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The merry songs of peace to all his neighbours. King. O Lord Archbishop,
God shall be truly known; and those about her Thou hast made me now a man! Never, before
From her shall read the perfect ways of honour, This happy child, did I get anything.
And by those claim their greatness, not by This oracle of comfort has so pleas'd me,

That when I am in heaven I shall desire Nor shall this peace sleep with her; but as To see what this child does, and praise my when

Maker. The bird of wonder dies, the maiden phænix, I thank ye all. To you, my good Lord Mayor, Her ashes new create another heir

And you, good brethren, I am much beboldAs great in admiration as herself ;

ing; So shall she leave her blessedness to one,

I have receiv'd much honour by your presence, When heaven shall call her from this cloud of And ye shall find me thankful. Lead the way, darkness,

lords. Who from the sacred ashes of her honour Ye must all see the Queen, and she must thank Shall star-like rise as great in fame as she was,

ye, And so stand fix'd. Peace, plenty, love, truth, She will be sick else. This day, no man think terror,

Has business at his house ; for all shall stay. : That were the servants to this chosen infant, 49 This little one shall make it holiday. (Eseunt

. Shall then be his, and like a vine grow to him. Wherever the bright sun of heaven shall shine, His honour and the greatness of his name

EPILOGUE Shall be, and make new nations. He shall flourish,

'Tis ten to one this play can never please And, like a mountain cedar, reach his branches All that are here. Some come to take their To all the plains about him. Our children's

ease, children

And sleep an act or two; but those, we fear, Shall see this, and bless Heaven.

We have frighted with our trumpets; so, 'tis King. Thou speakest wonders.

clear, Cran. She shall be, to the happiness of Eng- They 'll say 'tis naught: others, to hear the land,

city An aged princess ; many days shall see her, Abus'd extremely, and to cry, “That's witty!" And yet no day without a deed to crown it. Which we have not done neither: that, I fear, Would I had known no more! but she must All the expected good we're like to hear die,

For this play at this time, is only in She must, the saints must have her; yet a vir- The merciful construction of good women; gin,

For such a one we show'd 'em. If they smile A most unspotted lily shall she pass

And say 't will do, I know, within a while To the ground, and all the world shall mourn All the best men are ours; for 't is ill hap her.

If they hold when their ladies bid 'em clap.

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In Henslowe's Diary, under the date April 11, 1591, is recorded the performance of a play called tittus and Vespaciu," marked“ ne," i. e., new, or newly revised. Among the plays in the volume of Englische Comedien und Tragedien (1620), performed by English actors in Germany, there is a tragedy of Tito Andronico, which is apparently a degraded form of some version of the present play. In it Lucius is named Vespasian, and this affords a bint, corroborated by other evidence, that this German play is based on " tittus and Vespacia."

In 1641 there appeared in Holland a Dutch play by Jan Vos, entitled Aran en Titus, the plot of which is essentially that of Titus Andronicus. Both this and a lost German play, acted in 1699, of which only a program is preserved, seem to be based on a Dutch translation of an Eng. lish original. A comparison of the extant German, Dutch, and English plays points to the corclusion that the Shakespearean tragedy was a recasting of two English originals, on which, directly or indirectly, Tito Andronico and Aran en Titus were respectively founded.

On January 23, 15934, Henslowe records that a "new" play, “ Titus and Ondronicus," was produced by the servants of the Earl of Sussex. On February 6, 15934, there was entered in the Stationers' Register to J. Danter“ A Noble Roman Historye of Tytus Andronicus." Later in the same year appeared a quarto edition of our Titus Andronicus, as it was plaide by the Right Honourable the Earle of Darbie, Earle of Pembrooke, and Earle of Sussex their servants ... printed by John Danter.” A second quarto with some changes appeared in 1600, and a third quarto, printed from the second, appeared in 1611. On none of these Quartos does the name of Shakespeare appear; nor is there any external evidence to connect the play with him before its inclusion in the First Folio, except its occurrence in Meres's list of Shakespeare's tragedies in Palladis Tamiu (1598). The text of the First Folio is derived from the Third Quarto ; and the text of the present edition is based on the Second Quarto, the unique copy of the newly discovered First Quarto being inaccessible.

