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he, is no fufficient reason for fear; for this independence can hardly be • brought about until some general calamity falls on Europe, or the pro
tedion which the colonies now claim from their several mother-COUD- tries, is denied, or unable to be given from the particular distresses at home, power is subject to change; it is the natural course of things. The grandeur of the Roman empire is annihilated, and this island, formerly a province to it, and looked upon as almost out of the world, has a greater dominion than Rome ever prided herself in, and is now the centre if riches and authority. May it ever continue fo! Nothing but its own bad policy can prevent it, the fear of evils may produce them, as the dread of death frequently puts a period to life.' · It seems very true, that on this jealousy and mitrust, we have founded a system of policy, which may be the principal ground of the present discontent in America ; for nothing can be more natural, as the Writer observes, than for jealousy on the one side, to produce the same bad and illiberal qualities on the other :-to the interruption of the most cordial friendship, and total breach of the strongelt duties. • It is to this po -licy, adds he, they (the Colonists] impute the ruin of the Spanish trade, by the royal navy of Great Britain acting in the spirit of the Guarda Collas of Spain. It is true indeed the impropriety of this condu&t was seen when we found it most ultimately affect ourselves; and, therefore, though the act is still in force, the execution of it is suspended; but the condition of the Americans is bad indeed, for the blow aimed at them, took place ! and the dagger remaining rankles in the wound.'
On the whole, our Author concludes, that it is not by taxes, but by trade alone, that Great Britain, acting in a spirit of irue policy, will endeavour to draw the wealth and produce of America to herself; all other methods will deftroy the object for which the colonies were etablished. If the Americans indeed, poffesled of valuable mines of gold and silver, or a lucrative commerce, ftill retained more than the ballance of trade drew trom them, Great Britain might, perhaps, conSittently with felf-intereft, take the overplus. But the fact is otherwise, all their gains and produce now centers here in the way of trade, and therefore the fystem of taxing them is diametrically opposite to the real benefit of the nation in general, though it may ferve the purpose of a temporary expedient. -The treasury may swel a little, but commerce will shrink to nothing.'
• Cromwell, says our Author, though an arbitrary ruler, and Charles the Ild. a necessitous prince, pursued, in this respeet, the true interests of Great Britain ; for notwithitanding the extravagance of the one, and despotism of the other, they plainly faw, that real power, and subtlantial and permanent wealth, could only be obtained through the channels pf commerce, and that there would be a sufficient fund established sor dissipation and corruption, and the highest power exercised, by rendering ihe trade of the colonies subservient to Great Britain ; and therefore Cromwell had the sagacity to plan, and Charles the good sense to adopt the famous act of navigation, which the British colonies have to this time dutifully and implicitly obeyed : for though it has reduced them to a kind of political llavery, yet being founded on the foundest policy, they have fubmitted to it with chearfulness and affection to this country; and so long as they do so, you need no other evidence of your sovereignty
over them; for let any one consider the nature of it, and he will find it the strongest mark and badge of subserviency and dependence.
• Let then the mutual, which is the real interest of Great Britain and her colonies, be promoted, by constantly pursuing the true object for which the latter were ellablished, and let us not cut down the tree to get at the fruit. Let us stroke and not fiab the cow, for her milk, and not her, blood, can give us real nourishment and Arengib; and for this purpose, let the s, irit of the act of navigation (for sound policy has long lince varied from the letter) be strictly adhered to; and then, however flourishing the commerce of America may become, either by its own efforts, or by the judicious encouragements and bounties given by this country, the whole advantage thereof must ultimately center here, and that without discontent and disturbances, to the honour and satisfaction of his Majesty, and promotion of the public good.'
Art. 22. Some Strictures on the late Occurrences in North-America,
8vo. 6 d: Owen.
These strictares are very weak and trivial. The Author insists on the parliament's right of taxation, whether the Americans are exempted by their charters, or not; and as for these, he intimates that they ought to be revoked! In fort, this appears to be, by far, the most inconfiderable pamphlet that hath yet appeared in the course of this controversy. Art. 23. The Justice and Neceffity of taxing the American Colonies,
demonstrated. Together with a Vindication of the Authority of Parliament. 8vo. Almon.
If this Writer is not more ignorant than the last mentioned Anti-Amerisan, he is ten times more furious. He sets out with the profession of . modefily offering his sentiments, that by the confrontation of different opinions, we may strike out truth, as we do fire, by the collision of fints.' Is this our Author's method ? other people do it by the collifon of fint and steel. But this is, in truth, a most fiery politician, and his pamphlet is a mere firebrand. Behold how he fires away at the Americans :
• You (the inhabitants of the colonies) tell us you are very fober and temperate, that you fear the influence of a Itanding army will corrupt you, and introduce profligacy and debauchery.
