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dicular distance of its direction from the hody genus of the class ares, order picz. BOI on which it acis,

strong, slightly curved, serrate at the edges ; MOMENTALLY. ad. (from momentum, nostrils feathered, tongue feathered; tail Lat.) For a moment (Browne).

wedged, feet gressorial. One species only, MOMENTANEOUS. MO'MENTANY, a. M. Brasiliensis, Brasilian motmot, affording (comentaneus, Lat. momentanie, l'rench.) two varieties. The one is ornamented with a Lasting bot a moment (Bacon).

bright green abore, below with a more obMOMENTARY. a (from moment.) Laste scure shade of the same colour : size that of a ing for a moment; done in a moment (Dry- pie, or about seventeen inches froni the tip of

ihe bill to that of the tail : bill conic, bent a MOMENTOUS. a. (from momentum, little downwards, and serrated upon the edges Larin.) Important; weighty; of consequence of both mandibles : toes three before and onc (4

MOMENTUM, in mechanics, siguifies the whole length. The other variety differs more same with impetus, or the quantity of inotion considerably in its colours. Both are distinte in a moring body; which is always equal to guished from all other birds by having the the quantity of matter multiplied into the re- two middle feathers of the tail quite naked of locity; or, which is the same thing, it may be their vanes for about an inch, at a small disconsidered as a rectangle under the quantiiy of tance from their extremity. matter and velocity. See Force, QUAN- Some have imagined that this nakedness of TITY OF MOTION, and DYNAMICS. the feathers of the tail of this bird was not the

VOMOʻRDICA. Male balsam apple. In production of nature, but was owing to the botany, a genus of the class monoecia, order caprice of the animal in tearing away the vanes triandria. Male: calyx five-cleft; coral five- from that part of the stalk which is seen bare. parted, filaments three; anthers cohering. In the young of this genus, however, naturalFem. calys five-cleft; corol five-parted; ists have observed that the vanes of these feastrles three-cleft; pome opening elastically, thers are quite entire, and that, as they advance three-celled. Eight species : the following are to their adult state, they gradually grow shorter the chief.

and shorter, till at last, in ohl age, they alto1. M. balsamina. Common balsam apple. gether disappear. Fruit angular, tubercled; · leaves glabrous, These birds inhabit South America: they deeply cut in a spreading palmate manner, are very dificult to tame, because they live trailing inelon-like sten, sending out many upon insects, which cannot easily be procured side-branches with tendrils. A native of In- suitable to their taste. They are extremely dia, flowering in June and July. The Indians shy and timid when old; and, if then in capemploy it as a vulnerary; for which purpose tivity, invariably refuse áll kinds of food. From the cut open the unripe fruit, and infuse it in their solitary habits, they never go in focks, sweet oil, which they expose to the sun for nor even in pairs ; and are hardly ever seen but some days till it acquires a red colour. The oil in the midst of large forests, where they hop thus prepared is applied to wounds by being among the lower branches, or upon the ground. dropped on cotton, and is esteemed the best They are almost altogether incapable of flight, traumatic next to the balsam of Mecca. and therefore generally build their nests upon

2. V.charantia. Hairy momordica. Fruit the ground in the deserted holes of some of angular, tubercled, white, yellow or green on the smaller quadrupeds. The nest consists of the outside ; within, very red and fleshy, one- a few withered blades of grass, on which they celled, bursting elastically: a native of the deposite their eggs to the number of two. East Indies; flowers in June and July. These birds are described by Edwards under

3. M. luffa. Egyptian momordica. Fruit ob- the name of Brasilian saw-billed rollers; and lons, hairy, with chain.like. angles, three. by Marcgrave in his Natural History of Brasil cellet, with a white flaccid esculent pulp, of they are called guira-guainumbi. an insipid flavour. A natire of Arabia and the MOMUS, the god of pleasantry among the East Indies : Aowers in July and August. ancients, son of Nox, according to Hesiod.

