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MONTHLY REVIEW,

For JUNE, 1766.

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Pharmacopoeia Medici. Auctore Joanne Berkenhout, M. D.

8vo. 25. 6d. Becket.

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LEGANCE, efficacy, and fimplicity, are the requisites to

a good PRESCRIPTION :--and every work which has a tendency to accomplish these ends, has a proportional degree of merit. Dr. Berkenhout prefixes to his Pharmacopoeia, the Chemic Pharmaceuticæ Elementa; abstracted from the Lectures of Dr. Cullen*, the most ingenious and the most happy fyftematic chemist who has yet appeared; and to whom Dr. Berkenhout acknowledges his obligations in these words :-~Si in prima hujus libelli parte scientiæ quicquid el novi illuceat, celeberrimo id omne Profesori Cullen referendum effe futemur : viro in medicina docenda egregio, qui chemiam, primus et precipuus in noftris hisce diebus, veram ad fcientiam redegiffe videtur.'

-Instead of classing bodies according to the three kingdoms, the follrle, vegetable and animal, to which, indeed, there are many objections, the following is the method adopted by our Author:

• Corpora omnia in sex clafles dividuntur; viz. Salina, ina Aammabilia, metallica, terrea; aquosa, aeria : quarum quinque priores materiæ medicæ aliquid fuppeditant.

S A L E s. Sunt sapidi, et in aqua folubiles.

vitriolicum

nitrofum Acidum

muriaticum Simplice,

vegetabile

fixum Svegetabile Alkali

vola:ile fossile Neutri CompofitiMetallici

Terrei Professor of chemistry in the university of Edinburgh, but ve o lately appointed professor of the theory of medicine in the same versity. VOL. XXXIV.

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INT

INFLAMMABILI A. Sunt corpora quæ ignem concipiunt et consumuntur.

animale

s nativum
empyreumaticum

expressum
Oleum vegetabile essentiale

empyreumatic.
fossile
Sulphur
Alkohol
Æ:her.

METALLICA. Sunt per calorem fusibilia, ad metallicam formam frigore redeuntia, et maxima gaudent gravitate specifica.

Saurum perfecta

1 argentum Metalla

argent, vivum

plumbum imperfecta cuprum

ftannum

ferrum

zincum Semi-metalla antimonium

arsenicum

TERRE A. Sunt folida, fapida, nec aqua pura fimplici folubilia, nec inflammabis lia, et nunquam fusibilia quin in vitrum abeant.

absorbentes
Terræ

cryftallinæ
argillacea
talcum.

A QUO SA Šunt fluida, parom elaftica, nunquam inflammabilia, et circa gradum 34. Therm. Farenheitiani congelabilia..

Aqua mineralis. This method of claffing bodies, is easy, accurate, and comprehenfive: we shall take the liberty however to observe, that under the division of the inflammable bodies, there are enumerated three varieties of the vegetable oils, viz. the expressed, efsential, and empyreumatic; and only two varieties of the animal, viz. the expreffed, and empyreumatic; and yet it is certain from experiments, that an essential oil is obtainable from animal as well as vegetable subjects: there should therefore have been three varieties under each of these heads.--To the varieties likewise of the semi-metals, viz, zinc, antimony, arsenic; should have been added the following, bismuth, platina, cobalt, and nickel.

After this general division, our Author proceeds to give an abstract of the chemical history of the saline bodies; but previously draws out a table of the twelve neutral falts ; thele are formed by a combination of the four acids with the three alkalies.-Asit.is

very useful for young chemists to exercise themselves in this table, we shall transcribe it: the first column contains the four acids, the second the three alkalies placed opposite to each acid, and the last the neutral falts which are the result of their combination.

SA L E s.
Acidum. ALKALI. NEUTRUM.

Vegetabile Tartar. vitriolat.
Vitriolicum Foffile Sal Glauberi

Volatile Ammoniac. vitriol.

Vegetabile Nitrum commune
Nitrosum foffile Nitrum cubicum

Volatile Ammoniac. nitros.

Vegetabile Sal digeft. Sylvii
Muriaticum Foflile Sal commun.

Volatile Ammoniac. com.

Vegetabile Tartar regenerat.
Vegetabile Foffile Sal Rupellens.

