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ceive at once, that whatever in any way increases or keeps up the action of the brain beyond a proper degree, whether it is grief, fear, anxiety, reading, thinking, or writing at unseasonable hours, or the irritation of bad digestion, or other secondary causes operating upon a naturally active brain, must be carefully guarded against in attempting its cure. In cases clearly arising from sympathy with deranged digestion, it often happens, from inattention to this constitution of mind, and from an idea that the real disease being in the stomach, no harm can be done by leaving the brain to itself, that the affection of the latter is altogether overlooked, and the disease aggravated by its injudicious exercise ; and thus actual organic disease of the latter is often induced, where, with a little attention, it might have been prevented.

In conformity with the cerebral theory of Hypochondriasis, we have the concurring testimony of Dr Cullen, in considering the treatment of the mind as “the most important article “ of our practice in this disease.” He adds, in talking of watering-places, that they do greatly more good by entertaining and relieving the mind, than by the mere virtues of the mineral with which the water is impregnated. This opinion is strongly supported by the well-known fact, that there is no cure to be found for those pretty numerous cases originating in sudden retirement from occupation and activity to idleness and indolence, as in a person retiring from business, or a soldier at the end of an active campaign, unless some new stimulus to the mind can be brought into play. When the rich merchant retires from the toils of business to seek the otium cum dignitate of a country life, it is not the stomach which first complains of the change; it is the weary mind alone which, left without an object to expend its energies, is beset with ennui and tedium vitæ, and the bodily ailments are the result of the universal sympathy of the brain with all other parts of the system ;-and, in allusion to this fact, Baglivi, a celebrated Italian physician, exclaims,

Siquidem fateri vix possem, quantum verba medici dominentur in “ vitam ægrotantis, ejusque phantasiam transmutent: Medicus

namque in sermone potens, et artium suadendi peritissimus, tan« tam vim dicendi facultate medicamentis suis adstruit, et tantam “ doctrinæ suæ fidem in ægro excitat, ut interdum vel abjectissimis “ remediis difficiles morbos superaverit; quod medici doctiores, sed “ in dicendo languidi, molles, ac pene emortui nobilioribus pharma“ cis præstare non potuerunt.'

Other observations occur to us; but we must conclude with adding, that travelling, riding on horseback, and other kinds of exercise, have been found useful auxiliaries in exact proportion to the degree in which they occupy and distract the mind, and that local remedies, applied to the head, have not unfrequently been most effectual even in relieving the dyspeptic and other secondary symptoms.

ARTICLE VII.

ON ADHESIVENESS.

This propensity differs from Philoprogenitiveness, discussed in our last Number (Article 1st), in two material points. Though, like the other, it is of itself an instinctive feeling, impelling us to attach ourselves somewhere, to seek among our fellow-creatures an object of love, and possesses no discrimination in itself of the qualities of the object to be sought, it is never so compulsory or so circumscribed a feeling as the other, but is always capable of being directed by other powers to one object in preference to another. It even requires to be so directed, and can hardly subsist in much activity, or for any length of time, without the aid of some other feeling or sentiment. Thus, we may be attached to others by gratitude for benefits received,-in which case this

Baglivus de

axi Medica, p. 138

power acts in subordination to Conscientiousness,—or to those from whom we expect benefits in future, in which case it is aided by Acquisitiveness, Self-love, and Hope,-or to those in whom we confide as a protection from evil, when it is directed by Cautiousness. These are probably the sentiments which first direct or inspire filial affection ; but they are auxiliaries merely, the true seat of all affection being in Adhesiveness. Finally, it is united with the sexual propensity, and joins with the organ of that feeling in producing the passion of Love. When, however, this propensity has been once excited, and directed, by whatever means, towards a particular object, the attachment which it inspires may continue long after the first moving cause, the feelings which originally directed our choice, have ceased to operate.

