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to it in universal nature. A parent of many children divides' among them his honours and posseflions, and does not give all to any one. But, to an only-begotten fon, a parent gives all that he has to give without exception. The name, therefore, only-begotten Son of God, intimates, that the glory of the Son is as 'great as that of the Father, and that all things whatsoever, the Father hath, are his. Poflibly to some it may appear a speculative point of small importance, that he who came in the name of the Lord to save us, was indeed the equal and fellow of the Almighty. But the scripture lays upon this the greatest stress, as an evidence that Jesus is able to save to the uttermost, and an encouragement to rely on him for salvation. And saving faith accordingly views him as a person of infinite dignity, and therefore able to bear the weight of the Father's anger, to quench the fire of vindictive justice; to begin, carry on, and complete the recovery of defiled and diseased fouls; and to make two people conquerors, and more than conquerors of all their enemies.
• The spirit takes from the scripture, the grand evidence of faith which he had lodged there, and carries it to the hearts of the elect, and then the light and power of divine truth so apprehends and overcomes the foul, that it can no longer resist.
* That triumphant evidence, is no other than the glory and excellency of the gospel scheme of revelation, manifested by the holy spirit in such a manner, as produces full conviction, that a scheme so glorious could have none but God for its author.
• The word of God's grace falls with such power and evidence on the soul of the enlightened sinner, that he can no more withhold his assent, than one who has his eyes open and sound, can hinder himself from seeing light at noon-day, or than a philosopher can restrain his assent from a mathematical theorem, when his understanding is overpowered .by demonstration. As even in these lower cases, the foul is merely palsive, it must be much more so here, when a divine power concurs with a convincing light, and wherever it comes, perfectly subdues.
* Saving faith may therefore be defined a perfualion that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of the living God, flowing from spiritual views of such a glory in the gospel, as fatisfies and convinces the mind, that a scheme so glorious could have none but God for its author.'
if any our Readers are pleased with this specimen, they will find a great deal to the same purpose in the work itself, to which we refer them.
S E R MON S. I. Religio Medici, preached at a Visitation holden in the Parish Church of All Saints, in the Town of Huntingdon, Ap. 4, 1766. By W. Walton, M. D. Rector of Upton, in Huntingdon fhire. 4to.
is. Rivington. Doctor Walion informs us that the principal motive for his preaching this discourse was to suppress an invidioas fuggestion of his having deferted his proper profesion, and embraced principles of religion more
agreeable to the notions of an ancient phyfician, than of a Christian & vine.-If bis sermon, therefore, answers this end, it is all that the Atthor ought to expect ; for, as to the reft, the best thing we can find in: is, that the profits of the sale will be appropriated to the benefit of a indigent person.-From the Doctor's fourth propofition, that Chriftianity would at length become the universal religion, we did, indeed, exped fome argument; but we were entirely disappointed.
II. The eternal Existence of the Lord Jesus Christ considered and improved, -at a Monthly Association in Grafton-ftreet, nez: the Seven Dials. By Benjamin Wallin. Buckland, &c.
III. At St. Mary's, Cambridge, at the Lent Aflizes, 1766. By John Mainwaring, B. D. Fellow of St. John's, Cambridge. White.
IV. At the Asylum-chapel, before the Guardians, May 16, 1766. By the Rev. James Hallifax, D.D. Rector of Chedingcon and Vicar of Ewell, Surry. Dodsley.
V. On Music, chiefly Church-music; occafioned by opening of the new Organ at St. Peter's Church in Liverpool, April 3o; preached the Lord's Day following. By John Brekell, Waugh.
VI. At the Aflize at Chester, March 29, 1766. By Thomas Hodges, A. M. Curate of Church-Hulme Fletcher,
VII. Dying in Faith explained, and the Happiness attending it, at the Old Jewry, May 18, 1766; on Occasion of the Death of the Rev. Sam. Chandler, D.D. and F. R. and A. S, S. who died May 8, in the 73d Year of his Age. By Thomas Amory. To which are added, the Speech at his Interment, and a Catalogue of his Works. Buckland.
CORRESPONDENCE. VE have been favoured with a letter from Mr. Ogilvie with regard
to our review of his Solitude, or Elyfium of the Poets, (see Rev. for Feb. 1766) and are much obliged by the kind and candid manner in which he has been pleased to express himself. Such an address would certainly have drawn from us the readieft acknowledgments, had we, as he seems to think, formed too precipitate a judgment in certain objections which we took the liberty of making to that pcen, and to Mr. O.'s writings in general; but, upon the most unprejudiced re-perufal of that article, we can really find nothing to retrat. -Mr. o. objeds to - having made certain frictures of cenfure without exemplifying car
---As those strictuses were of a general tendency, that could nos thin the compafs of one article, nor would it have been com
e general plan and conduct of our Review.
Α Ρ Ρ Ε Ν DI X
VOLUME the THIRTY-FOURTH.
