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'al-Bukhârî and Muslim, whose book is said to be more nice than the Repaired Şahih; and the Şahih of 'Abû-'Awânah and that of 'Ibn 'as-Sakan;* and the Marrow of the Şahih (i cil!), by 'Ibn Jårúd. All these books are designated as Şahihs, though a certain set of persons discriminate with regard to them, as well in the spirit of strenuous purism as with impartial criticism—there is one who knows, superior to all instructed men-God knows.
“ Section. “The six books, universally known and of established authority within the pale of Islâm, called the Six Şahihs, are the Sahih of 'al-Bukhari, the Sahih of Muslim, the Jami of 'at-Tarmidhi, the Sunan of 'AbûDâwud, the Sunan of 'Ibn Majah,f and the Muwatta'—which last is by some put in the place of 'Ibn Mâjah's collection, and was preferred by the author of the Jâmi' 'al-Usûl. But these last named four books embrace traditions of more than one class, namely, both sound, fair, and weak: the Six Şahihs are so named by way of ascribing to them a certain superiority; and the author of the Masábih calls all traditions given out by others than the two masters fair, which is a derived form of expression, either allied to the usage of that term in common parlance, or being a new technical application of it on the part of the author. Some persons say that the book of 'ad-Dârimîş is more worthy and suitable to be ranked as the sixth book, because fewer guarantees marked by any weakness are relied upon in it, and traditions undetermined, or separate, are rarely introduced, while it has some supports of a superior character, and its trebly supported traditions (wWis) are more numerous than those of 'al-Bukhari.||
"These which we have mentioned are the most noted books of tradition ; but others are in extensive repute. Indeed, 'as-Suyûţi, in the Kitab Jami' 'dj-Jawâmi', cites many books, to the number of more than forty, as containing both sound, fair, and weak traditions, and says: “I have not brought out, as contained in either book, any tradition to which is attached the stigma of being made up, which traditionists have agreed to leave out and reject—God knows. The author of the Mishkât, also, in the preface to his book, mentions a multitude of eminent teachers of tradition, of devout lives, namely: 'al-Bukhârî, Muslim, the eminent teacher Mâlik, the eminent teacher 'ash-Shafi'i, the eminent teacher 'Ahmad Bin Hanbal, 'at-Tarmidbî, 'Abû-Dawud, 'an-Nasa'i, 'Ibn Majah, 'ad-Dârimî, 'ad-Dârakutnî, 'al-Baihaki, Razín, etc., about whom we have written in a special book entitled the Complete Statement of the Names
(لا كمال بن کر اسماء الرجال) of the Guarantees of Tradition
Our last extract is from J.:*
في أسماء الرجال الصحابي مسلم رأى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وقال الأصوليون من طالت مجالسته والتابعي كل مسلم صحب صحابيا : وقيل من لقيه وهو الاذه والبحث عن تفاصيل الاسماء وأنکنی والالقاب والمراتب في العلم والودع لهاتين المرتبتين وما بعدهما يفضي الى تصلوبل تونی مالک بالمدينه سنة تسع وسبعين وماية وولد سنة ثلث أو أحد أو أربع أو سبع وتسعين وأبو حنيفة ببغداد سنة خمسين ومأية وكان أبن سبعين والشافعي بمصر سنة أربع ومأدبين وولد سنة خمسين وماية وأحمد بن حنبل ببغداد سنة أحدى وأربعين ومائتين وولد سنة أربع وستين ومأية والبخاري ولد يوم الجمعة لثلث عشرة خلت من شوال سنة أربع وتسعين ومية ومات ليلة الفطر سنة ست وخمسين ومايتين بقرية خرتنك من بخارا ومسلم مات بنيسابور سنة أحدى وستين ومايتين وكان أبن خمس وخمسين وأبو داود بالبصرة سنة سبع وسبعين ومايتين والترمذي مات بترمذ سنة تسع وسبعين ومايتين والنسائي سنة ثلث وثلثمأية والدارقطني ببغداد سنة خمس وثمانين وثلثمأية وولد بها سنة ست وثلثماية والحاكم بنيسابور سنة خمس واربع ماية وولد بها سنة إحدى وعشرين وثلثمأية والبيهقي ولد سنة أربع وثلثين ونلت مأية ومات بنيسابور سنة ثمان وخمسين وأربعماية من الرسالة ....... .
