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The date most generally agreed on for the composition of Measure for Measure is 1603-4, and though external evidence is even more scanty than usual, internal evidence tends to corroborate this conjecture. The entry in the Revels accounts of a performance on December 26, 1604, is a forgery, but is founded on a good guess. Barksted's Myrrha (1607) contains an apparent reminiscence of the simile in 11. iv. 24-26, and thus affords a later limit. The lines in 1 i. 68-73 and 11. iv. 27-30 may have been written in allusion to James I's attitude towards the populace, and, if so, place the play soon after his accession in 1603. Similarities in tone, in metre, and in details of thought, to All's Well and Hamlet all tend in the same direction.
There is no trace of the play's having been printed before 1623, and the present text is based on the far from perfect version in the First Folio.
Stories containing the central situation of Measure for Measure, the perfidy of Angelo, are com mon in European literature. The direct source, however, of Shakespeare's play is clearly to be found in the double drama of Promos and Cassandra, written by George Whetstone before he left England in 1578, the plot of which he later threw into narrative form in his Hepta meron of Civil Discourses (1582). Whetstone's source seems to have been the fifth novel of the tenth day in the Hecatommithi of Giraldi Cinthio, who dramatized the same story in his Epitia. There is no evidence of Shakespeare's having used any version of the story but Whetstone's drama, excepi that in the Heptameron the narrator of the tale is a Madam Isabella, the identity of whose name with that of Shakespeare's heroine may point to his having seen the book.
The scene of Whetstone's comedy is Julio in Hungary, governed by Promos as representative of Corvinus, King of Bohemia. The society of this city is described as seething with moral cor ruption, a picture transferred by Shakespeare to Vienna. But the typical characters chosen to represent this society are all re-created in Measure for Measure, Pompey alone bearing some resemblance to a prototype, the Rosko of Whetstone. The function of the King in the older play is practically confined to the redressing of wrongs in the last act, so that the Duke's disguise as a monk, all his activity in the intrigue, and his final offer of marriage to Isabella, are Shakespeare's. The Deputy in Whetstone is honest in his severity before he sees Isabella, but the subtle portrayal of his austere Puritanism, so carefully made in the earlier scenes of the present play, is altogether absent. Shakespeare spares him the additional villainy of a false promise of marriage in his attempt to seduce the heroine, and also the cruelty of ordering the head of her brother to be sent to her.
The most profound change is in the creation of the rôle of Mariana. In the older forms of the story, the main heroine yields to the Deputy, who is forced to marry her at the end. But for such an Isabella as Shakespeare conceived, this fate was clearly impossible. So the device of substitution, which Shakespeare had used in All's Well, was again employed, and a much loftier type of character made possible for the heroine. This elevation appears in all the great scenes, in her argument on mercy and justice, in her immediate rejection of Angelo's proposal, and in her scorn for her brother's weakness, - all of which are found in Whetstone in a crude form. It is suggestive of the level of Whetstone's Cassandra that considerations of reputation play a great part in the discussion between brother and sister. The first appearance of Isabella in Shakespeare is as a novice about to enter a sisterhood; the last is as the prospective bride of the Duke. Neither of these is in Whetstone; and the first may be regarded as indicating Shakespeare's view of the essential ideal quality in Isabella's character, the second as a concession to the convention of the happy ending. It is perhaps significant that she does not explicitly accept the Duke's proposal.
The increased delicacy of characterization is seen again in the brother. His first sound reaction in horror against Angelo's infamous proposal is wholly Shakespearean, and serves to place him on a plane which, in spite of his later cowardice, makes it possible to conceive him as Isabella's brother. The Provost is a development of Whetstone's gaoler; but Escalus is a creation of Shakespeare's, serving as a foil to the severity of Angelo.
MEASURE FOR MEASURE
ELBOW, a simple constable.
FROTH, a foolish gentleman.
(Pompey,] clown (servant to Mistress Overdone). CLAUDIO, a young gentleman.
ABHORSON, an executioner.
BARNABDINE, a dissolute prisoner.
ISABELLA, sister to Claudio.
MARIANA, betrothed to Angelo.
JULIET, beloved of Claudio.
FRANCISCA, & nun. (VARRIUS.)
MISTRESS OVERDONE, a bawd.
Fully unfold. Thyself and thy belongings
Are not thine own so proper as to waste CENR I. (An apartment in the Duke's palace.) Thyself upon thy virtues, they on thee. Enter DUKE, ESCALUS, Lords (and Attendants).
