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AZZA GEVESTSome Authors place their medicines alpriatetica.ij, bai, dezila, cizžaria, emuifiones, El.-others place inom us.cer discr heads, without regard to this order, conferva, fucci, extracta, duća, s-these differences may be seen by turning to the London, Edinburgh, and a variety of other Pharmaciesrie. Dr. Berkenhout distributes his formule, agreeable to their supposed operation, under the following heads; the adftringentia, alterantia, antazida, anthelmintica, antiphlogistica, anti jeftica, attenuantia, cardiaca, carminativa, cathartica, demulcentia, desbftruentia, detergentia, diaphoretica, diuretica, emetica, expectsTantia, menagoga, sedativa anodyna, sedativa antispajmodici, stimulantia, fomachica, ionica.-Much has been said by medical writers concerning the operation of medicines, and different divisions and different terms have been introduced, corresponding to their diffcrent theories and methods of reasoning. Inquiries however of this kind are attended with many difficulties; and from the advances hitherto made, it is evident, that this part of medicine is far from being compleatly understood, either in a practical or scientific manner. It has been but too common, to multiply terms, without adding to the stock of real knowledge.--Let Dr. Berkenhout turn to the heads under which he has classed his medicines :- let him endeavour to give exact definitions of the terms he has adopted :--Jet him take the alterantia, attenuentia, deobftruentia, detergentia, diaphoretica, menagoga, and so characterile cach of these that they may be philosophically and practically distinguished from each other; and he will be sensible of the difficulty here pointed out.
As a farther proof of the fallacy of thus multiplying terms, we may observe that the very fame medicine is given under different heads, and by being thus repeated becomes an useless addition to the bulk of the work. We have the same prescription for inStance, under the Antiseptica. R. Camphor. gr. x.
G. Arab. 3 j.
Syr. c Cort. Aurant. 4. s. f. bolus.
Gum, Arab. 3 j.
Syr. Mecon. q. s. f. bolus.
Gum. Arab. 3 j.
Syr. Zingib. q. s. f. bolus.
Magn. Alb. 3ls. Contere diu in mort.
Diaphoretica, R. Tartar. emet. gr. ij.
Magn. Alb. 3 (s. quam optime terentur ut
f. pulv. subtiliff. Dofis gr. iv. ad xiv. This redundancy of compositions frequently occurs in this work, and is the necessary consequence of adopting a variety of terms not sufficiently distinguished. If terms like these are to be retained, a more eligible way of managing those that are fynonymous, is that of the Pharmacopoeia Pauperum Edinburgi, a Pharmacopoeia which deserves much commendation for the fimplicity and efficacy of the formulæ : these terms are here thrown into the index, and, with the catalogue of diseases, form the Index Morborum et Medicamentorum.
COMPOSITION.- -The vol, falts are directed in the form of bolus, electary, and powder. B. Sal. corn. cerv. gr. X.
Conserv. rofar. 3j.
Syr. zingib. q. s. f. bolus. R. Sal. corn. cerv. gr. xv.
Conserv. rosar. q. s. f. bolus, R. Rob. samb. 3 ij.
Sal. corn. cerv. 3 ij. f. electariam. R. Serpent. virg. rad pulv. 3 j.
Sal. corn. cerv. gr. viij. f. pulvis pro dofi. Was there no other objection to giving the vol. falts in these forms, but the uncertainty of the dose, it would be sufficient.
It is not usual to order very expensive articles in large quantities.
R. Sp. sal. amm. dulc. 3j.
Ol. cinnam. gt. L. dol. gr. xxx. in quovis ve
hiculo. This little mixture must cost the apothecary five shillings, and yet many patients would think it over-charged at hali a crown.
Doses.-Many practitioners would confider one fifth, or one fixth part of a grain of the merc. fubl. corrof. diffolved in half an ounce of spirit, as a very small dose. R. Merc. fubl. corror.
vi. Spt. vin. gall. Hb j. f. folut. dos. cochl. j. Or two or three drops of the spir. vitriol. ten,
R. Aq. cinnam. fimpl. Z v.
Spt. vitriol. ter. 3!.
Syr. diacod. Zj. 1. julep. dos. coch. j. omni hora, Qr fifteen grains of the fal. glaub. added to a cachartic.
R. Flor. sulphur. lot.
Sal. glaub. ā7. gr. xv.
Our Author, in his catalogue of the medicamenta fimplicia, tbus
dor. min. med. extrem. doses the scammonium :
XV. the following formula he orders j. of the scammon. which is five grains more than his extreme dose ; and quickens it likewise with aj. of the gum. guaiac.
Gum guaiac. (vitel. ovi solut.) asi 3 j.
Syr. croci är 3j. f. Haust. Hydrag. A decoction of the dulcamara, and aconitum et colchicum tumnal, two of Dr. Storck’s poisonous plants, are among the number of our Author's formulæ; these, as they may be new to some of our medical readers, we shall transcribe.
K. Dulcamar. ramar, lignor. 3 ij. coque. ex aq.
fontan. Ib j. ad Ibls. cola et misce cum
Sacchar. alb. Zls. Contere diu ut f. pulvis sub
tilisl. Dor. gr. x.-31.