I take your word for it, and believe you are as sober, tomperate, upright, humane and virtuous, as she posterity of independents and anabaptists, presbyterians and quakers, convicts and felons, favages and negro-whippers can be ; that you are as loyal fubjects, as obedient to the laws, as zealous for the maintenance of order and good government, as your late actions evince you to be ; and I affirm that you have much need of the gentlemen of the blade to polish and refine your manners, to inspire you with an honest frankness and openness of behaviour, to rab off the ruft of puritanism, &c. &c.'
Is not this a very niedeft, fober, temperate, upright, humane and candid writer!
Art. 24. An Answer to a very extraordinary North-Briton i pubs,
lished on Monday lafi, in the Publick Advertiser, A flimsy attack on the Ins.
MEDICAL. Art. 25. The Midwifi's Pocket-companion : or a Practical Treatise
on Midu ifery: on a new Plan: containing full and plain Direllions for the Management and Delivery of Child-bearing Wmen in the different Cafes, and the Cure of the several Diseases incident to them and new-born Children, in the safift Manner, and according to the best Improvements. Adapted to the Use of the Female as well as the Malé Practitioner in that Art. In Three Parts. By John Memis, M. D. of Marilhal-college, Aberdeen. 12mo. · 25. 6d. Dilly.
This work is offered to the public, as a cheap abridgement of the modern improvements in the art of midwifery; and is designed at once to answer the purpose of a text-book, and the midwife's vade inecuin. As a text-book, it might have been more simple, more concentrated; and as an abridgement, it is in some places very diffuse and unweildy, A quotation from the work itself, when compared with the original as it ftands in Dr. Smellie, will convince our Readers of the truth of this observation. Dr. Smellie, to whom our Author is chiefly indebted for his materials, thus speaks of the evacuations necessary at the end of the month after delivery *: • Those who have had a sufficient discharge of the lochia, plenty of milk, and fuckie their own children, commonly recover with eale; and as the superfiuous fluids of the body are drained off at the nipples, seldom require evacuations at the end of the month : but, if there are any complaints from fullness, such as pains and stitches, after the twentieth day, some blood ought to be taken from the arm, and the belly gently opened by frequent glyfers, or repeated doses of laxative medicines,
• If the patient has tolerably recovered, the milk having been at first fucked or discharged from the nipp'es, and afterwards discussed ; no evacuations are necessary before the third or fourth week; and sometimes not till after the first flowing of the menjës, which commonly happens abour the fifth week : if they do not appear within that time, gentle evacuations must be prescribed to carry of the pletbóra, and bring down the catamenia.'- This the original:-here follows our Author's correct, concise, and judicious abridgement.
• Lastly, p. 84, in order to the woman's complete recovery, we sometimes prescribe a few purges, as that of sena-lcaves taken by way of tea, ka'f a drachm of powder of jalap and falt petre, mixed and taken in a draught of weak ale or water.gruel warm † ; or a purging draught made up of half an ounce of tamarinds, a quarter of an ounce of fena,
. Vide Smellie's Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Midwifery, B. iv. Cb, j. Sect. 2.
+ Our author, surely, if he writes from experience, must have practised upon very 10but females,
and half a quarter of an ounce of cream of tartar, boiled in four oances or a gill of water to two, and diffolving a quarter of an ounce of manna, and as much glauber falts when strained and warm, making it stronger or weaker as the patient requires, and giving them once or twice a week accordingly, in the morning fasting, to purge any superfluous humours out of the body that may remain at the end of the month after her delivery.
• Those women, who have their cleansings in sufficient quantity, and of long enough standing, and have plenty of milk, and suckle their own children, commonly recover well without any purgatives or other medicines, the humours being drained off that way, especially at the nipples. Yet, if there should be any complaints after the twentieth day, it will be neceffary to give some of the purges above-mentioned, after taking first away a little blood with the lancet.
• If a woman has pretty well recovered, the milk having been fucked or discharged from the nipples, and afterwards discussed, (see Part ii. Chap ii. Article 4.) po purging of any kind is needful before the third or fourth week; sometimes not cill after the first flowing of her courses, which is commonly about the fifth week, when, if they do not come down of themselves, we bleed her in the arm or ancle, and give her some of the above purges, or twenty grains of jalap powder, with eight grains of sweet mercury, the same way every now and then to promote that discharge, &c.'- -So much for our Author's work as a text-book, and abridgment.