Hisoire De L'Afrique et De L'Espagne, &c: The History of Africa and Spain, under the Government of the
Arabs; compiled from different Arabic Manuscripts in the Royal Library, and dedicated to the Dauphin. By M. Cardonne, Secretary-Interpreter to the King in the Oriental
Languages, &c. 3 Vols. Paris, 1765. TH
HE rapid success with which the Arabic empire was esta
blished in Asia, Africa and Europe, and the growing power of Mahomet and his fucceffors, form one of the most furprising and most interesting events in the history of mankind. Religion had, undoubtedly, a leading influence in this į but enthusiasm alone, unattempered and unconducted with policy, could never have atchieved such extraordinary things :-yet not even the profoundest policy, co-operating wich the influences of a new religion, could have been so generally successful, had it not been attended by a kind of ferocious valour, together with an unwearied assiduity, and long experience in the business of war. The Arabs, in the time of Mahomet, were the first people upon earth in horsemanship, and the skill of the bow. The progress of their oriental conquests has been frequently recorded and is well known, but their succefles in the west have lain more obscure. Our countryman Echard, in his Roman History, has made the same observation, and complains that, for want of cotemporary historians, the issue of their western wars was in a great measure unknown. Marmol is the only autitor who has thrown any light upon those events, but the facts he relates with regard to the African conquests are buc thinly scattered through his works.
M. Cardonne has, however, almost entirely obviated this complaint, and has rendered the history of humankind much APP. Vol. xxxiv.
more perfect by filling up those vacant annals. The foarce from which he has derived his information, concerning the Arabic conquests in the west, are Arabic writers, whose works were deposited in the king of France's library. He complains, indeed, that the dryness and affectation of brevity peculiar to the historians of that nation, had left him ftill poor, had nor afforded him all the light he could have wilhed to obtain with regard to their histories, and some dynasties he found in which the succession of princes was difficult to difcover. This, how. ever, might easily be accounted for ; as there were some sultans who forbad, under pain of death, the annals of their reigns to be written : and one of those actually put to death an author for disobeying the decree.
The principal revolutions in that part of Africa, where the Arabs prevailed, and the different dynasties, are recorded in this work with as much precision as posible. The epoch of those revolutions, and that of the establishment of the dynasties extend to that period when the African governors, secure in their respective powers, threw off the common yoke, and afpired to fovereignty.
The history of the Arabs in Spain is not less interesting than that of their African conquests. Allured by the riches of that country, they came in vaft tribes both from Asia and Africa, and each of those tribes being desirous of obtaining those treafures undivided, they fell one upon another.
At the same time there were revolutions in the dominion of the east. The dynasty of the Ommiads was overturned by the Abbaflids, and Abdoulrahman-ibu-Moavie, who was of the former party, Aed into Spain, where he was soon invested with all the power of the Arabs in that country, as they had always been attached to his party.
From that time Spain was detached from the government of the eastern caliphs, and had its distinct princes, who likewise took upon them the name of caliphs, and, like those, mixed the civil with the sacerdotal power. The fucceffors of Abdoulrahman, intoxicated with affluence and luxury, abandoned the cares of government to their habjeds, a kind of comptrollers, who invested themselves with absolute authority. These caliphs became at length fo contemptible that they were deprived of the crown; in consequence of which, such of the Arabs as had superior power, or credit, obtained the sovereignty of those provinces where their influence lay, and almost every province had then its prince.
The strength of the Moors being thus divided, they became less formidable to the Christians. The latter gained several important victories over them; and had they not themselves sufdered from the same division of power and dominion, they would
have driven them effectually from all their settlements in Spain. The progress of their conquefts, however, was rapid, and the Arabs, being reduced to the last extremity, called in the Africans to their assistance. Their new auxiliaries soon forgot the purposes that brought them to Spain, and, instigated by ambition, instead of defending their countrymen, meditated nothing less than their subjection. This revolution threatened the Christians with the worst of consequences, on account of that innumerable multitude of enemies which it brought upon them. The whole continent of Africa seemed to have emptied itself of its inhabitants, that they might take up arms against the Spaniards; but the firmness and fortitude of the latter, notwithstanding the smallness of their numbers, triumphed over all opposition. The civil wars which prevailed in Africa and in the kingdom of Grenada, at length terminated the government of the Arabs in Spain.
This is a short sketch of the history that our Author compiles from those manuscripts to which he had recourse. But these were not his only resources. The Arabic historians, however copiously they expatiate on the successful part of their own history, become thrifty and indolent in those periods, where the glory of their nation declines, and their enemies have the advantage. For this reason, M. Cardonne very judiciously determined to apply himself to the Spanish historians for more perfect information, and this he chiefly drew from Mariana's Latin hiltory of Spain, except with regard to the conquest of Grenada, of which he met with a long detail in a collection of Arabic hiftorians, entitled Hifioria Lenazzadini Viziri. The same collection furnished him with the succession of the viceroys who held the government of Spain under the eastern caliphs. This was the more desirable, as he would not have found it so exact in the Spanish Historians, who often alter their names, or substitute others. Of this, and whatever else that collection, or the manuscripts of Novari, Tabari, and several other Arabic writers afa forded him, respecting the manners, the luxury or commerce of the æra under his review, the Author makes the best use; and he takes care all along to preserve the original orthography of names: by which means, indeed, they are hardly cognizable to readers who have only been conversant in modern historians -for instance, Abderam, he calls Abdoulrahman, &c.
The following are the titles of the books and manuscripts from which this history was compiled, and which we take the liberty to introduce for the sake of such of our Readers as are acquainted with the eastern literature.
Cheabeddin Aboul Abbasi, Pars 23. Historia Universalis.
Ahmed Ben Abdoulvahabi cognomine Novati, Hiftoria Ommiadarum, qui in Hispania regnarunt. Kk2