and where the skin, as we heard an there was no foothold. It was rather honest yeoman, who was making the a nervous time for those who witexperiment, say, was as soft as a nessed the violent and ungainly lady's ! Ile was very good friends efforts of the brute; for it was feared with poor old Jack the elephant, that he would then and there tire now dead and gone, notwithstanding himself out and sink exhausted. At the stories of the violent antipathy last, when almost overworn by his which the two huge beasts bear to useless toil, he was half-forced, halfeach other, and how the rhinoceros coaxed round, and when his head

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