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or other prove as useful, are ftill entirely neglected. I should be remiss, I am sure, were I to forget my acknowledgments to the gentleman I have jult mentioned, to whose benevolence I owe the use of several of the fcarceft quartos, which I could not otherwise have obtained; though I advertised for them, with sufficient offers, as I thought, either to tempt the casual owner to sell, or the curious to communicate them; but Mr. Garrick's zeal would not permit him to withhold any thing that might ever to remotely tend to lhew the perfections of that author who could only have enabled him to difplay his own.
It is not merely to obtain justice to Shakespeare, that I have made this collection, and advife others to be made. The general interest of English literature, and the attention due to our own language and history, require that our ancient writings fhould be diligently reviewed. There is no age which has not produced fome works that deserved to be remembered ; and as words and phrases are only understood by comparing them in different places, the lower writers must be read for the explanation of the highest. No language can be ascertained and settled; but by deducing its words from their original sources, and tracing them through their successive varieties of signification; and this deduction can only be performed by consulting the earliest and intermediate authors.
Enough has been already done to encourage us to do more. Dr. Hickes, by reviving the study of the Saxon language, seems to have excited a stronger curiosity after old English writers, than ever had ap. peared before. Many volumes which were mouldering in dust have been collected; many authors which were forgotten have been revived ; many laborious catalogues have been formed; and many judicious gloffaries compiled : the literary transactions of the darker ages are now open to discovery ; and the language in its intermediate gradations, from the Con
quest quest to the Restoration, is better understood than in any former tiine.
To incite the continuance, and encourage the extension of this domestick curiosity, is one of the purposes of the present publication. In the plays it contains, the poet's first thoughts as well as words are preserved; the additions made in subsequent impresfions distinguished in Italicks, and the performances themselves make their appearance with every typographical error, such as they were before they fell into the hands of the player-editors. The various readings, which can only be attributed to chance, are set down among the rest, as I did not choose arbitrarily to determine for others which were useless, or which were valuable. And many words differing only by the fpelling, or serving merely to shew the difficulties which they to whose lot it first fell to disentangle their perplexities must have encountered, are exhibited with the rest. I must acknowledge that some few readings have flipped in by mistake, which can pretend to serve no purpose of illustration, but were introduced by confining myself to note the minutest variations of the copies, which foon convinced me that the oldest were in general the most correct. Though no proof can be given that the poet superintended the publication of any one of these himself, yet we have little reafon to suppose that he who wrote at the command of Elizabeth, and under the patronage of Southampton, was so very negligent of his fame, as to permit the most incompetent judges, such as the players were, to vary at their pleasure what he had set down for the first single editions; and we have better grounds for a fufpicion that his works did materially suffer from their presumptuous corrections after his death.
It is very well known, that before the time of Shakespeare, the art of making title-pages was practised with as much, or perhaps more success than it has been since. Accordingly, to all his plays we find
long and descriptive ones, which, when they were first published, were of great service to the venders of them. Pamphlets of every kind were hawked about the streets by a set of people resembling his own Autolycus, who proclaimed aloud the qualities of what they offered to sale, and might draw in many a purchaler by the mirth he was taught to expect from the bumours of Corporal Nym, or the swaggering vcine of Auncient Pistoll, who was not to be tempted by the representation of a fact merely historical. The players, however, laid aside the whole of this garniture, not finding it so necessary to procure success to a bulky volume, when the author's reputation was established, as it had been to beipeak attention to a few straggling pamphlets while it was yet uncertain.
The sixteen plays, which are not in these volumes, remained unpublished till the folio in the year 1623, though the compiler of a work, called Theatrical Records, mentions different single editions of every one of them before that time. But as no one of the cditors could ever meet with such, nor has any one else pretended to have feen them, I think myself at liberty to suppofe the compiler fupplied the defects of the list out of his own imagination ; since he must have had fingular good fortune to have been possessed of two or three different copies of all, when neither editors nor collectors, in the course of near fifty years, have been able fo much as to obtain the light of one of the number.
Ac the end of the last volume I have added a tragedy of King Leir, published before that of Shake(peare, which it is not improbable he might have feen, as the father kneeling to the daughter, when she kneels to afk his bleiling, is found in it; a circumstance two poets were not very likely to have hit on separately; and which seems borrowed by the latter with his usual judgment, it being the most natural passage in the old play, and is introduced in such a VOL
manner, as to make it fairly his own. The ingenious editor of The Reliques of Ancient Poetry having never met with this play, and as it is not preserved in Mr. Garrick's collection, I thought it a curiosity worthy the notice of the publick.
I have likewise reprinted Shakespeare's Sonnets, from a copy published in 1609, by Ġ. Eld, one of the printers of his plays; which, added to the consideration that they made their appearance with his name, and in his life-time, seems to be no flender proof of their authenticity. The same evidence might operate in favour of several more plays which are omitted here, out of respect to the judgment of those who had omitted them before 3.
It is to be wished, that some method of publication most favourable to the character of an author were once established; whether we are to send into the world all his works without distinction, or arbitrarily to leave out what may be thought a disgrace to him. The first editors, who rejected Pericles, retained Titus Andronicus ; and Mr. Pope, without any reason, named The Winter's Tale, a play that bears the strongest marks of the hand of Shakespeare, among thofe which he supposed to be spurious. "Dr. Warburton has fixed a ftigma on the three parts of Henry the Sixth, and some others :
Inde Dolabella est, atq; hinc Antonius,
and all have been willing to plunder Shakespeare, or mix up a breed of barren metal with his purest ore.
Joshua Barnes, the editor of Euripides, thought every scrap of his author fo facred, that he has preserved with the name of one of his plays, the only
3 Locrine, 1595. Sir John Oldcastle, 1600. London Prodigal, 1605. Pericles Prince of Tyre, 1609. Puritan, 1600. Thomas Lord Cromwell, 1613. Yorkshire Tragedy, no date.
remaining word of it. The same reason indeed might be given in his favour, which caused the preservation of that valuable trifyilable; which is, that it cannot be found in any other place in the Greek language. But this does not seem to have been his only inotive, as we find he has to the full as carefully published feveral detached and broken fentences, the gleanings from scholiasts, which have no claim to merit of that kind; and yet the author's works might be reckoned by some to be incomplete without them. If then this duty is expected from every editor of a Greek or Roman poet, why is not the same insisted on in respect of an English claffick ? But if the custom of preserving all, whether worthy of it or not, be more honoured in the breach than the observance, the suppression at least should not be considered as a fault. The publication of such things as Swift had written merely to raise a laugh among his friends, has added something to the bulk of his works, but very little to his character as a writer. The four volumes that came out since Dr. Hawkefworth's edition, not to look on them as a tax levied on the publick (which I think one might without injustice) contain not more than fufficient to have made one of real value ; and there is a kind of difingenuity, not to give it a harsher title, in exhibiting what the author never meant should see the light; for no motive, but a sordid one, can betray the survivors to make that publick, which they themselves must be of opinion will be unfavourable to the memory of the dead.
Life does not often receive good unmixed with evil. The benefits of the art of printing are depraved by the facility with which fcandal may be diffused, and secrets revealed; and by the temptation by which traffick solicits avarice to betray the weaknesses of passion, or the confidence of friendthip.
I cannot forbear to think these posthumous publications injurious to fociety. A man conicious of