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“ feel, as contrasted with the wretched circumstances in which he “ might have concluded a life that had been apparently cut short o by the criminal neglect of his parents. He seemed also, in the “intervals of acute pain which marked his last days, to value the “ instructions of those who attempted to set before him a hope “ beyond the grave.
“Of the two boys stated as apprenticed in the town, the com“ mittee are aware that their report will be considered as unfa“ vourable, and yet were it possible, within the limits of this re
port, fully to explain the whole circumstances of these cases, the “unfavourable impression would be considerably diminished. The “committee have perhaps, in their anxiety to meet the pressing “ calls made upon them by this numerous class of objects, been “ too hasty in placing out boys, in order to make room for others, “especially when the only apprenticeships which they could obtain “ for them were not out of the range of their former companions “in crime. It is gratifying, however, to state, that neither of these
boys have fallen victims to these snares, by returning to their “ former habits. One of them has inlisted into the army, and so “far is he from undervaluing the good instruction which he re“ceived at the House of Refuge, that he frequently calls there in “ the evening, and is present at family worship; and on the Sab“ bath appears with the boys at church. The other, a boy of only “ 13 years of age, was removed from the situation in which he was “ behaving in a very satisfactory manner, by his father, a man of “ worthless character.
“ In the last report, it was mentioned, that up to the period of “its date, three boys who had passed through the institution had “ been placed in situations, and the committee deem it incumbent “ to notice their subsequent history.
« Of the one, for whom a situation was obtained on board an In“ diaman, they have received intelligence that his conduct was so “ highly approved of by the captain, that he intends to take him o out with him a second voyage. This boy, who is now grown a « fine sailor-like lad, of particularly decent appearance, waited upon
a member of the committee in London, on his return from his “ first voyage, and expressed his grateful sense of the obligations “ which he owed to the institution.
“ The boy mentioned as sent back to his apprenticeship,' had “only been received into the House of Refuge for a single week. “ His master was induced to take him again ; but it appears that he “ has since returned to his profligate habits. The one apprenticed “to a respectable shoemaker in Edinburgh,' after giving most un" qualified satisfaction to his employer for upwards of eight months, “and following up his improvement in reading, by a voluntary at“ tendance at an evening school, inlisted into the same regiment as “ the boy mentioned above, and appears indeed to have been made “ instrumental in inducing the former to this course.
The com“ mittee have not lost hopes, that some salutary impressions may " have been made upon his mind by his residence in the House of “ Refuge, as he also occasionally visits it, and joins his old compa“ nions on Sunday at their usual place of worship; nor are they “ disposed to regret, that either the one or the other have entered “ the army, when they consider how well its discipline may be " adapted for such characters.
“ It may be satisfactory for the public to know, that since the
commencement of this institution in May, 1823, 29 boys have “ been admitted in all,—20 are doing well : the remaining 9 were “ but a very short time in the institution before they absconded, or “ were dismissed as incorrigible. These occurrences took place dur“ing the first year ; for since January, 1824, no boy has either " absconded, or been dismissed.
“ Of the funds intrusted to their disposal the committee present “ the following statement:
(RECEIPTS.) “ Balance from last account.
£38 12 4 6 Donations......
164 13 6 “ Subscriptions
58 8 0 " Cash received for work done in the house.
60 18 9 " House rent from Mr Hamilton....
10 0 0
382 12 7 (EXPENDITURE.) “ Superintendent's wages.
.. £40 00 ** House rent and servant's wages.
64 65 * Maintenance and clothing of boys..
81 12 1 “ Miscellaneous and extraordinary.
7 2 4 “ Teacher's salary...
8 0 0 * Leather, tools, &c. ....
39 06 “ Printing reports and collecting subscriptions..... 7 19 6
248 0 10
6 5 6
-332 12 7 “ Shoes sold, not yet paid..
8 14 1 “ Estimated value of shoes in hand unsold..
15 6 0 £24 01
“In the list of donations, it is gratifying to the committee to po“ tice two, which call for a particular expression of their thanks : “one an anonymous donation of £50; the other a sum of £10 pre“ sented by the Lord Provost and Magistrates of Edinburgh, being “ a moiety of a fund placed at their disposal for charitable purposes. “The latter, it is hoped, may be considered as a pledge, that the “ object of the institution is not lost sight of by those authorities “ that alone have the power of applying a commensurate remedy. “ It is also a subject of gratification to observe, that the calculation
of the annual expense of each boy falls considerably below that of “ the large institutions for similar purposes in London,-a pre“sumption in favour of the economy of numerous sinall establish“ments compared with a single extensive institution which was “scarcely expected to be found.
