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the reign of Charles II. their manners underwent great revolutions. A taste for literature and gallantry succeeded to fanaticism and impiety, but they still continued to preserve that basis of ferocity which is productive of strong reasoning in one, and in another brutality. Perhaps we ourselves are deceived in this matter by our refined politeness, which, according to the English renders us unnatural. In general, says M. de Muralt, they perform a good action boldly, and they dare follow their reason in oppolition to custom; but their good fenfe is mixed with whims and extravagance. Their resolutions are generally sudden. It is common in England for a girl to vow that she will marry the first man fhe meets; and accordingly they are married. 'Wine hath sometimes, among this people, been productive of great cruelty. Some of them have made a vow to murder the first person they meet after leaving the tavern; and they have kept their word. Their prime nobility often box of play at bowls with the lowest among the people. Some of our nation consider the English stage, which affords that people fo much delight, as a proof of their barbarity. Their tragedies, it is true, tho' interesting and replete with beauties, are nevertheless dramatic monsters, half butchery and half farce. Grotesque character, and extravagant pleasantry constitute the chief part of their coincdies: in one of these, the Devil enters sneezing, and somebody says to the Devil, God bless you. They are not, however, all of this stamp : they have even some in a very good taste ; but there are hardly any which give us an advantageous

idea of the English nation; though it is from the theatre that a ftranger forms his opinion of the manners of a people. The English comic poets do not endeavour to paint their countrymen such as they are ; for they are said to possess as much humanity as reason. A man in disgrace at court is, in London, congratulated with as much solicitude as in other places he is abandoned. The thing for which the English are most culpable is their deeming suicide an act of bravery. They ought to re. collect that even the Athenians, their model, were not suffered to destroy themselves till after they had given their reasons for it

. The English on the contrary frequently kill themselves on the flightest occasion ; even sometimes merely to mortify another. A husband difiatisfied with the behaviour of his wife, who by his death would be a confiderable lofer, threatned, if she did not mend her manners, to be revenged of her by hanging himfelf. The English are now-a-days feldom cruel except to themselves, or in their public spectacles, rarely in their robberiess Their highway men generally content themselves with taking your money, and being witty upon the occasion. One of these people having stopped an English nobleman upon the road, reited his pistol on the door of the coach, and said, This piece, my lord, is worth a hundred guineas; I would advise your lord-' fhip to buy it. His lordship understood the meaning of thefa words, gave him the money and took the pistol, which he immediately presented at the highwayman; who told him, with a smile, that he must have taken him to be a great fool, if he thought the piece was charged.

I Thall finish this chapter with the recital of a very extraordinary affair, which could never have entered any head but that of an Englishwoman: she was so piqued at being told, that women had as great a propensity to love, as men, that she instantly made a vow of perpetual virginity, and accordingly died a 'virgin at the age of fourscore; the left in her will, a number of legacies to virgins. She endeavoured, to prove that the proportion in the pleasures of love between the two sexes, was as forty to eighty-three. This drole calculation reminds me, that as the Italians constantly introduced buffoonery, the Germans wine, the Spaniards devotion, the French gallantry, lo the English upon all occasions, introduce calculation.”

This chapter we suppose, will be quite sufficient to give our readers an idea of this author's knowledge, abilities and candour. If the French form their opinion of us from such fcribblers, 'tis no wonder that we should appear to them in a very extraordinary light.

L'Art Du Poete et De L'Orateur, &c. The Arts of Poetry and Oratory, being a new System of Rhe

toric for the Ule of Schools; to which is prefixed an Eflay on Education. 12mo. Lyons, Periffe, 1766.

