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Ros. I care not if I have. It is my study 85 To seem despiteful and ungentle to you. You are there followed by a faithful shepherd; Look upon him, love him. He worships you. Phe. Good shepherd, tell this youth what

't is to love. Sil. It is to be all made of sighs and tears ; 90 And so am I for Phebe.

Phe. And I for Ganymede.
Orl. And I for Rosalind.
Ros. And I for no woman.

Sil. It is to be all made of faith and service; os And so am I for Phebe.

Phe. And I for Ganymede.
Orl. And I for Rosalind.
Ros. And I for no woman.

Sil. It is to be all made of fantasy.
All made of passion, and all made of wishes;
All adoration, duty, and observance,
All humbleness, all patience, and impatience,
All purity, all trial, all observance ;
And so am I for Phebe.

Phe. And so am I for Ganymede.
Orl. And so am I for Rosalind.
Ros. And so am I for no woman.

Phe. If this be so, why blame you me to love you?

Sil. If this be so, why blame you me to love yon?

Orl. If this be so, why blame you me to love




2. Page. We are for you. Sit i' the middle.

1. Page. Shall we clap into 't roundly, without hawking or spitting or saying we hoarse, which are the only prologues to a bad voice ?

2. Page. I' faith, i' faith ; and both in a tune, like two gipsies on a horse.

Song, It was a lover and his lass,

With a hey, and a ho, and a hey nonino, That o'er the green corn-field did pass

In the spring time, the only pretty ring time, When birds do sing, hey ding a ding, ding ; 21 Sweet lovers love the spring. Between the acres of the rye,

With a hey, and a ho, and a hey nonino,
These pretty country folks would lie,

In spring time, &c.
This carol they began that hour,

With a hey, and a ho, and a hey nonino,
How that a life was but a flower

In spring time, &c.
And therefore take the present time,

With a hey, and a ho, and a hey nonino;
For love is crowned with the prime
In spring time, &c.

Touch. Truly, young gentlemen, though there was no great matter in the ditty, yet the note was very untuneable.

1. Page. You are deceiv'd, sir. We kept time, we lost not our time.

Touch. By my troth, yes; I count it but time lost to hear such a foolish song. God buy you and God mend your voices ! Come, Audrey.

[Exeunt, SCENE IV. [The forest.) Enter DUKE senior, AMIENS, JAQUES, OR

LANDO, OLIVER, and CELIA. Duke S. Dost thou believe, Orlando, that

the boy Can do all this that he hath promised ?

Orl. I sometimes do believe, and sometimes

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Ros. Why do you speak too, “Why blame you me to love you ? "

Orl. To her that is not here, nor doth not hear.

Ros. Pray you, no more of this ; 't is like the howling of Irish wolves against the moon, To Sil.) I will help you, if I can. (To Phe.] I would love you, if I could. To-morrow (120 meet me all together. [To Phe.] I will marry you, if ever I marry woman, and I'll be married to-morrow. (To Orl.] I will satisfy you, if ever I satisfi'd man,

and you shall be married to-morrow. (To Sil.) I will content (125 you, if what pleases you contents you, and you shall be married to-morrow. (To Orl.) As you love Rosalind, meet. [To Sil.] As you love Phebe, meet. And as I love no woman, I'll meet. So, fare you well. I have left you commands.

Sil. I'll not fail, if I live.
Phe. Nor I.
Orl. Nor I.

(Exeunt. SCENE III. (The forest.) Enter Clown (TOUCHSTONE) and AUDREY.

Touch. To-morrow is the joyful day, Audrey ; to-morrow will we be married.

Aud. I do desire it with all my heart; and I hope it is po dishonest desire to desire to be a woman of the world. Here come two of the banish'd Duke's pages.

