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52. The portions of this inscription which are identically common to it with the last are not repeated.

53. This word has no case-ending in the original. The place was, probably, a ward, or a precinct.

54. Perhaps this means the sixteen villages of Sávaïri.' in closely approximates to the vernacular corruption of QT39. For an aggregation of villages similar to that here surmised, see Colebrooke's Miscell. Essays, ii. 309.

55. I thus translate anfare, with submission to the amendment of others.

56. “The primate of the mace ;' S'iva. 57. So signify only and sil; and so, on supposition, does grity.

58. This is the city of Ujjayiní. Its temple of Mahákála has long been famous. Mention is made of it in the 103d chapter of the Revumahatmya.

59. This place is considered to be one with Bherá Ghát, on the Nerbudda, a few miles from Jubulpoor.

60. On the plate, gfusa is abridged of its final letter. At the end of the inscription, the place of the same letter, in this word, is supplied by a vertical stroke.

61. Without hesitation, I have exchanged witoraitor for untit. Saugor, Central India, October, 1858.

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Soon after the news reached this country that the sarcophagus of Ashmunezer, King of Sidon, had been brought to Paris and deposited in the Louvre through the munificence of a distinguished cultivator and patron of Oriental learning, a request was made to Prof. Henry, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, by some members of this Society, to procure, if possible, for the use of American scholars, a rubbing of the inscription on the lid, and also of that around the head of the sarcophagus. Prof. Henry addressed the Duc de Luynes on the subject, and the latter promptly and generously complied, sending to the Institution a carefully made rubbing of both inscriptions, and also a copy of his own memoir on the subject. The copies of these inscriptions which you see before you are tracings carefully made from these rubbings; and consequently they exhibit, in their exact proportions, each line as made by the ancient sculptor of this most venerable document. Upon its great philological and historical interest it is unnecessary here to enlarge; it is sufficient to say that it consists of twenty-two perfect lines of from forty to fifty-five letters each, and that the whole number of its characters exceeds one thousand. If viewed merely as an addition to the pure ancient language of the Old Testament, its importance will be evident from the fact that it is almost exactly equivalent in extent to the tenth chapter of Genesis, or to the one hundred and fourth Psalm.

My object in the remarks to which your attention is invited will be to show what is the present state of our knowledge of the contents of the inscription, and to whose learning and labors we are indebted for this knowledge.

Memoir.

By, way of introduction to these remarks, I will here give, in a tabular form, the names of all the writers who have published a reading and interpretation of the inscription, arranged chronologically, as near as may be, according to the dates of their respective publications, placing opposite the name of each writer the names of those of his predecessors whose interpretations he had an opportunity to consult. Author. Preliminary

| Previous Interpreters Translation.

consulted. *Salisbury. May 31, 1855.

1855. *Turner. May 31, 1855. July 3, 1855. *Rödiger.

June 15, 1855. *Dietrich and Gildemeister. SI

April 25, 1855. July 1855. *Hitzig.

Sept. 1855. Rödiger, Dietrich. *Schlottmann.

End of Dec., 1855. Rödiger, Dietrich,

Hitzig, De Luynes (prelim. transl.). In his supplementary remarks (dated Apr. 26, 1856) he makes use of the memoirs of De Luynes and

Ewald.
De Luynes. Aug. 14, 1855. Dec. 15, 1855.
Ewald.

Jan. 19, 1855. Salisbury, Turner,

Rödiger, Dietrich,

Hitzig.
Bargès.
Feb. 1856.

1856. Salisbury, Turner,

Rödiger, Dietrich,
Hitzig, De Luynes,

Ewald (?).
Munk.

April 6, 1856. Salisbury, Turner,

Rödiger, Dietrich,
Hitzig, De Luynes,
Bargès (prelimin.

transl.). Levy.

End of Aug.,1856. Salisbury, Turner,

Rödiger, Dietrich, Hitzig, Ewald, De Luynes. In his supplementary remarks (p.59 etc.) he makes nse of Munk's memoir.

* From the copies furnished by the American missionaries.

+ His memoir appears to have been publisbed after that of Munk. See Munk, P. 27.

vol. VII.

laced the two those of Pretat of proteinal versions

The first complete translation given to the world was a preliminary one, the concluding portion by myself, in a paper drawn up by Messrs. Salisbury and Gibbs, and printed in the New Haven Daily Palladium of May 31, 1855. This agrees in all essentials with the versions we afterwards published.

