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-p. 273.

is one independent of positive law, and which any tutor, so far as he is concerned, can remedy, and if he can, he ought.

Mr. Bickersteth's eleventh chapter contains what he modestly calls an outline of the “ History of Divinity,” extending from the first preaching of Christianity to the present time; and, outline as it is, we cannot but recommend it most strongly, for its candid, liberal, and Christian spirit, as well as for the information it contains. Both in this, and in the succeeding chapter of observations upon the outline, we see a mind disciplined to moderation by, a sense of its own weakness, yet never losing sight of the grand essential character of the Gospel, humbling all human power before the paramount authority of Scripture, and finding the history of the Church, as well as the history of man, to be but an additional development of God's providential character. The most remarkable circumstance in modern theological history is, perhaps the history of the doctrine of justification by faith, of which Bishop Barlow says,

"Sure I am that no Reformed Church in Christendom, nor any learned divine of our own Church that I have met with, before the year 1640, ever admitted that sense of St. James's words, which Popish or Socinian writers put upon them, or conceived them to be any proof of justification, coram Deo, by qur own works and inherent righteousness.".

Soon after the period alluded to, the modern school of justification arose, of which the head, as incomparably the ablest, is Bishop Bull, whose Harmonia Apostolica, published in 1669, led the way to those views of that doctrine, " articulus stantis vel cadentis ecclesiæ,” to which so many cling even in our own day.*

Our sentiments on this difficult but important subject are in unison with Mr. Bickersteth's; and we rejoice that this great and distinguishing doctrine of Christianity, which it was not given to the genius of a Taylor, or the sweet-spirited piety of a Horne, to see clearly, disengaged from human additions, is now being sounded in many, very many, pulpits of our Established Church. When we look to the changes of opinion regarding this great truth-when we see the variations and fluctuations of sentiment and conduct-how rapidly the piety of the parent is lost in the liberalism or indifference of the child-how extremes generate extremes—we are finally struck by the necessity of an overruling hand to preserve the external fabric of the church, and join in praises to its great head for his controlling providence, and in prayers that our weakness and our unworthiness may not remove his presiding influence from among us.

The succeeding chapters contain useful suggestions as to courses of study, religious libraries for individuals in different circumstances, a minister's library at large, and a missionary's library. The books

• We regret the republication of this tract by one whom we have long looked upon as an ornament to our church, both by bjm scholarsbip and bis orthodoxy; but the able and just animadversions on the system, in Archdeacon Brown's two charges of 1826 and 1828 fully reconcile us to its appearance. We would recommend most strongly Bishop Barlow's letters, republished by the Rev. E, Bickersteth, to the Christian Student.

in the minister's library are arranged according to the mode of the catalogue* of the Queen's College, Oxford, edited by that competent bibliographer, Hartwell Horne; but Mr. Bickersteth has annexed a short and usually very discriminating criticism on each book. We can assure our readers, that they will find themselves introduced to many most valuable writers of the Puritan and Non-conformist stamp, with whom Mr. Bickersteth seems to be very familiar. He then gives some hints for the advancement of theology, and shortly observes upon the manner in which the deficiencies remarked by Bacon have been supplied since his time. He observes

“ Men of the world are wise in calling forth talents and learning, and preparing by a combination of effort, Reviews, Magazines, Encyclopedias, &c. Religion might be equally benefited by a similar union of men possessing knowledge and piety, for promoting its far bigber, its infinitely more inportant objects."-p. 560.

We think so too, and are surprised that a theological academy, on the plan of the various learned societies, has never been devised. Learning is now an article so much in demand, that the man who professes it is usually too much engaged to do all that learned men could do some centuries ago; and a combination of pious, evangelical, and learned men is necessary for the execation of any great design. We may add, too, that theology is now so combined with the different mundane sciences, that it would be too much to expect the divine to be an accomplished geographer, chronologer, anatomist, and critic, while in each of these branches, piety calculated to elucidate and co-operatet might be found. Union is the most powerful of instruments; and wlien that union is directed by piety, great advantages to the Christian cause might justly be anticipated.

