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The merry songs of peace to all his neighbours. King. O Lord Archbishop,
That when I am in heaven I shall desire Nor shall this peace sleep with her; but as To see what this child does, and praise my when
Maker. The bird of wonder dies, the maiden phænix, I thank ye all. To you, my good Lord Mayor, Her ashes new create another heir
And you, good brethren, I am much beboldAs great in admiration as herself ;
ing; So shall she leave her blessedness to one,
I have receiv'd much honour by your presence, When heaven shall call her from this cloud of And ye shall find me thankful. Lead the way, darkness,
lords. Who from the sacred ashes of her honour Ye must all see the Queen, and she must thank Shall star-like rise as great in fame as she was,
ye, And so stand fix'd. Peace, plenty, love, truth, She will be sick else. This day, no man think terror,
Has business at his house ; for all shall stay. : That were the servants to this chosen infant, 49 This little one shall make it holiday. (Eseunt
. Shall then be his, and like a vine grow to him. Wherever the bright sun of heaven shall shine, His honour and the greatness of his name
EPILOGUE Shall be, and make new nations. He shall flourish,
'Tis ten to one this play can never please And, like a mountain cedar, reach his branches All that are here. Some come to take their To all the plains about him. Our children's
And sleep an act or two; but those, we fear, Shall see this, and bless Heaven.
We have frighted with our trumpets; so, 'tis King. Thou speakest wonders.
clear, Cran. She shall be, to the happiness of Eng- They 'll say 'tis naught: others, to hear the land,
city An aged princess ; many days shall see her, Abus'd extremely, and to cry, “That's witty!" And yet no day without a deed to crown it. Which we have not done neither: that, I fear, Would I had known no more! but she must All the expected good we're like to hear die,
For this play at this time, is only in She must, the saints must have her; yet a vir- The merciful construction of good women; gin,
For such a one we show'd 'em. If they smile A most unspotted lily shall she pass
And say 't will do, I know, within a while To the ground, and all the world shall mourn All the best men are ours; for 't is ill hap her.
If they hold when their ladies bid 'em clap.
THE TRAGEDY OF TITUS ANDRONICUS
In Henslowe's Diary, under the date April 11, 1591, is recorded the performance of a play called “tittus and Vespaciu," marked“ ne," i. e., new, or newly revised. Among the plays in the volume of Englische Comedien und Tragedien (1620), performed by English actors in Germany, there is a tragedy of Tito Andronico, which is apparently a degraded form of some version of the present play. In it Lucius is named Vespasian, and this affords a bint, corroborated by other evidence, that this German play is based on " tittus and Vespacia."
In 1641 there appeared in Holland a Dutch play by Jan Vos, entitled Aran en Titus, the plot of which is essentially that of Titus Andronicus. Both this and a lost German play, acted in 1699, of which only a program is preserved, seem to be based on a Dutch translation of an Eng. lish original. A comparison of the extant German, Dutch, and English plays points to the corclusion that the Shakespearean tragedy was a recasting of two English originals, on which, directly or indirectly, Tito Andronico and Aran en Titus were respectively founded.
On January 23, 15934, Henslowe records that a "new" play, “ Titus and Ondronicus," was produced by the servants of the Earl of Sussex. On February 6, 15934, there was entered in the Stationers' Register to J. Danter“ A Noble Roman Historye of Tytus Andronicus." Later in the same year appeared a quarto edition of our Titus Andronicus, as it was plaide by the Right Honourable the Earle of Darbie, Earle of Pembrooke, and Earle of Sussex their servants ... printed by John Danter.” A second quarto with some changes appeared in 1600, and a third quarto, printed from the second, appeared in 1611. On none of these Quartos does the name of Shakespeare appear; nor is there any external evidence to connect the play with him before its inclusion in the First Folio, except its occurrence in Meres's list of Shakespeare's tragedies in Palladis Tamiu (1598). The text of the First Folio is derived from the Third Quarto ; and the text of the present edition is based on the Second Quarto, the unique copy of the newly discovered First Quarto being inaccessible.
It is not agreed whether Henslowe's “Titus and Ondronicus was the present play or one of its predecessors ; but if the play entered to Danter on February 6, 15934, was, as seems most likely, the First Quarto, printed by him in the same year, it places the date of the composition of Titus Andronicus not later than 1593. From the evidence gathered from the German and Dutch versions, it becomes apparent that the question of Shakespeare's authorship narrows itself down to one of the amount of re-writing implied in the re-casting of the older dramatic versions of the story. The main features of the Shakespearean play which cannot be proved to have existed in the earlier dramas are the rivalry between Saturninus and Bassianus for the throne ; the funeral of Titus's sons killed in war; the sacrifice of Alarbus; the kidnapping of Lavinia by Bassianus. with the death of Mutius ; the sending of young Lucius with presents to the sons of Tamora ; and the whole of m. ii., which appears only in the First Folio, and is, perhaps, a later addition. These, with some minor details, and a revision of phraseology and metre which cannot be exactly estimated, seem to indicate the extreme limit of Shakespeare's responsibility. Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that other hands may have worked on the play between the stages represented by the Continental versions and that in which it is here printed; and some students still limit Shakespeare's share to “ some master-touches to one or two of the principal characters," accepting the late seventeenth-century tradition, reported by Ravenscroft, that this was all Shakespeare added to the work of “a private author."