It is not agreed whether Henslowe's Titus and Ondronicus was the present play or one of its predecessors ; but if the play entered to Danter on February 6, 15934, was, as seems most likely, the First Quarto, printed by him in the same year, it places the date of the composition of Titus Andronicus not later than 1593. From the evidence gathered from the German and Dutch versions, it becomes apparent that the question of Shakespeare's authorship narrows itself down to one of the amount of re-writing implied in the re-casting of the older dramatic versions of the story. The main features of the Shakespearean play which cannot be proved to have existed in the earlier dramas are the rivalry between Saturninus and Bassianus for the throne ; the funeral of Titus's sons killed in war; the sacrifice of Alarbus; the kidnapping of Lavinia by Bassianus. with the death of Mutius ; the sending of young Lucius with presents to the sons of Tamora ; and the whole of m. ii., which appears only in the First Folio, and is, perhaps, a later addition. These, with some minor details, and a revision of phraseology and metre which cannot be exactly estimated, seem to indicate the extreme limit of Shakespeare's responsibility. Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that other hands may have worked on the play between the stages represented by the Continental versions and that in which it is here printed; and some students still limit Shakespeare's share to “ some master-touches to one or two of the principal characters," accepting the late seventeenth-century tradition, reported by Ravenscroft, that this was all Shakespeare added to the work of “a private author."

Evidences of the authorship of the earlier dramatic versions are purely internal. Attempts have been made to associate the play with nearly every contemporary dramatic author of note ; but traces of the style of Peele and Greene point to the possibility of these writers' baring had a share in it, although at what stage it is not possible to determine.


[DRAMATIS PERSONÆ SATURNINUS, son to the late Emperor of Rome, and SEMPRONIUS, afterwards declared Emperor.


kinsmen to Titus.
BASSIANUS, brother to Saturninus ; in love with Lavinia. VALENTINE,
TITUS ANDRONICUs, a noble Roman, general against the ALARBUS,

DEMETRIUS, sons to Tamora.

tribune of the people, and brother CHIRON, to Titus.

AARON, a Moor, beloved by Tamora. LUCIUS,


A Captain, Tribune, and Messenger.
sons to Titus Andronicus.

Goths and Romans.
YOUNG Lucius, a boy, son to Lucius.

TAMORA, Queen of the Gotha.
ÆVILIUS, a noble Roman.

LAVINIA, daughter to Titus Andronicus.
PUBLIUS, son to Marcus the Tribune.

A Nurse, and a black child.
Sonators, Tribunes, Officers, Soldiers, and Attendants.

SCENR : Rome, and the country near it.]




SCENE I. (Rome. Before the Senate-house. The

Tomb of the Andronici appearing.)
Enter the TRIBUNES and Senators aloft, and

then enter SATURNINUS and his Followers at
one door, and Bassianus and his Followers
at the other ; with drums and trumpets.

Sat. Noble patricians, patrons of my right,
Defend the justice of my cause with arms,
And, countrymen, my loving followers,
Plead my successive title with your swords.
I am his first-born son, that was the last
That wore the imperial diadem of Rome;
Then let my father's honours live in me,
Nor wrong mine age with this indignity.
Bas. Romans, friends, followers, favourers

of my right,
If ever Bassianus, Cæsar's son,
Were gracious in the eyes of royal Rome,
Keep then this passage to the Capitol,
And suffer not dishonour to approach
The imperial seat, to virtue consecrate,
To justice, continence, and nobility;
But let desert in pure election shine,
And, Romans, fight for freedom in your choice.
Enter MARCUS ANDRONICUS, aloft, with the


Lives not this day within the city walls.
He by the senate is accited home
From weary wars against the barbarous Goths;
That, with his sons, a terror to our foes,
Hath yok'd a nation strong, train'd up in arms.
Ten years are spent since first he undertook si
This cause of Rome and chastised with arms
Our enemies' pride; five times he hath re-

Bleeding to Rome, bearing his valiant sons
In coffins from the field;
And now at last, laden with honour's spoils,
Returns the good Andronicus to Rome,
Renowned Titus, flourishing in arms.
Let us entreat, by honour of his name,
Whom worthily you would have now succeed, 60
And in the Capitol and senate's right,
Whom you pretend to honour and adore,
That you withdraw you and abate your

Dismiss your followers, and, as suitors should,
Plead your deserts in peace and humbleness. 45
Sat. How fair the tribune speaks to calm

my thoughts!
Bas. Marcus Andronicus, so I do affy
In thy uprightness and integrity,
And so I love and honour thee and thine,
Thy noble brother Titus and his sons,
And her to whom my thoughts are humbled all,
Gracious Lavinia, Rome's rich ornament,
That I will here dismiss my loving friends,
And to my fortunes and the people's favour
Commit my cause in balance to be weigh'd. 60

(Ereunt soldiers (of Bassianus). Sat. Friends, that have been thus forward

in my right,
I thank you all and here dismiss you all,
And to the love and favour of my country
Commit myself, my person, and the cause.

(Exeunt soldiers of Saturninus.)


