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from referring all mankind to the Divine Legation; “ as to an infallible oracle, for the resolution of every question in literature ;" that I have written and published my sentiments in full and clear contradiction to some of its principles.

. Let me add, that Dr. Warburton well knew, from the time of the first publication of these Ejays, that I had thus publicly dissented from him in opinion : nor did this known opposition of sentiment ever occasion any breach of friendship between us.

The next vouchers I shall produce, are my own letters, written several years ago to some of my friends, on subjects of literature: did I think myself privileged to publish without leave, the letters of my correspondents, written to me on these occasions in confidence of fecresy, I could give additional proofs of the wrong you have done me: and such proofs, as would be far from dishonouring either my friends or Me. There are certain facts referred to even in these my own letters, relative to other subjects, which I do not think myself at liberty to divulge: and shall therefore only publish, what can eisentially affect the present point in question. Nor should I have taken even this step, had not the publication of these paragraphs been of the last consequence to the full vindication of my moral .character : which I regard as an extreme necessity, equal to That, when life or liberty are at stake.

< The first of these evidences is the substance of a letter containing some general thoughts on what I judged to be the true medium, in departing or not departing PUBLICLY from the opia nions of a friend, in literary researches. It was communicated by me to several of my friends, in the year 1759. It runs thus.

“ Horkesly (in Essex) October 30, 1759. Dear Sir, “ There is a kind of petulance, founded in selfish vanity, which consists in picking quarrels, searching out small and incidental mistakes, either in reasoning, philology, or facts. I know of notbing more contemptible than this, in the whole tour of literary folly, which (between friends) is a very large

This filly and ungenerous conduct we saw an instance of in a certain *** with respect to one of our Friends. The circumstances of the fact were somewhat notorious in that in. stance: but the thing itself is common; and makes the chief employment of that dirty modern tribe, who call themselves critics. Of this folly, if I know myself aright, I am incapable.

“ But with regard to the investigation of truth in a more inlarged sense; here, I confefs, I see no room for favour or friendThip.


“ I have so entirely gained this habit of thought; that, I hope, this principle will direct me in all my inquiries. And though I am but a mean workman in the Temple of truth, I will at least be an honest one. My own errors I will always be glad not only to acknowlege, but proclaim: and upon a likę principle, though I may not studiously proclaim the errors of a friend, yet I certainly will neither palliate nor hide them.

" In short, it is making an ungenerous use of any degree of superiority which men may be possessed of, if they become the ministers to each other's vanity, instead of being the impartial ministers of truth. When once they are arrived at this point, I think the mind must be shaken from the foundations of all true integrity. For myself, I should think I deserved to be ftruck blind from heaven, not only in body but in foul too, fhould I make so ungrateful an use of that portion of light which God has lent me.

“ As I think there is great immorality and guilt in any palliation of error on account of friendship, lo, on the other part, I can see no fhadow of reason against a free difcuffion of any question, among fons, fathers, friends, or brothers. If I am wrong, my friends are best able to let me right: If my friend is wrong, the truest friendship I can fhew him is, to let him see his error.

I am, &c. The Do&or goes on to produce other letters and scraps of letters in order to fhew the independence of his mind, and concludes with declaring, in the triumphant language of self-importance, that he thould long ago have set his foot upon the neck of Bander, had the not skulked among the garrets of GrubAtreet.

J. B."

Philosophical Transactions, Vol. LIV. Continued *.

Papers, MEDICAL and ANATOMICAL. Art. 2. The Sequel of the Case of Mr. Butlet of Moscow, printed in

the Philosophical Transactions, Vol. L. p. 19. Communicated by Mr. Henry Baker, F. R. S. HE case of Mr. Butler was briefly this : Soon after pre

paring a mixture of verdegris, false gold-leaf, with aquae. fortis, he was suddenly seized with a burning pain, first in one finger, then in his wbole hand; afterwards in the other hand, legs, toes, shoulders, back, belly, and, in short, in every part of bis body by turns, together with many extraordinary symptoms,

• See Review for last Month.

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which, however, in about ten days, abated, and in a short time seemed entirely gone ; but for the particulars of this case, together with the method of treatment, we are referred to the first part of the account, as mentioned in the title of this article. The sequel of this account is communicated in a second letter from Dr. Mounsey to Mr. Baker; from which it appears that Mr. Butler's nerves continued for a long time in a very irritable condition, and that not only by the smell of paints, but even on handling metallic inodorous substances he was frequently

attacked with faintings, tremblings, and uncommon anxiety. The Doctor tried various remedies with very little effect, till at length a milk diet and exercise restored the patient to a tolerable ftate of health. We cannot close this article without transcribing one short passage. On the 20th, says the Doctor, I gave him a dose of Epsom salt, which he had been used to take: it purged very well; but immediately on its leaving off to work, his body struck out with great numbers of small red fpots.'--The

-- The fal catharticum amarum came from England; and whether fome vitriolic acid had been used in making it, I do not know; but it is likely there had. It is indeed more than likely : fal catharticus amarus, or Epsom salt, being always composed of the vitriolic acid and magnesia. We are sorry the Doctor's want of chemical knowledge should stand thus upon record in the Philofophical Transactions. Art. 9. An Account of a Hernia of the Urinary Bladder including a

Stone. By Mr. Percival Pott, Surgeon to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and F. R.S.