Mr. Bickersteth's two last chapters are among the most beautiful and useful in the volume; in the former of these he has many judicious and experienced remarks on the right application of theology, and the evils that arise from its misdirection; and in the latter he expatiates on the best and truest teacher--the great Prophet, the Lord Jesus Christ. It is pleasing to see our excellent author commence and terminate his labours with Him who is the Alpha and the Omega—the beginning and the end; and to mark the eloquence of piety with which be contrasts the teaching of the Redeemer with the dryness of human systems, the self-called infallibility of Popery, the heartlessness of Socinianism, and the awful profligacy of Mohamned. We regret that we have room for no extracts; we recommend these two chapters to the consideration of all Christian students, and we confess that we should not think very highly of the individual who

Why bas not the public access to the knowledge of the stores of information contained in the library of our University ? An arranged catalogue would soon pay itself, and be a valuable acquisition to the reading public. We know the value of the library, and wish that value was generally estimated.

† Sbali we be 'excused for asking what progress Trinity College is making in its edition of the collected works of Ussher; and expressing our hope, that the care of collecting, collating, and illustrating the works of such a divine, chronologer, and rientalist, has been committed to competent individuals ?

could rise up from their perusal unimproved or unedified. Nor can we close our remarks on this most timely and interesting publication, better than in the eloquent words of the learned Stillingfleet, as quoted by Mr. Bickersteth,

"Christ crucified is the library which triumphant souls will be studying to all eternity. This is the only library which is the true Iatpelov yuxns that which cures the soul of all its maladies and distempers : other knowledge makes men's minds giddy and flatulent; this settles and composes tbum : other knowledge is apt to swel' men into high conceits and opinions of themselves, this brings them to the truest view of themselves, and thereby to humility and sobriety: olber knowledge leuves men's minds as it found tbem: this alters them and makes them better. So transcendent an excellency is there in the knowledge of Christ crucified, above the sublimest speculations in the world.'”—pp. 393, 394.

If any one should think we have been too extended in our remarks on this work, we can only say that the importance of the subject would justify observations much more protracted ; that the modest, pious, judicious, affectionate, and most scriptural work we have been recommending, has high claims 'upon all Christian Examiners-so high, that we could have quoted from almost every page, and that while we, perhaps, could find opinions in which we might not altogether concor, or criticisms we might deem unsound, we yet recommend the Christian Student," as fit to be placed beside the same author's most useful, because most scriptural, works, on Prayer, on the Sacrament, the Scripture Help, and the Christian Hearer, for its unpretending and deeply practical character. Christian education is a subject in which all who live in nominally Christian society are concerned; and the education of the ministry is more especially important, as it has been more especially neglected. Up to the period at which the theological student com mences his professional studies, every thing is applied to make him a general, not a scriptura! scholar--and Mr. Bickersteth's observation is in too many instances well founded, that there are many who would do well to study Watts's Catechism before they commence a more extended course of readiny. Subsequent to that period, how little is done by the schools and universities to make the divine-not a word-critic nor a distinction-bunier, not one who brings mere human learning, however exalted, to the study of the book of God, and thence carries away, not the living body of divinity, but the dry anatomy of system--but one, in the energetic language of Witsius, “ qui solidâ Dei, et rerum divinarum cognitione ipso Deo magistro, imbutus, non verbis duntaxat, sed et universo vitæ suæ instituto admirandas Dei virtutes celebrat, totusque adeo ad ipsius gloriam est."* And until it be the object to make