Enter two Pages, 1. Page. Well met, honest gentlemen. Touch. By my troth, well met. Come, sit, sit, and a song

do not ;

As those that fear they hope, and know they

fear. Enter ROSALIND, SILVIUS, and PHEBE. Ros. Patience once more, whiles our com

pact is urg'd. You say, if I bring in your Rosalind, You will bestow her on Orlando here? Duke S. That would I, had I kingdoms to

give with her. Ros. And you say, you will have her, when I

bring her. Orl. That would I, were I of all kingdoms

king. Ros. You say, you 'll marry me, if I be will

ing? Phe. That will I, should I die the hour after.








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Touch. Upon a lie seven times removed, bear your body more seeming, Audrey, thus, sir. I did dislike the cut of a certain courtier's beard. He sent me word, if I said his beard was not cut well, he was in the mind it was : this is call'd the Retort Courteous. (= If I sent him word again "it was not well cut, he would send me word, he cut it to please him self: this is call'd the Quip Modest. If again “ it was not well cut,” he disabled my judge ment: this is called the Reply Churlish. If {ec again“ it was not well cut," he would answer, I spake not true: this is called the Reproof Valiant. If again it was not well cut," he would say, I lie: this is call'd the Counter check Quarrelsome: and so to Lie Circumstantial and the Lie Direct.

Jaq. And how oft did you say his beard was not well cut ?

Touch. I durst go no further than the Lie Circumstantial, nor he durst not give me the Lie Direct; and so we measur'd swords and parted.

Jaq. Can you nominate in order now the de grees of the lie?

Touch. O sir, we quarrel in print, by the book, as you have books for good manners. (* I will name you the degrees. The first, the Retort Courteous; the second, the Quip Modest; the third, the Reply Churlish ; the fourth, the Reproof Valiant; the fifth, the Counter check Quarrelsome; the sixth, the Lie with Cir cumstance; the seventh, the Lie Direct. AU (1.00 these you may avoid but the Lie Direct; and you may avoid that too, with an If. I knew when seven justices could not take up a quarrel, but when the parties were met themselves, one of them thought but of an If, as, “If (106 you said so, then I said so"; and they shook hands and swore brothers. Your If is the only peace-maker; much virtue in If.

Jag. Is not this a rare fellow, my lord ? He's

as good at any thing, and yet a fool. Duke Š. He uses his folly like a stalkinghorse and under the presentation of that he shoots his wit.


Ros. But if you do refuse to marry me, You 'll give yourself to this most faithful shep

herd ? Phe. So is the bargain. Ros. You say, that you 'll have Phebe, if she

will ? Sil. Though to have her and death were both

one thing. Ros. I have promis'd to make all this matter Keep you your word, O Duke, to give your

daughter; You yours, Orlando, to receive his daughter; Keep your word, Phebe, that you'll marry me, Or else, refusing me, to wed this shepherd; Keep your word, Silvius, that you 'll marry her, If she refuse me; and from hence I go, To make these doubts all even.

(Exeunt Rosalind and Celia. Duke S. I do remember in this shepherd boy Some lively touches of my daughter's favour. Orl. My lord, the first time that I ever saw

him Methought he was a brother to your daughter. But, my good lord, this boy is forest-born, And hath been tutor'd in the rudiments Of many desperate studies by his uncle, Whom he reports to be a great magician, Obscured in the circle of this forest.

Enter Clown (TOUCHSTONE) and AUDREY. Jag. There is, sure, another food toward, and these couples are coming to the ark. Here comes a pair of very strange beasts, which in all tongues are called fools,

Zouch. Salutation and greeting to you all so Jaq. Good my lord, bid him welcome. This is the motley-minded gentleman that I have so often met in the forest. He hath been a courtier, he swears.

Touch. If any man doubt that, let him put me to my purgation. I have trod a measure ; I have fatt'red a lady; I have been politic with my friend, smooth with mine enemy; I have undone three tailors; I have had four quarrels, and like to have fought one.

Jaq. And how was that ta'en up?

Touch. Faith, we met, and found the quarrel was upon the seventh cause.

Jaq. How seventh cause ? Good my lord, like this fellow.

Duke S. I like him very well.