Heaven doth with us as we with torches do,
Not light them for themselves ; for if our virDuke. Escalus.
tues Escal. My lord.
Did not go forth of us, 't were all alike Duke. Of government the properties to un- As if we had them not. Spirits are not finely fold
touch'd Would seem in me to affect speech and dis- But to fine issues, nor Nature never lends course,
The smallest scruple of her excellence Since I am put to know that your own science But, like a thrifty goddess, she determines Exceeds, in that, the lists of all advice
Herself the glory of a creditor, My strength can give you. Then no more re- Both thanks and use. But I do bend my speech mains,
To one that can my part in him advertise.
Hold therefore, Angelo:
Live in thy tongue and heart. Old Escalus, For common justice, you 're as pregnant in Though first in question, is thy secondary. As art and practice hath enriched any
Take thy commission. That we remember. There is our commission, Ang.
Now, good my lord, From which we would not have you warp. Call Let there be some more test made of my metal hither,
Before so noble and so great a figure I say, bid come before us Angelo.
Be stamp'd upon it. [Erit an attendant.] Duke,
No more evasion. What figure of us think you he will bear? We have with a leaven'd and prepared choice For you must know, we have with special soul Proceeded to you ; therefore take your honours. Elected him our absence to supply,
Our haste from hence is of so quick condition Lent him our terror, dressid him with our love, That it prefers itself and leaves unquestion'd 65 And given his deputation all the organs
Matters of needful value. We shall write to Of our own power. What think you of it?
you, Escal. If any in Vienna be of worth
As time and our concernings shall importune, To undergo such ample grace and honour, How it goes with us, and do look to know It is Lord Angelo.
What doth befall you here. So, fare you well. Enter ANGELO.
To the hopeful execution do I leave you
Of your commissions.
Yet give leave, my lord, Ang. Always obedient to your Grace's will, That we may bring you something on the way. I come to know your pleasure.
Duke. My haste may not admit it;
Angelo, Nor need you, on mine honour, have to do There is a kind of character in thy life,
With any scruple. Your scope is as mine own, a That to the observer doth thy history
So to enforce or qualify the laws
As to your soul seems good. Give me your hand;
poses ! Escal. Lead forth and bring you back in
happiness! Duke. I thank you. Fare you well, (Exit. Escal. I shall desire you, sir, to give me
leave To have free speech with you ; and it concerns
me To look into the bottom of my place. A power I have, but of what strength and na
ture I am not yet instructed. Ang. 'Í is so with me. Let us withdraw to
gether, And we may soon our satisfaction have Touching that point. Escal. I'll wait upon your honour. (Exeunt.
SCENE II. (A street.] Enter Lucio and two other GENTLEMEN. Lucio. If the Duke with the other dukes come not to composition with the King of Hungary, why then all the dukes fall upon the King.
1. Gent. Heaven grant us its peace, but not the King of Hungary's !
2. Gent. Amen.
Lucio. Thou conclud'st like the sanctimonious pirate, that went to sea with the Ten Commandments, but scrap'd one out of the table. 2. Gent. Thou shalt not steal”
? Lucio. Ay, that he raz'd.
1. Gent. Why, 't was a commandment to command the captain and all the rest from their functions; they put forth to steal. There 's not a soldier of us all, that, in the thanksgiving before meat, do relish the petition well that prays for peace.
2. Gent. I never heard any soldier dislike it.
Lucio. I believe thee; for I think thou never wast where grace was said.
2. Gent. No? A dozen times at least. 1. Gent. What, in metre? Lucio. In any proportion or in any language. 1. Gent. I think, or in any religion.
Lucio. Ay, why not? Grace is grace, despite of all controversy; as, for example, thou thyself art a wicked villain, despite of all grace.
1. Gent. Well, there went but a pair of shears between us.
Lucio. I grant; as there may between the lists and the velvet. Thou art the list.
1. Gent. And thou the velvet. Thou art good velvet; thou 'rt a three-pil'd piece, I warrant thee. I had as lief be a list of an English kersey as be pild, as thou art pild, for a French velvet. Do I speak feelingly now?
Lucio. I think thou dost; and, indeed, with
most painful feeling of thy speech. I will, out of thine own confession, learn to begin thy health ; but, whilst I live, forget to drink after thee.