• The remainder of the passage is worth extracting.--"Tales enim suncti patriarcbæ erunt, tales divinitus inspirati propbetæ, tales universi orbis Doctores Apostoli, lates aliquot eorum quos Patres nominamus, late splendentia priscæ Ecclesiæ lumina ; quorum scientia, non in acuminatis curiosarum quæstiopum subtilitatibus, sed in devota Dei Christique ejus contemplatione, consistebat ; quorum docendi ratio simplex et custa, non prurientes aures demulcebat, sed menti rerum sacrarum


2 R

divines learned, but not alone learned, our Universities, our Church, our common Christianity, will not hold their due station of usefulness, nor have their

proper influence, and proper assistances. We shall now pursue the Christian Student through his ministry, in our review of the other works at the head of this article, recog. nizing that it is in the ministry the value of Christian education is seen, and that the Christian student studies to teach and to live. Nemo bene docet, nisi qui prius bene didicerit. Nemo bene discit, nisi qui discit ut doceat. Utrumque vanum et cassum est, si praxi destituatur."*

(To be continued.)


Unitarianism No Feeble and Conceited Here before, and will certainly be exbibited

sy: demonstrated in Two Letters to his Grace the Archbishop of Dublin. By Wil.

as indisputable for the hundred and first liam Hamilton Drummond, D. D.-Dub- time, is no agreeable task ; and we can lin, 1828, pp. 48.

assure our readers that be who wishes to The Unitarian Unable to Maintain his Peca- understand its full spirit need only dip

liar Doctrines; plainly demonstrated in a into the Popish and Socinian controReply to such portions of Two Letters

versies : Rome and Racovia have been addressed by Dr. Drummond to the Archbishop of Dublin, as related to a Work en.

convicted of symbolizing togetber more titled “ Unitarianism Unmasked,” By closely tban might have been expected, Philip Dixon Hardy.--Dublin, 1829. pp.32. and the manner in which they maintain

Dr. Drummond writes, we suppose, their respective opiniuns partakes, too, for the members of his own congrega. of the common character of pertinacity. tion, and without either hope or expecta- On a former occasion we took the lition that any other persons will peruse berty of binting to Dr. Drummond tbat his lucubrations. At least it is on such the person who first manifests ill temper an bypothesis only that we can account is usually esteemed to bave had the worst for his appearance again in a controver- of the discussion, and if our criterion be sial character; for assuredly the members true, Mr. Hardy has obtained a decided of every other denomination of Chris- victory, not only over the Doctor's equatians, except his own, must bave consi- nimity, but his principles; for we cannot dered his last as too complete a failure to but feel some surprise that any circumhave expected a repetition of the attempt.

stance should have driven a person of so There are, however, some polemics, and much general good taste, and high social Dr. Drummond is among the number, respectability, to exbibit such evident who partake in the quality ascribed by marks of irritated feelings, which bis Napoleon to our British soldiers, that friends may regret as being somewhat " they never know when they are beat. connected with irritated vanity, and bis en," a quality of great use in military enemies rejoice at, as proving the justice movements, but one not a little vexatious of the statements ibat produced it. to reviewers in theology. To have to Our readers may remember that about read statements as gravely reiterated as two years since, Mr. P. D. Hardy pubif they bad never been confuted ; to reply lished a pamphlet in reply to Dr. Drumfor the bundredth time to arguments that

mond's bold and unmeasured defiance to have been overturned ninety-nine times all Trinitarians, and that in the sampblet

characterem imprimens, parundem amore animum inflammehat qnorum inculpata ipsisque hostibus laudata morum innocentia, professioni respondens, irrelragabili doctrinam testimonio muniebat, et familiaris cum sanctissimo numine commercii evidens signum erat."--The whole oration is well deserving of perusulit is to be found in the second volnme of Witsius Miscellanea Sacra.