The patient of whom this extraordinary case is related, was about thirteen years old when he was brought to Mr. Pott, and his disease had the appearance of a schirrous testicle, which, however, from the hardness and insensibility of the tumour, appeared not to be the case. Mr. Pott, though in doubt what it really was, being of opinion that it ought to be extirpated, performed the operation with his usual care, dexterity, and success; and on laying open the scrotum, discovered the case to be a hernia ciflica, including a calculus of the fame nature with those usually found in the bladder. He extirpated the cift, and at the end of a month the patient was perfectly cured. Art. 32. Observations and Experiments of different Extracts of

Hemlock. By Michael Morris, M.D. F. R. S. Dr. Wade of Lisbon having lately communicated to the London Medical Society a number of cases, in which the extract of hemlock, prepared at Coimbra in Portugal, had been given with great success, Dr. Morris was induced to make experiments upon the different extracts prepared at Coimbra, Viana and London, in order to discover their respective component parts.


The result of this enquiry is, that the Coimbra extract contains a much greater quantity (to use the Author's own words) of an eljential oily salt and resin, than the others; and hence, he is of opinion, the extraordinary effects of the Coimara extract may be rationally accounted for. Art. 33. Essay on the Use of the Ganglions of the Nerves. By James

Johnsone, M. D. communicated by the Right Rev. Charles Lord Bishop of Carlise.

It is well known that physiology has not yet been able to produce even a probable conjecture concerning the use of the ganglions of the nerves. The ingenious Author of this paper reflecting, that ganglions are almost peculiar to those nerves which are distributed to parts whose motions are involuntary, imagines, that their use in the animal oeconomy is to intercept the influence of the mind upon those parts; and that they are also the instruments by which the motions of the heart and intestines are rendered uniformly involuntary. The only objection to this theory is, that the observation on which it is founded is not universally true. Art. 43. An Account of what appeared on opening the Body of an

Asthmatic Perfon. By W. Watson, M. D. F.R.S. The preternatural phenomena in the body of this asthmatic. person were, an enormous diftention of the lungs with extrava-, sated air, and numberless varices in the pulmonary vein ; which, together fufficiently account for the symptoms of the disease. From the history of the case it appears, that the patient, about two months before his death, was seized with violent and long continued vomiting, to which the Doctor, very rationally, ascribes the phenomena above mentioned. Art. 58. An Account of an extraordinary Disease among the Indians

in the Island of Nantucket and Marthu's Vineyard, in New England. In a Letter from Andrew Oliver Ejq; Secretary of his Majesty's Province of Massachusett's Bay, to Israel Mauduit, Edq; F.R.S. Our readers will hardly believe us when we assure them that alf we learn from this pompous account of this extraordinary disease, is, that it attacked none but Indians; that it was a violent inflammatory fever; that, out of 258, only 36 recovered ; and that the patienis generally died in about five days. As this article contains not the least medical instruction, we apprehend it might with more propriety have filled the column of a newspaper.

The MATHEMATICAL, MECHANICAL, and ASTRONOMICAL Papers, are deferred to another Opportunity.



For JANUAR Y, 1766.

POLITICAL and COMMERCIAL Art. 13. A Defence of the News-England Charters. By Jer.

Dummer. 8vo. Įs, 6 d. Almon. 'HIS valuable performance, being only a new edition, without any it is a work of some importance, and hath long been scarce, we thought it might be useful to many of our Readers, at i his juncture, in which ihe charters of our colonies are become so much the objects of public attention, to be informed, that Mr. Dummer's tract is reprinted, and may be had as above. Art. 14. The Importance of the Colonies of North America, and the

Interest of Great Britain with Regard to them, considered. Together with Remarks on the Stamp-duty. 4to. 1 S. Peat.

Chiefly intended to shew how impolitic, as well as unreasonable, it would be, in our present dispute with the colonies, to bave recourse to any improper exertion of power. The Author's main argumentis founded on this position, " That it is the true intereft of Great Britain, to acquire and retain, not to alienate the affections of her colonies ;--which can only be done by kind usage, and always considering them, as they most certainly are, in all respects, on the same footing with ourselves, and of right entitled to every privilege that we in England enjoy.'- -He iofifts, in common with most of the writers in behalf of the colonies, on their right of representation in whatever legislative body assumes and exercises the power of laxing them; but on this head, as well as on most other points touched upon in this tract, he offers little that can be called new : his performance being, indeed, to be chiefly regarded as a reca. pitulation of the arguments advanced by those who have appeared before. him in this debate. Art. 15. An Examination of the Rights of the Colonies, upon Principles of Law. By a Gentleman at the Bar,

8vo. IS. Dymot. This Lawyer, after a very slighe hearing, has determined against the onies ;- but we imagine they will hardly abide by his adjudication. itbout entering into the merits of this cause, upon the princijles of law, e cannot help reflecting, on this occasion, how happy it is for this country that her liberties have not always been left to the arguments and decisions of lawyers. Would their jargon ever have procured us our ineftimable Magna Charia? or would the glorious Resolution ever have taken place, if our gallant grandfathers had submitted to argue the poine with K. James in Westminster-hall?. It is true, we have lately seen oor liberties nobly afferted by an English Lord Chief Julice; but have we not too much reason to regard that bonefl lawyer as a phænomenon ? And how many frics?s, &c. have we had, for one PRATT!

Art. 16.

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