" Chapter Fourth.
denotes any Muslim who saw the (الصحابی) 'The term witness
Prophet ..., or, as the professed teachers of the foundations of religion say, one who had long sittings with him; and the term 'follower in the
,means any Muslim who was associated with
(التابعی) 'second degree
as is also said, who met, a witness. So much is most plain. But to look into all the distinctions of names, titles, epithets, and degrees, which belong to the science, and to apply them to these and the succeeding orders
. of reporters, would be a long affair.
* pages 6, 7.
LANGUAGE OF THE GYPSIES,
AS NOW USED IN THE TURKISH EMPIRE.
BY A. G. PASPATI, A. M., M. D.
TRANSLATED FROM THE GREEK BY REV. C. HAMLIN, D, D.,
MISSIONARY OF THE A, B. C. F. M. AT CONSTANTINOPLE.
Presented to the Society May 17th, 1860.
NOTE BY THE TRANSLATOR. The following memoir is a translation but in part. The learned author has written the whole of the Grammar and some other parts in English, which has needed very little correction. The original is written in so pure a Greek style, that any one who has studied the ancient Greek might read it, occasionally noticing an interesting change of meaning without a change of form, or the reverse. If all our Greek Professors should study the living Greek, in Greece, it would reanimate the dead language, and clothe it with a new power and beauty.
We are confident that this article will be acceptable to American scholars, both for its intrinsic merits and as a specimen of the present literature and learning of the Greeks.
This memoir on the Language of the Gypsies will be divided into five sections, as follows: 1st. Introductory remarks on the history and present condition of the Gypsy race; 2nd. General explanation of the character and connections of their language, and a critical estimate of the works which have hitherto appeared upon the subject; 3rd. A vocabulary, with comparative ety. mologies from the Sanskrit and other languages; 4th. A comparison of the phonetical system of the Gypsy with that of the Sanskrit; 5th. A grammar of the language. VOL. VII.
selves according to their national custom, remained in different places and cities of England.
It is worthy of remark that the foggy and sunless climate of England has given to the Gypsies more muscular strength and beauty than their fellow-countrymen have elsewhere, and more even than the English have in a similar rank of life.
Every where the Gypsy race is strongly marked by similar traits and customs.
They are celebrated dealers in horses, they are famous horsedoctors, their old women are noted fortune-tellers, and the young women drive a very profitable business in singing love-songs, decent and indecent, in the streets and public places.
They have no principles, they serve no God but the God of gain and fraud, they conform to all religions. They excite the voluptuous passions of others, but they rarely fall themselves into the sins which they lead others into. À merciless death hangs over the woman who has illicit intercourse, whether with a Gypsy or a foreigner.
I have followed Borrow in his general description of the Gypsies of Europe. As regards those in Turkey and in the Wallachian provinces, or rather in all those countries formerly known under the denomination of Dacia, I must refer the reader to other authorities, who have treated the subject more at length, particularly as my remarks upon their dialect may be elucidated by their history and social position in these countries.
The latest writer on the Gypsies is J. A. Vaillant.* This author resided for many years in the Danubian provinces, and paid particular attention to the history of the numerous Gypsies scattered over those countries. In describing the origin of these people, whose emigrations he makes coeval with those of the ancient world, he launches himself into such an ocean of crude and undigested learning, he unites such wild theories with positive facts, he distorts ancient history in such an unphilosophical manner, that the reader never knows where he is, or whither he is drifting. With the exception of his valuable remarks on the noble efforts of the Hospodars of Wallachia and Moldavia, to liberate from bondage and oppression so many Gypsies in those provinces, his work is of little value, either in a historical or a philological point of view. He appears to have studied these people for a long time,t and he would bave bestowed an inestimable boon upon philology and ethnography, if, like Borrow, he bad given us a vocabulary of the dialect of the Wallachian Gypsies, to wbich he appears to have paid little attention, though
* Les Rômes-Histoire Vraie des Vrais Bohémiens, par J. A. Vaillant, Fondateur du College Interne de Bucarest. Paris, 1857.
+ " Je n'aurai point à regretter les dixhuit années que j'ai employées à la bible de leur science." P. 22.