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CONDUCTED BY K L. AND W. J. YOUMANS.

1 CONTENTS.

J PAOE

I. The Laws of Habit. By Professor William James 433

II. Science in Religious Education. By Daniel G. Thompson... 451

,! III. The South-African Diamond-Mines. (Illustrated.) 459

i IV. Materialism and Morality. By W. S. Lilly 474

\ V. Science and Morals: A Reply. By Professor T. H. Huxley. . 493

. VI. Some Points on the Land Question. By Oliver B. Bunce. ... 507

] VII. Feticbism or Anthropomorphism. By George Pellew 514

VIII. Misgovernment of Great Cities. By Frank P. Crandon 520

IX. Fulgurites, or Lightning-Holes. By George P. Merrill. (Il-
lustrated.) .529

X. Views of Life in the Crazy Mountains. By Mrs. E. D. W. Hatch. 539

XI. Massage. By Lady John Manners 543

,j XII. Sketch of Charles C. Abbott. (With Portrait.) 547

J XIII. Correspondence 554

XIV. Editor's Table: Prophets of Evil.—A Strange Sight in South Africa 555

i

XV. Literary Notices 558

XVI. Popular Miscellany , 568

XVII. Notes 575

! NEW YORK

i

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

1, 8. And 5 BOND STREET.
Single Number, 50 Cents. Yearly Subscription, $5.00.

Copyright, 1887, BY D. APPLETON AND CO.
entered at the Poat-OQlce at New York, and admitted for transmission through the mails at second-class rates.

Forty-first Annual Report

OF THE

New York Life In

COMPANY.

BUSINESS OF 1885.

Received in Premiums 912,722,10;

Received in Interest, Rents, etc 3,399,06]

Total Income $16,121,172

Paid Death-claims $2,999,1 Oi

Paid Endowments '741,764

Paid Annuities, Dividends, and for Policies Purchased 3,940,99$

Total Paid Policy-holders $7,681,878

New Policies Issued 18,;

New Insurance Written $68,521,452

CONDITION JANUARY I, 1886.

Cash Assets $66,864,321.

* Divisible Surplus, Oo.'s Standard $7,064,473.

t Tontine Surplus, Co.'s Standard 3,123,742.

Total Surplus, Co.'s Standard .$10,188,216.:

Surplus by State Standard $13,215,046.1

Policies in Force 86,4

Insurance in force $259,674,500.1

•Exclusive of the amount specially reserved as a contingent liability to Tontine Dividend Fnnd. tOver and above a 4 per cent, reserve on existing policies of that class.

PROGRESS IN 1885.

Excess of Interest over Death-losses $399,Mo. I

Increase in Income 1,880,697.3

Increase in Surplus, State Standard 3,313,707.4

Increase in Assets 7,580,567.7

Increase in Insurance Written 7,036,902,0

Increase in Insurance in Force 30,291,914.0

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DO NOT INSURE until you have seen full particulars of the Company's ne' style policies, which are especially valuable to those who outlive certain selected period, while furnishing full protection to the families of those who die.

DO NOT FAIL to write the nearest Agent, or the Home Office, for such particu lars—at once. The NEW YORK LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 346 & 34 Broadway, New York City.

Archibald H. Weloh, 2d Vioe-Pres. WILLIAM H. BEERS, President

RTJPUS W. WEEKS, Actuary.

Theodore M. Banta, Cashier. HENRY TUCK, Viee-President

D. O'DELL, Sup't of Agencies. A. HUNTINGTON, M. D., Medical Director.

THE

POPULAR SCIENCE
MONTHLY.

FEBBUABY, 1887.

THE LAWS OF HABIT.

By Pbofkssob WILLIAM JAMES.