Touch. God 'ild you, ;I desire you of the like. I press in here, sir, amongst the rest of the country copulatives, to swear and to forswear, according as marriage binds and blood breaks. A poor virgin, sir, an ill-favour'd thing, sir, but mine own. A poor humour of mine, (60 sir, to take that that no man else will. Rich honesty dwells like a miser, sir, in a poor house, as your pearl in your foul oyster.

Duke S. By my faith, he is very swift and sententious.

Touch. According to the fool's bolt, sir, and such dulcet diseases.

Jaq. But, for the seventh cause, - how did you find the quarrel on the seventh cause ?







[Still Music. Hym. Then is there mirth in heaven, When earthly things made even

Atone together.
Good Duke, receive thy daughter.
Hymen from heaven brought her,

Yea, brought her hither,
That thou mightst join her hand with his

Whose heart within his bosom is.
Ros. (To the Duke.] To you I give myself,

for I am yours: (To Orl.] To you I give myself, for I am yours. Duke $. If there be truth in sight, you are

my daughter. Orl. If there be truth in sight, you are my

Phe. If sight and shape be true,

Why then, my love adieu !








Ros. I 'll have no father, if you be not be ; I'll have no husband, if you be not he; Nor ne'er wed woman, if you be not she. Hym. Peace, ho! I bar confusion.

'Tis I must make conclusion

Of these most strange events.
Here's eight that must take hands
To join in Hymen's bands,

If truth holds true contents.
You and you no cross shall part;
You and you are heart in heart;
You to his love must accord,
Or have a woman to your lord ;
You and you are sure together,
As the winter to foul weather.
Whiles a wedlock-hymn we sing,
Feed yourselves with questioning;
That reason wonder may diminish, 145
How thus we met, and these things









Shall share the good of our returned fortune, 180
According to the measure of their states.
Meantime, forget this new-fallen dignity,
And fall into our rustic revelry.
Play, music ! And you, brides and bridegrooms

all, With measure heap'd in joy, to the measures

fall. Jaq. Sir, by your patience. If I heard you

rightly, The Duke hath put on a religious life And thrown into neglect the pompous court?

Jaq. de B. He hath. Jaq. To him will I. Out of these convertites There is much matter to be heard and

learn'd. (To Duke S.) You to your former honour I

bequeath; Your patience and your virtue well deserves it: [To Orl.) You to a love, that your true faith

doth merit: [To Oli.] You to your land, and love, and

great allies : (To Sil.) You to a long and well-deserved

bed : [To Touch.) And you to wrangling; for thy

loving voyage Is but for two months victuall’d. So, to your

I am for other than for dancing measures.

Duke S. Stay, Jaques, stay,
Jaq. To see no pastime I. What you would

I'll stay to know at your abandon'd cave.

[Exit. Duke $. Proceed, proceed. We will begin

these rites, As we do trust they 'll end, in true delights.

[A dance.) Exeunt.

[EPILOGUE) Ros. It is not the fashion to see the lady the epilogue, but it is no more unhandsome than to see the lord the prologue. If it be true that good wine needs no bush, 't is true that a good play needs no epilogue; yet to good wine they do use good bushes, and good plays prove the [5 better by the help of good epilogues. What a case am I in then, that am neither a good epilogue, nor cannot insinuate with you in the behalf of a good play! I am not furnish'd like a beggar, therefore to beg will not become me. [10 My way is to conjure you, and I'll begin with the women. I charge you, O women, for the love you bear to men, to like as much of this play as please you;' and I charge you, O

men, for the love you bear to women,

1 ceive by your simpering, none of you hates them -- that between you and the women the play may please. If I were a woman I would kiss as many of you as had beards that pleas'd me, complexions that lik'd me, and breaths (20 that I defi'd not; and, I am sure, as many as have good beards or good faces or sweet breaths will, for my kind offer, when I make curtsy, bid me farewell.