It is not merely in the very near and intimate connexions that this propensity shews itself,-it leads us to attach ourselves to many who possess no such strong claims upon our regard,--and leads to the formation of friendships whenever there exists a proper adaptation of qualities and affections. The manner in which we are guided in our choice of friends may, in some measure, be conceived from the instances above given. But there are no rules invariably applicable, and every case must be determined by its own circumstances. In some instances we seek to attach ourselves to those whose mental qualities most nearly resemble our own. Those in whom Love of Approbation is strong will seek those whose sentiments are most in unison with theirs; for to such even a difference of opinion is painful, as implying a certain degree of disapprobation. They, in whom that sentiment is weak, on the other hand, and who possess a large Combativeness, will look upon such a commerce of sentiment as utterly insipid, and seek a companion who will present some scope for opposition of opinion, and afford exercise to their combative and argumentative powers. It has been observed, that those who are largely endowed with Self-esteem are not fond of the society of each other. The proud are best pleased with One great

the conversation of the humble, who will be acquiescing in their opinions and submissive to their humours. They in whom the sentiment of veneration is strong will endeavour to attach themselves to men of superior intellect, or of high rank, or those possessed of any quality of mind or outward estate to which they attach a feeling of dignity or greatness.

The other circumstance which distinguishes this propensity from the former is this, that while our attachment to children, at least to our own children, is absolute and unconditional, and is independent, at least in its first and strongest degrees, of any return of affection from the child, who, at the time when he most requires the cares of a parent, is incapable of appreciating their value, or of making any kind of return ; Adhesiveness, on the other hand, is seldom, I may, perhaps, say never, complete, unless the love be in some measure mutual, or believed at least to be so. desire of our being is, doubtless, the besoin d'aimer, the need or desire of an object on whom we may

bestow our affections ; but to render this the more strong, and to bind us to one another by a twofold cord, there is another desire which is the very converse of this, the besoin d'etre aimé. I at one time thought that this proceeded from Love of Approbation ; but I am now inclined, by a variety of considerations, to think that it depends upon Adhesiveness, and that both the desire of loving and the desire of being beloved originate from the same root, and are functions dependent upon

the same organ. There are many of both sexes who have a very strong desire to be admired, but who do not care for being loved. In women, this leads to coquetry-and, if carried too far, is apt to have a very unfavourable effect on the happiness and respectability of their lives. It induces them to put on airs to attract the notice of those on whom they have no serious designs, and on whom they never mean to bestow any of their favours. They may thus invade the peace of many a hapless youth, while they have no other object than the gratification of their vanity, or the amusement of an idle hour. This is not confined to the female sex. Unfortunately there are male coquets as well as female,—and, if possible, they are still more contemptible.

I do not mean here to enter into any exposition of the mysteries of coquetry, my purpose being merely to prove, that the desire of admiration and the desire of being beloved are different desires, and are not necessarily found together ; that they bear no constant proportion to each other, and therefore that the conclusion is, that they are dis tinct mnifestations, and depend upon separate organs.

Again, I think, it will appear from observation to be equally clear, that the desire of loving and the desire of being beloved do always accompany each other, and that they bear to each other a constant and invariable proportion, which leads to the conclusion, that they depend on the same original power or organ. There is no instance whatever of any person whose affections are strong, and who is at the same time not desirous of a return of affection ; neither is there any instance of one who is extremely anxious to attract the regard and the love of others, who is at the same time devoid of affection for them. They who are of a heartless disposition, whose affections are cold and languid, care not for the love of others; while, to those of a contrary nature, the possession of the affections of those whom they love forms the chief pleasure of their existence. I conceive, therefore, that there is the greatest reason for supposing Adhesiveness to be a double propensity, attaching us to others by a mutually attractive influence. I shall have occasion to illustrate this farther, in considering what is certainly the most perfect instance of this power-I mean that attachment which takes place between two individuals of opposite sex, and which leads, in favourable circumstances, to union by marriage.

Shakspeare seems almost to have anticipated the inquiries of Phrenology in the question which he proposes with

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