4. M. elaterium. Elastic inomordica. Oni- He was continually employed in satirizing the cinal elaterium. Fruit oblong, smooth, brisily: gods, and whatever they did was freely turned does not change its colour ; but when ripe quits into ridicule. Vulcan, Minerva, Venus, &c. the peduncle, and casts out the seeds and juices all alike experienced the shafts of his censure with great riolence. It is the drie juice of the and ridicule. Such liberal reflections, howfruit that forms the elateriu:n of the shops, ever, upon the gods were the cause that Moand is the most powerful cathartic in the whole mus was driven from heaven. He is generally materia medica. See ELATERIUM and Cu-sepresented raising a mask from his face, and CUMIS AGRESTIS.

holding a small figure in his hand. All these plants may be propagated by sow- MONA, an island between Britain and Hiing the seeds in hot-beds in the same manner bernia, anciently inhabited by a number of as cucumber-seeds; and they require the same "Druids. It is supposed by some to be the attentiou as the cucumber plant afterwards. modern island of Anglesey, and by others the The first three sorts are ornamental stovc island of Man. plants; the last will thrive in open borders. MONA, an island of the Baltic Sea,

MOMOTUS. Motmot.. In zoology, a south-west of the island of Zealand, subject

to Denmark, Lon. 12. 30 E. Lat. 55. MO‘NARCH. s. (raóvapXes.) 1. A governdor 20 N.

invested with absolute authority; a king (TemMona. See INCHCOLM.

ple). 2. One superiour to the rest of the same MO'NACHAL. a. (monacal, French.) Mo- kind. 3. President (Shakspeare). nastic; relating to mouks, or conventual orders. MONARCHAL. a. (from monarch.)

MO'NACHISM. s. (monachisme, French.) Suitiog a nonarch; regal ; princely; imperial The state of monks; the monastic life. (Milton).

MO‘NACO, a small but handsome and MONA'RCHICAL. a. (Jércszxomàs.) Vested strong town of Italy, in the territory of Genoa, in a single ruler (Brown). with a castle, citadel, and a good harbour. TO MONARCHISE. v. n. (from monarch.) It is seated on a craggy rock, and has its own To play the king (Shakspeare). prince, under the protection of France. Lon., MONARCHY, a large state governed by 7.33 E. Lat. 43. 48 N.

one; or a state where the supreme power is MO'NAD. Mo'NADE. s. (ove's.) An in- lodged in the hands of a single person. The divisible thing. See LEIBNITZIAN PHILO- word comes from the Greek forcexns, one SOPHY.

who governs alone; formed of lovos, solus, MONADELPHIA.

(rayos and adeApos, and wpXn, imperium, government." of the one brotherhood.) The name of the sixteenth three forms of government, viz. democracy, class in the Linnéan system of botany. Com- aristocracy, and monarchy, the last is the most prehending those plants which have herma- powerful, all the sinews of government being phrodite flowers, with one set of united stamens. knit together, and united in the hand of the They form a natural class, entitled columniferæ. prince; but then there is imminent danger of

MONAGHAN, a county of Ireland, si- his employing that strength to improvident or tuated in the province of Ulster, is bounded oppressive purposes. As a democracy is the hy Tyrone on the north, Armagh on the east, best calculated to direct the end of a law, and Cavan and Louth on the south, and Fermanagh an aristocracy to invent the means by which on the west. It is a boggy and monntainous that end shall be obtained, a monarchy is most tract, but in some places is well improved. fit for carrying those means into execution. It contains 170,090 Irish plantation acres, 24 The most ancient monarchy was that of the parishes, five baronies, and one horough, and Assyrians, which was founded soon after the sends four members to parliament. It is about deluge. We usually reckon four grand or uni30 miles long and 22 broad. The linen trade versal monarchies; the Assyrian, Persian, of this county is averaged at 104,0001. yearly. Grecian, and Roman ; though St. Augustine