Wedding is great Juno's crown

O blessed bond of board and bed!
'Tis Hymen peoples every town;

High wedlock then be honoured.
Honour, high honour, and renown,

To Hymen, god of every town!
Duke S. O my dear niece, welcome thou art

to me! Even daughter, welcome in no less degree. Phe. I will not eat my word, now thou art

mine; Thy faith my fancy to thee doth combine.

Enter Second Brother (JAQUES DE Boys). Jaq. de B. Let me have audience for a word

ar two. I am the second son of old Sir Roland, That bring these tidings to this fair assembly. Duke Frederick, hearing how that every

day Men of great worth resorted to this forest, Address'd a mighty power, which were on

foot, In his own conduct, purposely to take His brother here and put him to the sword; And to the skirts of this wild wood he came, 165 Where meeting with an old religious man, After some question with him, was converted Both from his enterprise and from the world; His crown bequeathing to his banish'd brother, And all their lands restor'd to them again That were with him exil'd. This to be true, I do engage my life. Duke S.

Welcome, young man; Thou offer'st fairly to thy brothers' wedding : To one his lands withheld; and to the other A land itself at large, a potent dukedom. First, in this forest let us do those ends That'here were well begun and well begot; And after, every of this happy number, That have endur'd shrewd days and nights

with us,




per- (15


UNDER the date of February 2, 16012, the Diary of John Manningham contains an entry recording the performance in the Hall of the Middle Temple, in which he was a student, of a play called Twelfth Night, or What You Will, which he describes in terms that identify it as Shakespeare's. This fixes a later limit for the date of composition. An earlier limit has not yet been certainly fixed. The title does not occur in Meres's list, so that it is most probably later than 1598. The reference to the new map with the augmentation of the Indies ” (II. ii. 85) is not quite definite enough to enable us to accept with assurance the results of attempts to identify it with a map published in 1599–1600. The evidence from the publication in collections of some of the songs in the play is weakened by the possibility of the songs' having been popularly known before they were printed. But neither in these hints, nor in the metre, is there any hindrance to our regarding the most generally accepted date, 1601, as the true one.

No printed edition seems to have appeared before the First Folio in 1623, and on this the present text is based.

The problem of the exact source of the main plot involves at least five plays and three novels. Of these, two Italian plays with the same name, Gl Inganni, may be set aside at once, since neither contains the central situation of Olivia's love for Cesario. In 1531 there was produced at Siena the comedy of Gl Ingannati, containing the substance of the plot of Twelfth Night; and a Latin translation of this was acted at Queens' College, Cambridge, in 1590 and 1598, but remained unprinted. The 28th Novella of Bandello (1554), later translated into French by Belleforest, has essentially the same plot. Belleforest's is probably the source of an English version, Apolonius and Silla, published in 1581 in Barnabe Riche his Farewell to Military Profession. Shakespeare's plot is on the whole closer to this than to any of the others. In 1608, English comedians acted at Graz a play, extant in a German print of 1677, called Tugend- und Liebesstreit. This comedy is manifestly closely related to Riche's story, and it is plausibly conjectured that it goes back to a lost English play founded on Riche, which may also have been the direct original of Twelfth Night. But in any case it is more than likely that Shakespeare knew Riche's book at first hand; for in the story Of Two Brethren and their Wives, contained in the same volume, an episode occurs which is the only sonrce so far suggested for the pretended lunacy of Malvolio.

Assuming that Shakespeare's main source was Apolonius and Silla, or a play founded on it, we may note that he omits a long introduction telling of Silla's love for the Duke before her arrival at his court and her adventures in search of him; and this omission not only makes the action more compact, but also makes possible a finer conception of the heroine. The relations of Olivia and Sebastian are also much more delicately treated in the play, and the action is again condensed in the final scene. In Riche, the brother leaves the city after having been entertained by Julina (Olivia); gossip about Julina and Silla reaches the Duke, who has Silla thrown into a dungeon ; Julina goes to the Duke to plead for Silla, who is sent for, denies any love-compact with Julina, and, under threat of death, reveals her identity. Julina retires in perplexity, and the Duke marries Silla. The rumor of the marriage brings the brother back to the city, where he confesses his former visit, and marries Julina. This scattering conclusion is in strong contrast to the concentration of Shakespeare's dénouement.