1. Gent. I think I have done myself wrong, have I not?
2. Gent. Yes, that thou hast, whether thou art tainted or free.
Enter Bawd (MISTRESS OVERDONE). Lucio. Behold, behold, where Madam Mitigation comes! I have purchasd as many diseases under her roof as come to 2. Gent. To what, I pray? Lucio. Judge. 2. Gent. To three thousand dolours a year. 1. Gent. Ay, and more. Lucio. A French crown more.
1. Gent. Thou art always figuring diseases in me; but thou art full of error; I am sound. 54
Lucio. Nay, not as one would say, healthy; but so sound as things that are hollow. Thy bones are hollow; impiety has made a feast of thee.
1. Gent. How now! which of your hips has the most profound sciatica ?
Mrs. Ov. Well, well; there's one yonder arrested and carried to prison was worth five thousand of you all.
2. Gent. Who's that, I pray thee? Mrs. Ov. Marry, sir, that's Claudio, Signior Claudio.
1. Gent. Claudio to prison? 'T is not so.
Mrs. Ov. Nay, but I know 't is so. I saw him arrested, saw him carried away; and, which is more, within these three days his head to be chopp'd off.
Lucio. But, after all this fooling, I would not have it so. Art thou sure of this?
Mrs. Ov. I am too sure of it, and it is for getting Madam Julietta with child.
Lucio. Believe me, this may be. He promis'd to meet me two hours since, and he was ever precise in promise-keeping.
2. Gent. Besides, you know, it draws something near to the speech we had to such a pur pose.
1. Gent. But, most of all, agreeing with the proclamation. Lucio, Away! let's go learn the truth of it.
(Ereunt (Lucio and Gentlemen). Mrs. Ov. Thus, what with the war, what with the sweat, what with the gallows, and what with poverty, I am custom-shrunk.
Enter Clown (POMPEY).
Pom. Yonder man is carried to prison.
Mrs. Ov. What, is there a maid with child by him?
Pom. No, but there's a woman with maid by him. You have not heard of the proclamation, have you?
Mrs. Ov. What proclamation, man?
Pom. All houses in the suburbs of Vienna must be pluck'd down.
Mrs. Ov. And what shall become of those in the city?
Pom. They shall stand for seed. They had gone down too, but that a wise burgher put in for them.
Mrs. Ov. But shall all our houses of resort in the suburbs be pull'd down?
Pom. To the ground, mistress.
Mrs. Ov. Why, here's a change indeed in the commonwealth! What shall become of me?
Pom. Come, fear not you; good counsellors lack no clients. Though you change your place, you need not change your trade. I'll (110 be your tapster still. Courage! there will be pity taken on you. You that have worn your eyes almost out in the service, you will be considered.
Mrs. Ov. What's to do here, Thomas tapster? Let's withdraw.
Pom. Here comes Signior Claudio, led by the provost to prison; and there's Madam Juliet.
[Exeunt. Enter Provost, CLAUDIO, JULIET, and Offi
I got possession of Julietta's bed.
Lucio. With child, perhaps ?
Unhappily, even so.
the wall So long that nineteen zodiacs have gone round And none of them been worn; and, for a
name, Now puts the drowsy and neglected act Freshly on me. 'Tis surely for a name.
Lucio. I warrant it is; and thy head stands so tickle on thy shoulders that a milkmaid, if she be in love, may sigh it off. Send after the Duke and appeal to him. Claud. I have done so, but he's not to be
found. I prithee, Lucio, do me this kind service. This day my sister should the cloister enter And there receive her approbation. Acquaint her with the danger of my state ; Implore her, in my voice, that she make
friends To the strict deputy ; bid herself assay him. I have great hope in that ; for in her youth There is a prone and speechless dialect, Such as move men ; beside, she hath prosper
ous art When she will play with reason and discourse, And well she can persuade.
Lucio. I pray she may; as well for the encouragement of the like, which else would stand under grievous imposition, as for the enjoying of thy life, who I would be sorry should be thus foolishly lost at a game of ticktack. I'll to her.
Claud. I thank you, good friend Lucio.
Come, officer, away!
Claud. Fellow, why dost thou show me thus
to the world ? Bear me to prison, where I am committed.
Prov. I do it not in evil disposition, But from Lord Angelo by special charge.
Claud. Thus can the demigod authority Make us pay down for our offence by weight 125 The words of heaven: on whom it will, it will; On whom it will not, so; yet still 't is just.