MONAGHAN, a post, fair, and market town, makes them but two, viz. those of Babylon and chief of the county of that name, is disa and Rome. Belus is placed at the head of the tant 62 miles from Dublin; it is a borough, series of Assyrian kings who reigned at Babyand returns two members to parliament; pa- lon, and is by profane authors esteeined the tron lord Clermont. It gives title of baron to founder of it, and by some the same whom the the family of Blayney, and has six fairs. It scriptures call Nimrod. The principal Aswas anciently called Muinechan. An abbey syrian kings after Belus were, Ninus, who was founded here in a very early age, of which built Nineveh, and removed the seat of empire Moelodius the son of Aodh was abbot. In to it; Semiramis, who, disguising her sex, 1462 a a monastery for conventual Franciscans took possession of the kingdom instead of her was erected on the site of this abbey, which son, and was killed, and succeeded by her son was granted on the general suppression of Ninyas; and Sardanapalus, the last of the Asmonasteries to Edward Withe, and a castle syrian monarchs, and more effeminate than a has been since erected on the site by Edward woman. After his death the Assyrian empire lord Blayney.

was split into three separate kingdoms, viz. MONAMY (P.), a good painter of sea- the Median, Assyrian, and Babylonian. The pieces, was born in Jersey; and certainly (says first king of the Median kingdom was Arbaces; Mr. Walpole), from his circumstances, or the and this kingdom lasted till the time of Astyviews of bis family, he had little reason to ex- ages, who was subdued and divested of his pect the fame he afterwards acquired, having kingdom by Cyrus. received his first rudiments of drawing from a In the time of Cyrus there arose a new and sign and house painter on London-bridge. But second monarchy called the Persian, which when nature gires real talents, they break forth stood upwards of 200 years from Cyrus, whose

in the homeliest school. The shallow waves reign began A. M. 3468, to Darius Codoman- that rolled under his window taught young Mo- nus, who was conquered by Alexander, and the namy what his master could not teach hini, and empire translated to the Greeks A. M. 3674. fitted him to innitate the turbulence of the The first monarch wss Cyrus, founder of the ocean. In Painters' hall is a large piece by empire. 2. Cambyses, the sou of Cyrus. 3. -hün, painted in 1726. He died at his house Smerdis. 4. Darius, the son of Hystaspes, in Westipinster the beginning of 1749. who reigned 521 years before Christ. 5.

MONANDRIA. (from novos, alone, and Xerxes, who reigned 485 years before Christ. semes, a man or husband.) The name of the 6. Artaxerxes Longimanus, who reigned 464 first class in the Linnéan system of botany, years before Christ. 7. Xerxes the second. comprehending those plants which have only 8. Ochus, or Darius, called Nothus, 424 years one stamen in a hermaphrodite flower. before Christ. 9. Artaxerxes Mnemon, 405

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years before Christ. 10. Artaxerxes Ochus, said to have immediately succeeded Babylon in 359 years before Christ. 11. Arses, 338 years the empire of the world. See EMPIRE. before Christ. 12. Darius Cortomannus, 336 Of monarchies some are absolute and Fears before Christ, who was defeated by Alex- despotic, where the will of the monarch ander the Great, and deprived of his kingdom is uncontroulable: others are limited, where and life about 331 years before Christ: the the prince's authority is restrained by laws, dominion of Persia after his death was trans- and part of the supreme power lodged in Lied to the Greeks.