Shakespeare's treatment of Olivia's love for Cesario is much fuller than Riche's, and seems to show a reminiscence of a situation in Montemayor's Diana, from which he had previously drawn materials for The Two Gentlemen of Verona.

In characterization even more is due to the dramatist than in construction. The main persons, are entirely re-created, and the sentimentalism of the Duke, as well as the appealing union of pathos and arch humor which makes the charm of Viola, is altogether the conception of Shakespeare. Apart from the hint mentioned above for the madness of Malvolio, the underplot, with the characters of Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, Maria, Malvolio, Fabian, and Feste, seems to be entirely original.


Eneyman on
Theslent woman / Pean

School in branded













ORSENO, Duke of Illyria.

MALVOLIO, steward to Olivia. SEBASTIAN, brother to Viola.

FABIAN, ANTONIO, a sea captain, friend to Sebastian.

FESTE, & clown,

servants to Olivia. A Sea Captain, friend to Viola. VALENTINE, CURIO, } gentlemen attending on the Duke.

OLIVIA, a rich countess.

VIOLA. SIR TOBY BELCH, uncle to Olivia.


Lords, Priests, Sailors, Officers, Musicians, and other Attendants.

SCENE : A city in Nlyria, and the sea-coast near it.]

With eye-offending brine : all this to season

A brother's dead love, which she would keep SCENE I. (A room in the Duke's palace.)


And lasting in her sad remembrance. Enter ORSINO, Duke of Nlyria, Curio, and other

Duke. O, she that hath a heart of that fine Lords (Musicians attending).

frame Duke. If music be the food of love, play on! To pay this debt of love but to a brother, Give me excess of it, that, surfeiting,

How will she love when the rich golden shaft 36 The appetite may sicken, and so die.

Hath kill'd the flock of all affections else That strain again! It had a dying fall.

That live in her; when liver, brain, and heart, 0, it came o'er my ear like the sweet sound These sovereign thrones, are all suppli’d,

and That breathes upon a bank of violets,

fill'd Stealing and giving odour. Enough! more! Her sweet perfections with one self king! 'T is not so sweet now as it was before.wy Away before me to sweet beds of flowers; O spirit of love, how quick and fresh art thou, Love-thoughts lie rich when canopi'd with That, notwithstanding thy capacity


[Ereunt. Receiveth as the sea, nought enters there, Of what validity and pitch soe'er,

SCENE II. (The sea-coast.]
But falls into abatement and low priceine
Even in a minute! So full of shapes is fancy

Enter VIOLA, a CAPTAIN, and Sailors. That it alone is high fantastical.

Vio. What country, friends, is this ? Cur. Will you go hunt, my lord ?

Cap. This is Ilyria, lady. Duke.

What, Curio ? Vio. And what should I do in Illyria ? Cur. The hart.

My brother he is in Elysium. Duke. Why, so I do, the noblest that I have. Perchance he is not drown'd. What think you, 0, when mine eyes did see Olivia first,

sailors ? Methought she purg'd the air of pestilence ! 20 Cap. It is perchance that you yourself were That instant was I turn'd into a hart;

saved. And my desires, like fell and cruel hounds, Vio. O my poor brother! and so perchance E’er since pursue me.

may he be.

Cap. True, madam; and, to comfort you Enter VALENTINE.

with chance, How now! what news from her ? Assure yourself, after our ship did split, Val. So please my lord, I might not be ad- When you and those poor number saved with mitted,

you But from her handmaid do return this an- Hung on our driving boat, I saw your brother,

Most provident in peril, bind himself, The element itself, till seven years' heat, Courage and hope both teaching him the pracShall not behold her face at ample view;

tice, But, like a cloistress, she will veiled walk, To a strong mast that liv'd upon the sea ; And water once a day her chamber round Where, like Arion on the dolphin's back,








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