• Witsius de vero Tbeologo.


be ventured to question the Doctor's keep his commandments,'' con. consistency no less than his ortbodoxy, signs bim to the unredeemed terrors of A copy of the little work was sent, as is conscience, and the still more awful usually the case, to his Grace the Arch- carelessness of self-delusion. In bis vabishop of Dublin, and received bis luable work on the Atonement, as in bis Grace's approbation, as it " manly and note to Mr. Hardy, the Archbishop bas able exposure of that feeble and conceited spoken out with energy the convictions heresy” it professed to combat. This that are forced upon the impartial mind higb tribute from such a quarter to this ou becoming acqnainted with the con. layman's pampblet, naturally pleased the troversy ; too strongly, perhaps, for the author and his publisher, and it occasion. affected liberalism of the present day, ally appeared among the “Testimonials” which, with Dr. Drummond's consistens appended to Mr. Curry's advertisenients cy, exults over the disgraceful persecution We suppose Dr. Drummond to be a very that in the Pays de Vaud have disgraced cool person, or at least to require a long Protestantism, and excited the horror of time to be heated up to the explosive civilized Europe, and at the same mopoint; or that he writes with great hesi- ment, censures the prelates of the Nationtation ; or, in short we can scarcely ac- al Church, for “obtruding into the precount for it, though, according to his sence of majesty,” in the full exercise of own statement, in the years 1827 and their stations and privileges, " to rivet 1828 bis eyes must have been fre- more fast the fetters of their country.” quently* saluted by this very unequirocal The Archbishop's language and opinions expression of his Grace's opinions, be are certainly at variance with the sickly repressed his wrath until the year 1829, sentimentality that pervades the style of when he poured it fortb in two letters to Dr. Drummond, but commends itself to the Archbishop, with as much freshness every bosom that knows tbe artifice of as if the offence had been just given; or Unitarian criticism, and feels for the that Dr. Drummond had lor tbe first time most important doctrine ever revealed heard his sect bad been called a "' feeble from God to man. and conceited beresy,” The Doctor The Doctor's letters to the Archbishop seems ut a loss for the meaning attached is but a rant of the usual misrepresentato these words by the Archbishop, and we tion, connected with a more tban usual will venture to bint to him, that probably quantity of virulence. Indeed we think bis Grace called it an heresy because it Mr. Hardy's suggestion not improbable, is so characterized since the days of tbe that the first letter bad been prepared Council of Nice, since the days of Tertul from its miscellaneous nature, for some lian, since the days of St. John, who other occasion, and but just feebly chargidentifies with the spirit of Antichristed with the additional indignation of the the denial of Jesus Christ having come bye-gune insult and exploded. The rein the flesh. He may have called it coil will, we think, be felt by the adven“ feeble," on account of the inherent turous Doctor. We shall not meddle weakness of its constitution, unsupported with the language in which the Archby Scripture, by antiquity, or by sound bishop is attacked, or the accusation criticism ; and " conceited," because more than insinuated against him and the devoid as it is of all stability in itself, and clergy of the Established Church. all adventitious aid, it yet assumes to bave no inclination to justify the Architself tbe name of Unitarian, convicts the bishop from the charge of " bad logic,” whole world beside of Tritheism 'ard or “ignorance," or to prove against the idolatry, with inimitable self-complacency Doctor that be believes “the plenary identifies pbilosophy, and devotion, and inspiration of the Scriptures." Those piety, with its own cheerless creed, which who are fond of tinsel may admire the in robbing God of his justice, implicitly Doctor's style, and think the Archbishop denies his mercy, and leaving man to the “ a fool;" and such, too, may reverence hope of acceptance with God when he the profound criticism of the Rev. Gen.


On this subject Mr. Hardy makes the following observation, page 6.

.- The fact is this, however, as may readily be ascertained, that that letter never appeared in any Dublin Newspaper but the Warder, and in that but once ; nor did it appear more than once in any Belfast paper--ani tbat, after the Belfast bookseller who sells works in unison with Dr. Drummond's sentiments, bad refused to expose my Reply for sale in his shop. Thus Dr. Drummond stands convicted of having, in the second page of bis pamphlet, stated a glaring untruth!!"

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