With regard to the merits of this performance, as particularly fitted to be the Midwife's Pocket-companion, we apprehend our Author has some formidable rivals.- -Among others, we may mention Eucha. rius Rbodion, who practised physic at Frankfort on the Maine, and published a book on the subject of midwifery, in High Dutch; this work, about the year 1530, was translated into Latin, French, Spanish, and other languages, and was very well received as the woman's book all over Europe.
- -Of a much later date, and inferior character, are the labours of Salmon and Culpepper : to the first of these has been attributed a piece called Aristotle's Midwifery; and the latter published a book in titled, A Directory for Midwives, by Nicholas Culpepper, Gentleman, Student in Phyfick and Aftronomy:- -These curious performances were for. many years in great vogue with the midwives, are still read by the lower fort of pra&titioners, and have contributed to keep up the belief of the marvellous effects of various medicines, and the more marvellous effects of various spells and charms. With rivals of such different degrees of merit, we pretend not to determine how far our Author is likely to suco. ceed as the woman's man; as we are not sufficiently acquainted with the tafte, genius, and philosophy of those respe&able dames, who make up the several classes of female practitioners in these days.
Our Author seems to expect some singular advantages, from having introduced English names and English terms, instead of those which have long been in use from the dead languages. We have, says he, changed the terms of art used in medical books for others of the same import, but more familiar to midwives ; and, frequently, the more uncommon words, which occur in all kinds of books, for more plaira and intelligible expressions.' But English terms will not be underdood, except the corresponding parts be pointed out upon the subje?
and with this affiftance, the old terms, or indeed any terms, are easi'y understood, though not perhaps so easily remembered: che remembrance of terms, however, is chiefly for the ufes of writing or conversation ; the remembrance of things is the matter of principal importance : and there is one inconvenience to which our Author's followers will be subject; he has not pointed out the old terms which answer to his Englith names, consequently they will in their reading be limited to The Midauife's Perket companion.
· Upon the whole, we think this work but an indifferent abridgment of what has been more fully and clearly delivered by Smellie, Levret, and others. As to the language, it is frequently very pompous, very oncourh. We afe the widening force of our hand :-our hand outwardly and artfully applied: :-our thumbs to the hind-head:-our other hand:-we
efhin bands : our fore and middle fingers 10, each side of the neck :
:-we ihruft er for gersi :-we seratch it with our nails : -the nails of our fingers :-we pizob it with the nails of our thumb and fingers.- -What a bustle have we here, with our thrusting, our widening, our fcratching, our pinching! and what an importance, with our arms, our hands, our fingers, our thumbs, our nails!-Nature certainly has been particularly kind to our Author, and bestowed upon him more arms, and hands, and fingers, and thumbs, and nails, than his neighbours !Who would have thoughi, that, with all this fuperabondant dignity, our Author could have been any thing less than an M. D.!Who would not have thought, that he had been * doubly dubbed !
* An Advertifement appeared in the London Chronicle for the grð of May Jast, fignifying, “That yoba Memis has no degree of medicine from the Mariñhal-college, Aberdeen ; and that, when he lately made application for a degree, it was absolutely and unanimously refused by the university.' We could not but be surprized at such an attempt to impose upon the public; especially as the real, intrinsic merit of this performance was precisely the same, whether written by John Memis, Surgeon, and Man-midwife :--or by John Memis, M. D, of the Ma. rischal-college, Aberdeen.
Art. 26. A New Essay on the Venereal Diseafe, and Methods of
Gure; accounting for the Nature, Cause, and Symptoms of that Malady. By J. Becket, M.D. 8vo. 2s. 6d. Williams.
It hath been objected to the reviewers in general, that they often cri. ticize without mercy; that they are not sufficiently tender of the reputation of the Authors under their lath ; and that their pens sometimes Cem guided rather by their pasions than their judgment. We acknow
ge a philosophical equanimity to be a proper ingredient in the chater of a Reviewer; but those who have cenfured us for the want of this cuc, would do well to consider a moment, whether they believe it por. ible for any man to read a! the trash which is obtruded upon the pablic without being now and then a little provoked, and put out of humour ? When we meet with a performance, every page of which difcovers its author to be, not only ignorant of his subject, but illiterate, and deficient even in poini of grammar; when we find the band-bill of a C-p Dactor coariely (pun into a half crown book, with the two re