As regards the order of arrangement of the several versions, it should be remarked that, although that of Prof. Rödiger was printed some weeks before those of Prof. Salisbury and myself, yet I have placed the two American versions first, as containing traits in common which separate them from the efforts of European scholars, in consequence of our having exchanged views freely on the subject, with the intention of making a joint affair of the interpretation, before it was generously proposed by Prof. Salisbury that my paper should be given separately.

There is one feature which disadvantageously distinguishes our productions from all the rest; it is the erroneous value given almost throughout to the character W. We were led astray by Gesenius's alphabet in the Monumenta, Tab. 1, in which he has given it only the value of * although he had correctly read the character as 7 in the third Athenian inscription (Tab. 10), being guided by the accompanying Greek.

A close examination of the legends which he cites in support of this value shows that it is nowhere certain. This error runs entirely through my reading, and ought to have been avoided by an inspection of the alphabet of Judas in his Étude Démon. strative, and of pp. 33-37 of that work, where he discusses the forms of the letter 7.

We also labored under a difficulty which was shared in by Messrs. Rödiger, Dietrich, Hitzig, and Schlottmann—that of hav. ing to work upon the copies of the inscription made in haste by the American missionaries; so that those who had before them the carefully reduced fac-simile furnished by the liberality of the Duc de Luynes after the monument reached Europe, enjoyed a great advantage over us.

THE INSCRIPTION AND THE COPIES OF IT. The copies of the Inscription to which we have access for ascertaining its readings are the following:

Copies of the American Missionaries.-On the 3rd of April, 1855, the Secretary of the Albany Institute laid before a meeting of that body a copy of the inscription received from Dr. C. V. A. Van Dyck, a corresponding member of the Institute, and of this Society, then in Syria. This was promptly lithographed, and

* Gesenius has given (from a Cilician coin) Z as the earliest form of Zain. Between this and the somewliat oblique form z (in Cilic. H) be thinks there is a decided difference, and so regards the latter as a Yod (p. 284), although he had seen Zain in a still more oblique position in Athen. 3.

published in Vol. iv, Part 1, of the Institute's Transactions. A faithful copy accompanies Prof. Rödiger's paper in the Ztschr. der D. M. G. The Ù. States Magazine of the 15th of April also published a copy made from Dr. Van Dyck's manuscript.

Another MS. copy was sent by Dr. H. A. De Forest, another member of the Syrian Mission, to Prof. Salisbury. This differs somewhat from the preceding (see Prof. Salisbury, p. 229), and generally on the side of correctness.

A third copy in MS. was sent by Dr. W. M. Thomson, also of the Syrian Mission, to Chev. Bunsen in London, who communicated it to Prof. Dietrich of Marburg. This, as published by Prof. D., is decidedly the worst copy of the whole. The fault would seem to be that of the engraver or other persons who reduced it: since it emanated from the same source as the rest. Dr. Thomson, in a letter to Prof. Salisbury, dated Oct. 5, 1855, says: “The copy from which all those sent to America, and most of those to Europe, so far as I know, were obtained, was taken by me."

The copies taken by the American missionaries were evidently made with a great deal of care, and compare favorably with many in the great work of Gesenius; yet, like all copies of unintelligible inscriptions, in which the eye and hand of the copy. ist are depended upon, they leave much to be desired in the way of perfect accuracy. Hence they are now entirely superseded by the

Copies from the Duc de Luynes.—The Duc de Luynes has published, in his memoir on the subject of the inscription, a beautifully engraved copy of it, made doubtless from a photograph, and from a careful examination of the stone itself. The same plate accompanies the memoir of Munk in the Journal Asiatique; and a lithographed fac-simile that of the Abbé Bargès. The copy appended to the memoir of Ewald was, as he informs us, prepared from a photograph received from the Duc de Luynes; the same, evidently.(i. e. from the same negative), that was used by the Duke himself, it being of the same dimensions.

In addition to and above all these materials for our study of this interesting monument is the rubbing, furnished by the Duc de Luynes to the Smithsonian Institution, of the inscription on the breast, and also of that around the head of the sarcophagus, of which latter no fac-simile or engraving has yet appeared.

EXTERNAL CHARACTERS OF THE INSCRIPTION. An examination and comparison of the two forms of the in. scription, that on the breast and that around the head, show us that the former consists of twenty-two lines, and the latter of six perfect lines and the commencement of a seventh. Both are

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