(Re-enter Lucio and two Gentlemen.) Lucio. Why, how now, Claudio! whence
comes this restraint ?' Claud. From too much liberty, my Lucio,
liberty. As surfeit is the father of much fast, So every scope by the immoderate use Turns to restraint. Our natures do pursue, Like rats that ravin down their proper bane, A thirsty evil; and when we drink we die.
Lucio. If I could speak so wisely under an arrest, I would send for certain of my creditors; and yet, to say the truth, I had as lief have the foppery of freedom as the morality of imprisonment. What's thy offence, Claudio ? Claud. What but to speak of would offend
again. Lucio. What, is 't murder ? Claud. No. Lucio. Lechery? Claud. Call it so. Prov. Away, sir! you must go. Claud. One word, good friend. Lucio, a word Lucio. A hundred, if they 'll do you any
good. Is lechery so look'd after ? Claud. Thus stands it with me : upon a true
SCENE (III. A monastery.] Enter DUKE and FRIAR THOMAS. Duke. No, holy father; throw away that
thought. Believe not that the dribbling dart of love Can pierce a complete bosom. Why I desire
To give me secret harbour, hath & purpose More grave and wrinkled' than the aims and
ends Of burning youth.
Fri. T. May your Grace speak of it ? Duke. My holy sir, none better knows than
you How I have ever lov'd the life removed, And held in idle price to haunt assemblies Where youth, and cost, and witless bravery
Fri. T. Gladly, my lord.
ing laws, The needful bits and curbs to headstrong
steeds, Which for this nineteen years we have let slip; Even like an o'ergrown lion in a cave, That goes not out to prey. Now, as fond fa
thers, Having bound up the threatening twigs of
birch, Only to stick it in their children's sight For terror, not to use, in time the rod (Becomes] more mock'd than fear'd ; so our
decrees, Dead to infliction, to themselves are dead, And liberty plucks justice by the nose, The baby beats the nurse, and quite athwart so Goes all decorum. Fri. T.
It rested in your Grace To unloose this tied-up justice when you
pleas'd : And it in you more dreadful would have
seem'd Than in Lord Angelo. Duke.
I do fear, too dreadful. Sith 't was my fault to give the people scope, 35 "Twould be my tyranny to strike and gall
them For what I bid them do; for we bid this be
done, When evil deeds have their permissive pass And not the punishment. Therefore indeed,
my father, I have on Angelo impos'd the office; Who may, in the ambush of my name, strike
home, And yet my nature never in the sight To do it slander. And to behold his sway, I will, as 't were a brother of your order, Visit both prince and people; therefore, I
prithee, Supply me with the habit and instruct me How I may formally in person bear me Like a true friar. Moe reasons for this action At our more leisure shall I render you; Only, this one : Lord Angelo is precise, Stands at a guard with envy, scarce confesses That his blood flows, or that his appetite
Is more to bread than stone ; hence shall we If power change purpose, what our seemers be.
(Ereuni SCENE (IV. A nunnery.] Enter ISABELLA and FRANCISCA, a Nun. Isab. And have you nuns no farther privi
leges ? Fran. Are not these large enough ? Isab. Yes, truly. I speak not as desiring
more, But rather wishing a more strict restraint Upon the sisterhood, the votaries of Saint Clare.
Lucio. (Within.) Ho! Peace be in this place ! Isab.
Who's that which calls ? Fran. It is a man's voice. Gentle Isabella, Turn you the key, and know his business of
him. You may, I may not; you are yet unsworn. When
you have vow'd, you must not speak with But in the presence of the prioress; Then, if you speak, you must not show your
face, Or, if you show your face, you must not speak. He calls again; I pray you, answer him.
(Erit. Isab. Peace and prosperity! Who is 't that calls ?
[Enter Lucio.) Lucio. Hail, virgin, if you be, as those cheekProclaim you are no less! Can you so stead me As bring me to the sight of Isabella, A ce of this place and the fair sister To her unhappy brother Claudio ?
Isab. Why her unhappy brother ? let me ask, The rather for I now must make you know I am that Isabella and his sister. Lucio. Gentle and fair, your brother kindly
Isab. Woe me I for what ?
Isab. Sir, make me not your story.
It is true.
't is thus : Your brother and his lover have embrac'd. ** As those that feed grow full, as blossoming time That from the seedness the bare fallow brings