“ In conclusion, the committee would direct the attention of the
“supporters of this small experiment to its important bearing as an “ example. The whole subject of prison-discipline appears not to “ have excited that degree of attention in Scotland which it has “ done in some other countries; and in perusing that very inter“esting document, the report of the Society for the Improvement • of Prison-Discipline, the most deserved regret will be felt on dis“ covering how little mention is made of Scotland, and how disho“nourable that little is to her usual character for philanthropic ex“ ertion. In several counties in England, institutions for the refor“mation of juvenile offenders have been established: that for the “county of Warwick is described as having the appearance of « «a respectable farm-house, with about eight acres of land attach“ed, which is cultivated by such of the objects as prefer out-door « « labour. The house is fitted up for the reception of sixty per
When visited lately, there were only eighteen lads in it “ of various ages, from ten to nineteen. Those who are employed “in the house, work at shoemaking and tailoring, and the rest “ are employed at spade-husbandry. Shoes and clothes are made «« for the public as well as for the service of the establishment. “The boys are allowed a part of the earnings in the proportion - one penny in the shilling.'
“ Among the proposed regulations for the Berkshire institution “ are the following : " " That a Society be formed for the assistance and reformation of such young
offenders from time to time be discharged «« from the gaols and houses of correction in the county of Berks.
«• That a fund for this purpose be established by donations and « annual subscriptions.
« That the coinmittee consist of twelve. That the Lord Lieu« « tenant of the county be perpetual president. That the visiting “ magistrates of the different prisons in the county be vice-pre" sidents.'
“In viewing the institution, however, which forms the subject of “ the present report, as calculated to encourage the promotion of o similar attempts, the committee would not deal honestly with the “public, were they to conceal the important fact, that the superin« tendent and his wife who manage this establishment are persons of “ exemplary piety; and they are bound, in gratitude to the Giver “ of all Good, to acknowledge, that the measure of success which “ has attended the experiment has flowed through the medium of “ the almost parental affection which the destitute condition of “ these poor children has inspired in the breasts of those excellent « individuals, and which has led to the most influential mode of “inculcating religious instruction.
“ COMMITTEE. LADY CARNEGIE,
G. Buchan, Esq. of Kelloc, Mrs FLETCHER,
Rev. J. Brown,
WM. MURRAY, Esq. 59, George Square, Treasurer.
We have visited the House of Refuge, and found the same general development to prevail among its inmates which characterizes the other criminals whom we have examined. The individuals here trained to industry and virtue are so many victims snatched from the gallows, or the shores of New South Wales ; and we trust they will profit by the instruction they are now receiving, so as to afford motives to the benevolent for the extension of the system. At the same time, we desire to apprise the managers of this institution, and those of every similar establishment, that the moral deficiency is extremely deep-seated in the delinquents whom they undertake to reform, and that almost no extent of good conduct in the penitentiary will afford a guarantee of suitable behaviour amidst the temptations of the world. Phrenology brings this truth home irresistibly to the understanding. Crime proceeds from excessive energy of the lower feelings. In a penitentiary, the objects which solicit and excite the propensities are withdrawn, and moral restraint from without supplies the deficiency of that quality in the mind itself. While so situated, therefore, an individual may conduct himself for an unlimited period with great propriety, and give the strongest indications of a thorough re. formation, but who might utterly fall off if the circumstan. ces were reversed, namely, if external moral restraint were weakened or withdrawn, and strong solicitations presented to his animal propensities. If, then, the directors of the House of Refuge, believing in a complete change in the dispositions of the boys, shall restore them to ordinary society, and be disappointed in their subsequent conduct, we shall lament, but not be surprised at the result. Their most earnest endeavours ought to be directed towards placing them in situa. tions where temptation will be far removed, and unwearied watchfulness exerted over them. We are particularly anxious on this point, because, by expecting too much, or not attending to the causes of crime and removing them, disappointment may ensue, and the good work be given up in despair or disgust, because all is not accomplished that had been anticipated.
LETTER TO THE EDITOR, ON DEFICIENCY IN THE
POWER OF PERCEIVING COLOURS.
Sir,—There are no organs which afford greater sources for ridicule to anti-phrenologists than those of Colour, Form, and Size. What fools you are (they say) to suppose that we do not see colours, figures, and distances, through the medium of one sense, viz. seeing; and when we perceive every thing with one pair of eyes, why do you
divide the brain into different divisions, when it is palpable to common sense that one division (if any) must be enough ? A Phrenologist is somewhat puzzled under these circumstances what to say ; if he quotes instances of different persons seeing different things with different facility, he is told that they are merely facts got up for phrenological purposes.* -The following case, however, is one which, from being written above forty years since, and previous to the existence of Phrenology, cannot have been fabricated by Phrenologists. It is a curious and strong proof that these so much ridiculed divisions are founded in nature :
From the Westminster Magazine for 1779, page 515, and Philo
sophical Transactions, vol. 68, part 2.
ACCOUNT OF A REMARKABLE IMPERFECTION OF SIGHT. “ REVEREND SIR-I received your favour in due time. I “ should have given you my answer sooner, but have been greatly
Any person who could make such an allegation must be altogether ignorant of the nature of the evidence adduced. No Phrenologist ought to allow the least consideration to such objections. They are emanations of self-sufficiency in the objector, and not of a philosophical spirit.-EDITOR.