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Rome, be as just and gracious unto me
As I am confident and kind to thee.
Open the gates, and let me in.
Bas. Tribunes, and me, a poor competitor.

(Flourish. They go up into the Sen


Enter a CAPTAIN. Cap. Romans, make way! The good An

dronicus, Patron of virtue, Rome's best champion, Successful in the battles that he fights, With honour and with fortune is return'd From where he circumscribed with his sword And brought to yoke, the enemies of Rome. Drums and trumpets sounded, and then enter

two of Titus's sons (MarȚius and Mutius); and then two Men bearing a coffin covered with black; then two other sons (Lucius and QUINTUS). Then Titus ANDRONICUS;, and then TAMORA, the Queen of Goths with her (three) sons (Alarbus,) DEMETRIUS, and CHIRON; AARON the Moor, and others as many as can be. They set down the coffin, and Titus speaks. Tit. Hail, Rome, victorious in thy mourning

weeds! Lo, as the bark that hath discharg'd her

fraught Returns with precious lading to the bay From whence at first she weigh'd her anchor

Cometh Andronicus, bound with laurel boughs,
To re-salute his country with his tears,
Tears of true joy for his return to Rome.
Thou great defender of this Capitol,
Stand gracious to the rites that we intend !
Romans, of five and twenty valiant sons,
Half of the number that King Priam had,
Behold the poor remains, alive and dead !
These that survive let Rome reward with love,
These that I bring unto their latest home
With burial amongst their ancestors.
Here Goths have given me leave to sheathe my

Titus, unkind and careless of thine own,
Why suffer'st thou thy sons, unburied yet,
To hover on the dreadful shore of Styx?
Make way to lay them by their brethren.

(They open the tomb. There greet in silence, as the dead are wont, so And sleep in peace, slain in your country's

wars ! O sacred receptacle of my joys, sweet cell of virtue and nobility, How many sons hast thou of mine in store, That thou wilt never render to me more ! Luc. Give us the proudest prisoner of the

That we may hew his limbs and on a pile
Ad manes fratrum sacrifice his flesh
Before this earthy prison of their bones ;
That so the shadows be not unappeas'd,
Nor we disturb'd with prodigies on earth.

Tit. I give him you, the noblest that survives, The eldest son of this distressed queen.

Tam. Stay, Roman brethren! Gracious coe

queror; Victorious Titus, rue the tears shed, A mother's tears in passion for her son; And if thy sons were ever dear to thee, O, think my son to be as dear to me! Sufficeth not that we are brought to Rome, To beautify thy triumphs and return, Captive to thee and to thy Roman yoke, But must my sons be slaught'red in the streeta For valiant doings in their country's cause? 0, if to fight for king and commonweal Were piety in thine, it is in these. Andronicus, stain not thy tomb with blood ! Wilt thou draw near the nature of the gods? Draw near them, then, in being merciful; Sweet mercy is nobility's true badge. Thrice noble Titus, spare my first-born son ! »

Tit. Patient yourself, madam, and pardon These are their brethren, whom your Goths be

held Alive and dead ; and for their brethren slain Religiously they ask a sacrifice. To this your son is mark'd, and die he must, 1x To appease their groaning shadows that are

gone. Luc. Away with him! and make a fire

straight; And with our swords, upon a pile of wood, Let's hew his limbs till they be clean consum'd.

(Exeunt Lucius, Quintus, Martius,

and Mutius, with Alarbus. Tam. O cruel, irreligious piety! Chi. Was never Scythia half so barbarous. Dem. Oppose not Scythia to ambitious Rome. Alarbus goes to rest; and we survive To tremble under Titus' threat'ning look. Then, madam, stand resolv'd, but hope witbal The self-same gods that arm'd the Queen of

Troy With opportunity of sharp revenge Upon the Thracian tyrant in his tent, May favour Tamora, the Queen of Goths — When Goths were Goths and Tamora was

queen To quit the bloody wrongs upon her foes. Re-enter Lucius, Quintus, MARTIUS, and Mo

TIUS (with their swords bloody). Luc. See, lord and father, how we have per

form'd Our Roman rites. Alarbus' limbs are lopp'd, And entrails feed the sacrificing fire, Whose smoke, like incense, doth perfume the

sky. Remaineth nought but to inter our brethren, And with loud 'larums welcome them to Rome.

Tit. Let it be so; and let Andronicus Make this his latest farewell to their souls.

[Trumpets sounded, and the coffin

laid in the tomb. In peace and honour rest you here, my sons; Rome's readiest champions, repose you here in

rest, Secure from worldly chances and mishaps ! Here lurks no treason, here no envy swells,








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