Evidences of the authorship of the earlier dramatic versions are purely internal. Attempts have been made to associate the play with nearly every contemporary dramatic author of note ; but traces of the style of Peele and Greene point to the possibility of these writers' baring had a share in it, although at what stage it is not possible to determine.
THE TRAGEDY OF TITUS ANDRONICUS
[DRAMATIS PERSONÆ SATURNINUS, son to the late Emperor of Rome, and SEMPRONIUS, afterwards declared Emperor.
kinsmen to Titus.
DEMETRIUS, sons to Tamora.
tribune of the people, and brother CHIRON, to Titus.
AARON, a Moor, beloved by Tamora. LUCIUS,
A Clown. QUINTUS,
A Captain, Tribune, and Messenger.
Goths and Romans.
TAMORA, Queen of the Gotha.
LAVINIA, daughter to Titus Andronicus.
A Nurse, and a black child.
SCENR : Rome, and the country near it.]
SCENE I. (Rome. Before the Senate-house. The
Tomb of the Andronici appearing.)
then enter SATURNINUS and his Followers at
Sat. Noble patricians, patrons of my right,
of my right,
Lives not this day within the city walls.
(Ereunt soldiers (of Bassianus). Sat. Friends, that have been thus forward
in my right,
(Exeunt soldiers of Saturninus.)
Rome, be as just and gracious unto me
(Flourish. They go up into the Sen
Enter a CAPTAIN. Cap. Romans, make way! The good An
dronicus, Patron of virtue, Rome's best champion, Successful in the battles that he fights, With honour and with fortune is return'd From where he circumscribed with his sword And brought to yoke, the enemies of Rome. Drums and trumpets sounded, and then enter
two of Titus's sons (MarȚius and Mutius); and then two Men bearing a coffin covered with black; then two other sons (Lucius and QUINTUS). Then Titus ANDRONICUS;, and then TAMORA, the Queen of Goths with her (three) sons (Alarbus,) DEMETRIUS, and CHIRON; AARON the Moor, and others as many as can be. They set down the coffin, and Titus speaks. Tit. Hail, Rome, victorious in thy mourning
weeds! Lo, as the bark that hath discharg'd her
fraught Returns with precious lading to the bay From whence at first she weigh'd her anchor
(They open the tomb. There greet in silence, as the dead are wont, so And sleep in peace, slain in your country's
wars ! O sacred receptacle of my joys, sweet cell of virtue and nobility, How many sons hast thou of mine in store, That thou wilt never render to me more ! Luc. Give us the proudest prisoner of the
Tit. I give him you, the noblest that survives, The eldest son of this distressed queen.
Tam. Stay, Roman brethren! Gracious coe
queror; Victorious Titus, rue the tears shed, A mother's tears in passion for her son; And if thy sons were ever dear to thee, O, think my son to be as dear to me! Sufficeth not that we are brought to Rome, To beautify thy triumphs and return, Captive to thee and to thy Roman yoke, But must my sons be slaught'red in the streeta For valiant doings in their country's cause? 0, if to fight for king and commonweal Were piety in thine, it is in these. Andronicus, stain not thy tomb with blood ! Wilt thou draw near the nature of the gods? Draw near them, then, in being merciful; Sweet mercy is nobility's true badge. Thrice noble Titus, spare my first-born son ! »
Tit. Patient yourself, madam, and pardon These are their brethren, whom your Goths be
held Alive and dead ; and for their brethren slain Religiously they ask a sacrifice. To this your son is mark'd, and die he must, 1x To appease their groaning shadows that are
gone. Luc. Away with him! and make a fire
straight; And with our swords, upon a pile of wood, Let's hew his limbs till they be clean consum'd.
(Exeunt Lucius, Quintus, Martius,
and Mutius, with Alarbus. Tam. O cruel, irreligious piety! Chi. Was never Scythia half so barbarous. Dem. Oppose not Scythia to ambitious Rome. Alarbus goes to rest; and we survive To tremble under Titus' threat'ning look. Then, madam, stand resolv'd, but hope witbal The self-same gods that arm'd the Queen of
Troy With opportunity of sharp revenge Upon the Thracian tyrant in his tent, May favour Tamora, the Queen of Goths — When Goths were Goths and Tamora was
queen To quit the bloody wrongs upon her foes. Re-enter Lucius, Quintus, MARTIUS, and Mo
TIUS (with their swords bloody). Luc. See, lord and father, how we have per
form'd Our Roman rites. Alarbus' limbs are lopp'd, And entrails feed the sacrificing fire, Whose smoke, like incense, doth perfume the
sky. Remaineth nought but to inter our brethren, And with loud 'larums welcome them to Rome.
Tit. Let it be so; and let Andronicus Make this his latest farewell to their souls.
[Trumpets sounded, and the coffin
laid in the tomb. In peace and honour rest you here, my sons; Rome's readiest champions, repose you here in
rest, Secure from worldly chances and mishaps ! Here lurks no treason, here no envy swells,