Volatile Ammon. vegetabile. In the detail of the acids the following method is observed : the synonymes of each acid are first enumerated ; then the subjects, from which it may be obtained ; and lastly, its chemical relations to other bodies. - After thus particularizing the acids, Dr. B. gives the proprietates aciderum generales. With some che mists this order is inverted, and the general properties are first related. The same method is observed with respect to the alkalies, and the neutral falts; except that in the neutral salts, the various substances from which each neutral may be obtained, whether by a single or double elective attraction, are placed the laft. With the perfect neutral falts, our Author concludes the chemiæ pharmaceutica elementa, without giving any account of the metallic or earthy falts. We wish, however, that he had not only compleated the falina, but that he had likewise proceeded to the other divifions, the inflammabilia, metallica, terrea, aquosa, which constitute a part of the materia medica as well as the salina.

Previous to the formule, we have two catalogues, the one in. cluding the medicamenta fimplicia, the other the preparata ; and to each article are annexed, the smalleft, the middle, and the extreme, doses. This part has the merit of being concise, and at the same time, as the articles are well chosen, comprehensive.

We shall now proceed to the formulæ themselves; and as we are convinced that the methodus præfcribendi may be brought to a much greater degree of fimplicity and perfection than it has hitherto arrived at; and as we wish to concur with our Author in promoting these valuable ends; we trust he will not be displeased with a free and candid examination of this part of the work, whether respecting the arrangement, composition, or dose, his formula.

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INFLAMMA BILIA. Sunt corpora quæ ignem concipiunt et consumuntur.

animale

Snativum

empyreumaticum

expreffum
Oleum vegetabile essentiale

empyreumatic.
foflile
Sulphur
Alkohol
Æther.

METALLICA.
Sunt per calorem fusibilia, ad metallicam formam frigore redeuntia,
et maxima gaudent gravitate specifica.

perfecta

Şaurum

argentum Metalla

argent. vivum.

plumbum imperfe&ta cuprum

ftannum

ferrum

zincum Semi-metalla antimonium

arsenicum

TERRE A. Sunt folida, fapida, nec aqua pura fimplici solubilia, nec infiammabit lia, et nunquam fusibilia quin in vitrum abeant.

absorbentes
Terræ

crystallina
argillacea
talcum.

A QUOS A.
Sunt fluida, parum elastica, nunquam inflammabilia, et circa gradum
34. Therm. Farenheitiani congelabilia..

communis

This method of classing bodies,, is easy, accurate, and come prehenfive: we shall take the liberty however to observe, that under the division of the inflammable bodies, there are enumerated three varieties of the vegetable oils, viz. the expressed, efsential, and empyreumatic; and only two varieties of the animal, viz. the expressed, and empyreumatic; and yet it is certain from experiments, that an essential oil is obtainable from animal as well as vegetable subjects: there should therefore have been three varieties under .each of these heads.—To the varieties likewise of

very useful for young chemists to exercise themselves in this table, we shall tianscribe it: the first column contains the four acids, the second the three alkalies placed opposite to each acid, and the last the neutral falts which are the result of their combination.

SA L E S.
ACIDUM. ALKALI. NEUTRUM.

Vegetabile Tartar. vitriolat.
Vitriolicum Foffile Sal Glauberi

Volatile Ammoniac. vitriol.

Vegetabile Nierum commune
Nitrosum Follile Nitrum cubicum

Volatile Ammoniac. nitros.

Vegetabile Sal digeft. Sylvii
Muriaticum Foflile Sal commun.

Volatile Ammoniac. com.

Vegetabile Tartar regenerat.
Vegetabile

Fosfile

Sal Rupellens.

Volatile Ammon. vegetabile. In the detail of the acids the following method is observed : the synonymes of each acid are first enumerated; then the subjects, from which it may be obtained ; and lastly, its chemical relations to other bodies. — After thus particularizing the acids, Dr. B. gives the proprietates acidorum generales. With some ches mists this order is inverted, and the general properties are first related.

-The same method is observed with respect to the alkalies, and the neutral salts; except that in the neutral salts, the various substances from which each neutral may be obtained, whether by a fingle or double elective attraction, are placed the laft. _With the perfect neutral falts, our Author concludes the chemiæ pharmaceutica elementa, without giving any account of the metallic or earthy salts. We wish, however, that he had not only compleated the falina, but that he had likewise proceeded to the other divisions, the infiammabilia, metallica, terrea, aquosa, which constitute a part of the materia medica as well as the falina.

Previous to the formulæ, we have two catalogues, the one in cluding the medicamenta fimplicia, the other the preparata; and to each article are annexed, the smallest, the middle, and the ex: treme, doses. This part has the merit of being concise, and at the same time, as the articles are well chosen, comprehensive.

We shall now proceed to the formulæ themselves; and as we are convinced that the methodus præfcribendi may be brought to a mush greater degree of fimplicity and perfection than it has hi. therto arrived nt; and as we wish to concur with our Author in

nting these valuable ends: we truft he will not be disleared

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