O labours can be more unprofitable than such as are cm

arts, which must principally be taught by nature and received from her bounty. A system of rhetoric is the absurdest thing in the world. The rules of which any such system is composed are nothing more than strictures on the various distinguished paffages in the best Poets and Orators, whose examples alone, added to the powers of native genius, and not the frigid comments of system framing pedants, can form the mind to excellence: For the strictures of such writers are very frequently false, and, instead of instructing, millead the native taste of genius. Such would be the tendency of the dull and formal work before us, where we have divisions and subdivisions, laboured demonstrations of self-evident propositions, and, distinctions without a difference innumerable. For a specimen of the Arathor's taste, we shall quote his abservation on that famous verse of Lucan,

Victrix caufa Diis placuit, fed vi&ta Catoni. “ To give us, says the Author a magnificent idea of the re&titude and probity of this Roman, the Poet presumes to put him

on

on a level with the gods, as he could not determine which of the two opponents had the right of the cause, whether Cæsar, who had the suffrage of superior beings, or Pompey, whofe intetest was espoused by Cato.

-Quis justiùs induat arma
Scire nefas; magno se judice quisque tuetur.

Victrix causa Diis placuit, sed victa Catoni. “ The extravagance of this comparison must be obvious to every one; fince, whatever might be the equity and the virtue of a man, were they to be compared to the justice of the gods? What Horace and Boileau fay concerning authors of the same stamp may very well be applied to Lucan:

Aut dum vitat humum nubes & inania capłat.

La plupart emportés d'une fougue insensée Toujours loin du droit fens vont chercher leur pensée. Ils croiroient s’abbaisser dans leurs vers monstrueux, S'ils pensoient ce qu'un autre a pu penser comme eux." Nothing but an absolute want of taste and an entire inatterition to the opinions of different ages and classes of men could have produced such a criticism.- In the present system of theology, to allow any heroe such a comparison, would, indeed, be extravagant; but when, in the pagan theology, it is remembered that the conduct of the gods was considered in a familiar and frequently disrespectable light, Cato, notwithstanding the magnificence of the poet's contrast, which is very sublime and beautiful, hardly received the honours due to him.

Antonii de Haen pars decima Rationis Medendi in Nosocomio Practico Vindobonenfi

. 8vo. Lugd. Bat. apud P. van der Eyk. Ant. de Haen's Practice of Medicine in the Hospital at Vienna:

part the tenth, &c.

T

H E preceding parts of this useful work are so universally

known in the medical world, and their merit so generally. acknowledged, that it were unnecessary to say any thing concerning the Author's situation, abilities, or the plan of this performance. It will be sufficient therefore, in the present article, to give our Readers a sketch of the contents of this number, which makes the second of the third volume. It consists of fix chapters, which we shall review in their proper order.

The first chapter, which is the seventh of the volume, treats particularly de colica pietonım. Our Author having formefiy considered the nature and cure of this disease, first in a separate dissertation, and afterwards in chap. 24, vol. i. of this work, resumes the subject in the present number, confining his observations more particularly to the morbid phenomena upon diffec

tion. The first case is that of a painter who in the course of his employment had used considerable quantities of ceruffa and cobalt. About seven years before he was admitted into the hospital, he had suffered several severe paroxysms in the space of one year, but since that time had enjoyed good health. In March 1764, he was again severely attacked, and two of his fingers became paralytic. Soon after this he had another severe fit, but was greatly relieved by a physician who ordered him a grain or two of aloes night and morning, and also twice a day two ounces of fresh butter. Being brought to the hospital, where continuing to eat his quantity of freth butter, and being frequently electrified, he became so well as to resume his occupation; but the day after his return home he was again attacked, and was again received into the hospital, where, an amaurosis and ischuria supervening, he soon expired. During the whole time of his continuance in the hospital the heat of his body remained about 96 of Fahrenheit's thermometer, which is that of a person in health. After his death it was still the same for the first 20 minutes. In 25 minutes it sunk to 95; in 30, to 94; and in 35, to 93. The body being opened, the liver was found raised entirely above the lowest rib, except a small portion of the leffer lobe. Hence our Author rationally observes, how impossible it would have been, in this subject, in case of a diseafe of that viscus, to have formed any judgment from an external application of the hand. The ileum and rectum were found in some parts violently contracted, and in others greatly dilated. The first of these intestines was likewise much inflamed, and here and there even gangrenous ; and near the part where it enters the coecum it was found, together with its mesentery, adhering to the peritoneum of the spine. In order to give the Reader a proper idea of these diseased intestines, the Author has subjoined a plate in which they are delineated. The stomach was so enlarged as to contain fix pints, and its external coat violently infamed.