WHEN we look at living creatures from an outward point of view, one of the- first things that strike us is that they are bundlesj>f habits. In wild animals, the usual round of daily behavior seems a necessity implanted at birth; in animals domesticated, and especially v\s*2Sh in man, it seems, to a great extent, to be the result of education. "f'^rf The habits to which there is an innate tendency are called instincts; some of those due to education would by most persons be called acts of reason. It thus appears that habit covers a very large part of life, and that one engaged in studying the objective manifestations of mind r>n.*.* ^5 is bound at the very outset to define clearly just what its limits are.

The moment one tries to define what habit is, one is led to the dh^ln^ fundamental properties of matter. The laws of Nature are nothing but the immutable habits which the different elementary sorts of matter follow in their actions and reactions upon each other. In the ^5"* organic world, however, the habits are more variable than this. Even J ,-,>.«;<.''''" instinctsjvary^from one individual to another of a kind; and are modi- 6ho^ fied in the same individual, as we shall later see, to suit the exigencies jc', "unto <».,'' of the case. The habits of an elementary particle of matter can not ^h* *%. change (on the principles of the atomistic philosophy), because the particle is itself an unchangeable thing; but those of a compound mass of matter can change, because they are in the last instance due to the structure of the compound, and either outward forces or inward tensions can, from one hour to another, turn that structure into something different from what it was. That is, they can do so if the body be plastic enough to maintain its integrity, and be not disrupted when its structure yields. The change of structure here spoken of need not involve the outward shape; it may be invisible and molecular, as when a bar of iron becomes magnetic or crystalline through the action Vol.xxx.-28 198121"

• • *• '* of certahr^'utward causes, or India-rubber becomes friable, or plastc "sets;?.. All these changes are rather slow; the material in questio o.pbfrse-s a certain resistance to the modifying clause, which it take "time' to overcome, but the gradual yielding whereof often saves tb material from being disintegrated altogether. When the structure La yielded, the same inertia becomes a condition of its comparative pel manence in the new form, and of the new habits the body then mani fests. Plasticity, then, in the wide sense of the word, means the pos session of a structure weak enough to yield to an influence, but strong enough not to yield all at once. Each relatively stable phase of equi librium in such a structure is marked by what we may call a new se of habits. Organic matter, especially nervous tissue, seems endowe< with a very extraordinary degree of plasticity of this sort; so that we may without hesitation lay down as our first proposition the following that the phenomena of habit in living beings are due to the plasticity{ \ of the organic materials of which their bodies are composed.

But the philosophy of habit is thus, in the first instance, a chapte: in physics rather than in physiology or psychology. That it is a bottom a physical principle is admitted by all good recent writers 01 the subject. They call attention to analogues of acqujred_Jia]iit8__£x. hibited by dead matter. Thus, M. L6on Dumont, whose essay or habit is perhaps the most philosophical account yet published, writes "Every one knows how a garment, after having been worn a cer tain time, clings to the shape of the body better than when it wai new; there has been a change in the tissue, and this change is a new habit of cohesion. A lock works better after being used some time at the outset more force was required to overcome certain roughnesses in the mechanism. The overcoming of their resistance is a phenomenon of habituation. It costs less trouble to fold a paper when it has been folded already. This saving of trouble is due to the essential nature of habit, which brings it about that, to reproduce the effect, a less amount of outward causality is required. The sounds of a violin improve by use in the hands of an able artist, because the fibers of the wood at last contract habits of vibration conformed to harmonic relations. This is what gives such inestimable value to instruments that have belonged to great masters. Water in flowing hollows out for itself a channel, which grows broader and deeper, and, after having ceased to flow, it resumes, when it flows again, the path traced by itself before. Just so, the impressions of outer objects fashion for themselves in the nervous system more and more appropriate paths, and these vital phenomena recur under similar excitements from without, when they have been interrupted a certain time."

Not in the nervous system alone. A Mar anywhere is a locus minoris resistentice, more liable to be abraded, inflamed, to suffer

* In the sense above explained, which applies to molecular structure as well as to that of grosser parts.

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