Aceti #bj. Digere lento igne per 48 horas et
Mel. pur. Ib ij. mifce et supra moll. ign. fæpius agitando cochl. ligneo, coque ad mellis consistentiam.
Oxym. dos. 3j. bis ad 4ter in die in vehiculo quovis dilut.
Upon the whole, we apprehend the Author of the Pharmacopoeia Medici, to be a young physician of spirit and abilities, whose genius hath taken a right turn, and who will probably distinguish himself in his profession.
A Disquisition on Medicines that dissolve the Stone ; in wbuk, Dre
Chittick's Secret is discovered and confulerod. By Alexander Blackrie.
THERE being no disease, with which the human body is
affected, more dreadful than the stone in the bladder; and the only certain remedy which has hitherto been discovered, being a painful and dangerous operation,- it is no wonder, that mankind should have been so constantly solicitous to discover a femedy which by disfulying the stone, should render the operation unnecessary. Many have been the medicines which in different periods, have been supposed to possess this virtue; and great was the reward, which one person in particular received from the legislature of this kingdom for the promulgation of her lithontriptic fecret; nevertheless subsequent experience hath taught us, that, like many other secrets, it was of little or no value as soon as it became known. Various experiments have been made in order to discover a menstruum capable of diffolving the human calculus out of the body, some of which have been found adequate to the intent; but the general misfortune is, that these menstrua are of two acrid a nature for internal exhibia tion. Besides, our doubts are greatly augmented, when we consider the difficulty of conveying a sufficient quantity of any medicine whatever to the place where it is intended to operate. Be this as it may, it is pretty generally known, that one Dr. Chittick hath, for some time, continued to exhibit a medicine for the Stone, which, it is said, hath been frequently attended with success. This medicine he keeps a profound fecret; insomuch that he never entrusts it with any of his patients till he himself has mixt it with the vehicle in which it is to be taken. The Author of this pamphlet, it seems, has been at uncommon pains to discover the composition of this valuable medicine, and having at length accomplished his design, he now communicates the result of his enquiries to the public, for the general benefit of those who have the misfortune to be afflicted with this disease. He first published his opinion concerning this medicine in the Gentleman's Magazine for October 1763; but having since that time advanced nearer to a certainty in this matter, he endeavours in the present performance to satisfy the public more fully. He discovered the secret in the following manner: having procured some of Dr. Chitrick's medicated broth, upon tasting it, he perceived a strong flavour of tanfy, and afterwards, very plainly, the effect of an alkaline matter upon his tongue. The alkali he supposes to be the medicine, and the tanly added with an intention only to disguise it. Upon this supposition, he made fome veal-broth, gave it the tanfy flavour, and then dissolved in it various quantities of fixed alkaline falts, and thus produced a liquor similar in taste to that of the Doctor, yet somewhat different. Not quite satisfied with his first trial, he now added quicklime to the fixed alkali, and thus obtained a liquor so exactly resembling Dr. Chittick's medicine, that the nicest taste could not distinguish one from the other. Being, however, unwilling to reft his opinion entirely on this similarity of taste, our Author next proceeds to try what effect would be produced by mixing Dr. Chit. tick's medicated broth with fyrup of violets, and finds that the blue colour was immediately changed to a green, an incontestible proof of an alkali in its compofition. He then repeated the experiment with his own broth, and found exactly the same appearance to be the consequence. But being determined to put the matter out of all doubt, he put two equal fragments of the fame calculus into equal quantities of each of these medicines, keeping both in the same degree of heat, and found both fragments diftulved in the same Ipace of time. Upon these combined evidences he rests his proof, devoting the remainder of his pamphlet to remarks on the regimen observed by the Doctor's pa. tients, together with considerations on his pretensions to its being a new discovery and a more efficacious medicine than any other. In the course of these considerations he proves that other physicians, particularly Dr. Jurin, have been weil acquainted with the lythontriptic virtues of soap-ley (Dr. Chittick’s medicine being nothing else) and recommends that species of it which is prepared with two thirds of a pure fixed alkali, and one third of well calcined quicklime dissolved in a sufficient quantity of water; and with regard to the dose, he recommends from 30 or 40 drops to a tea spoonful, or even two, twice or thrice a-day, according as the casc may require, or the constitution of the patient may admit. Having now finished this first part of his design, the Author informs the public that he intends to publish a second part with all convenient speed, and concludes ihe present in the following manner.
• Thus far I bad proceeded by medical conjecture and chymical investigation, when, after the greatest part of this treatise was printed, I had an opportunity of making enquiry, and of ascertaining by teftimony what I had before advanced from probable deduction. The medicine which Dr. Chittick administers he does not deny that he inherits from his brother, who used it before him: to his brother it was given, according to an account sent me from Ireland, by General Dunbar; I have received the genuine receipt in these words :
• Take one tea-spoonful of the strongest soap-ley, mixed in two table spoonfuls of sweet milk, an hour before breakfast, and at going to bed. Before you take the medicine, take a sup of pure milk, and immediately after you have swallowed the medicine, take another. If you find this agrees with you for two or three days, you may add half as much more to the dose. This agrees exactly with such information as had been given me before by another hand.”
Upon the whole, the Author appearing to have no other motive in disclosing this secret than the good of his fellow-creatures, the public are undoubtedly much obliged to him for this publication.