Case II. is likewise that of a painter, who' during the last twelve years of his life had been employed chiefly in grinding white lead. About two years before his admission into the holpital he was first attacked, though not violently, with the usual symptoms of the colica Pietonum. A year after, he had a second fit, succeeded by a third which produced an almost general parolysis. In this condition he entered the hospital on the 20th of November, 1764, where he was frequently electrified, and his paralytic limbs and spina dorsi rubbed twice a day with fannel impregnated with the fume of mastich, olibanum, and juniper berries. His internal medicines were, R. Sap. venet. gum. amm. mass. pil. rufi, terra fol. tart. ai dr. j. thereb. g. l. m. f. pil. gr. iv. two of which he took every thret hours, first with water, next with an infusion of fouthernwood, and lastly with an App. Vol. xxxiv.

Li

ounce

ounce of the following mixture. R. Spir. C. C. succinati de ij. ol. ftill. succini, menthe, lavendulæ, cum facchuri albi dr. iij. in elæosaccharum redact aa. gtt. iij. syrup. enulæ camp. unc. j. spir, menthæ unc. ss. aquæ fill. rorism. Ib.j. Blisters were fréquently applied to the back of his neck, and twice a week he drank unc. v. aq. lax. Vienn. On the 12th of January he began to take the following medicated wine. B. Limat. martis non rubig. unc. j. cort. mage!l. & cinnam. ai dr. ij. corticis Peruv. unc. j. pulvis grojus fictio 24 horarum digeratur calide cum Ib.iij.vini austriaci albi in phiala alta chemica. Of this wine he took at first unc. ss. and afterward unc. j. every three hours. On the 28th of March he was dismilled cured, and as long as he abftained from grinding white lead, continued well. But returning to his former employment, he was again attacked; on the 10th of July was again admitted into the hospital, and on the 16th died violently convulsed. The morbid appearances after death were principally these: the color, as in the firft subject, violently contracted in some parts and diftended in others ; the gall-bladder as large as a hen's egg, and full of orange-coloured bile; the pancreas hard in many places, and cartilaginous in the middle; the pleura much inflamed.

Cafe ill. is that of a chemist and apothecary who had been for some time affitted with the colica Pittonum. His pains at length became very violent, and his belly drawn up in a most extraordinary manner. Doctor de Haen being consulted, advised camphorated and paregoric emulfions, friction, anodyne fomentations to his back, and oily clyfters; in consequence of which the patient became perfectly well, nevertheleis expired suddenly. Upon laying open the abdomen, there was found a considerable quantity of extravasated blood, which, upon farther inspection, was found to have proceeded from an hiatus in the vena cava immediately below the diaphragm. This rupture of the vena cava the Doctor attributes to the extraordinary protrusion upwards of the liver, occasioned chiefly by the great distention of the colon near its origin; but in its progress it was found, as in the former subjects, alternately contracted and dilated in a very extraordinary manner.

The IV. case is that of the widow of the painter whose history we have seen in case II. Having assisted her husband in his profession, she became amicted with the same disorder. She was brought to the hospital labouring under all the most terrible symptoms of this disease, together with the jaundice to a great degree. By means of laxatives and opiates alternately exhibited, together with emollient clysters, and a stomach plaifter of labdanum with opium and camphor, her vomiting coated and a passage was procured. She then took several doses of Bark, and afterwards the following pills, R. Sap. venet. gum.

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