other hands, as in Britain.. (See GOVERNThe third monarchy was the Grecian. As Ment.) Some monarchies again are heredi. Alexander, when he died, did not declare who tary, where the succession devolves immediately should succeed him, there started up as many from father to sou; and others are elective, kings as there were commanders.' At first where, on the death of the monarch, his sucthey governed the provinces that were divided cessor is appointed by election, as was formerly among them under the title of viceroys; but the case in Poland. when the family of Alexander the Great was MONARCHY MEN (Fifth), in the ecextinct, they took upon them the name of clesiastical history of England, were a set of kings. Hence, in process of time, the whole wrong-headed and turbulent enthusiasts who empire of Alexander produced four distinct king- arose in the time of Cromwell, and whoexpected doms, viz. 1. The Macedonian; the kings of Christ's sudden appearance upon earth to estawhich, after Alexander, were Antipater, Cas-blish a new kingdom; and acting in consesander, Demetrius, Polliorcetes, Seleucus Ni- quence of this illusion, aimed at the subversion canor, Meleager, Antigonus Doson, Philip, of all human government. and Perseus, under whom the Macedonian MONARDA. American field-basil. In kingdom was reduced to the form of a Roman botany, a genus of the class diandria, order province. 2. The Asiatic kingdom, which upon monogy ia. Corol unequal, upper lip linear, ihe death of Alexander fell to Antigonus, involving the blament; seeds four. Seven comprehending that country now called Na- species ; those chiefly cultivated are, tolia, together with some other regions beyond 1. M. fistulosa. Purple monarda, with capiMount Tarus. From this kingdom proceeded tate, purple flowers. America. two lesser ones, viz. that of Pergamus, whose 2. M. oblongata. Long-leaved monarda, with last king, Attalas, appointed the Roman people ovate leaves a little tapering at the base. A to be his heir; and Pontus, reduced by the native of Canada. Romans into the form of a province, when they 3. M. didyma. Scarlet monarda, which is the had subdued the last king Mithridates. 3. species chiefly valued, and by far the most oruaThe Syrian, of whose twenty-two kings the mental of the whole. Root perennial; stems most celebrated were, Seleucus Nicanor, foun- about two feet high, smoothi, acute-angled ; der of the kingdom; Antiochus Deus; An- leaves ovate, glabrous, which when bruised tiochus the Great ; Antiochus Epiphanes ; and emit a very grateful refreshing odour; flowers Tigranes, who was conquered by the Romans in whorls, and didynamous, of a bright red counder Pompey; and Syria reduced into the lour. They appear in July, and on a moist form of a Rouan province. 4. The Egyptian, soil will continue till the middle or end of which was formal by the Greeks in Egypi, and September. It is a native of America. fourished near 240 years under 12 kings, the All these plants may be increased by parting principal of whom were Ptolemy Lagus, its the roots, and some of them by slips and culfounder; Ptolemy Philadelphus, founder of ting as well as seeds. the Alexandrian library; and queen Cleopatra, MONARDES (Nicholas), an excellent who was overcome by Augustus, in conse- Spanish physician of Seville, who lived in quence of which Egypi was added to the do- the 16th century, and deservedly acquired great minion of the Romans.

reputation by bis practical skilljand the books The fourth monarchy was the Roman, which he wrote. " His Spanish works have which lasted 244 years, from the building of been translated into Latin by Clusius, into . the city until the time when the royal power Italian by Annibal Brigantus, and those upon was abrogated. The kings of Ronie were, American drugs have appeared in English. Romulus, its founder; Numa Pompilius; He died about the year 1578. Tullus Hostilius; Ancus Martius; Tarquinius MONAS, in zoology, a genus of the class Priscus; Servins Tullius; and Tarquin' the vermes, order infusoria. Worm invisible to Proud, who was bauished, and with whom the naked eye, most siinple, pellucid, resemterminated che regal power.

bling a point. Five species. There seems in reality no necessity to make 1. M. atomus. Whitish, with a variable the Medes, Persians, and Greeks succeed 10 the point. Found in sea.water kept a long time; whole power of the Assyrians, to multiply with a minute black dot, sometimes two, vathe number of the monarchies. It was the same riable in position. empire still; and the several changes that hap

punctum. A solid opake black point. pened In ir did not constitute different mo. Found in fetid infusions of pears, moving in a narchies. Thus the Roman empire was suc- slow warering manner. eessively governed by princes of different na- -3. M. mica. Transparent, with an oval, tions, yet without any new monarchy being moveable circle in the middle. Commou in formed thereby. Rome, therefore, may be purer waters.

2. AI.

4. M. lens. Transparent, with sometimes, posed the king's divorce from queen Catharine ; a greenish inargin. Found in all waters; a and these circumstances operated, in concurtound pellucid dot, frequently in masses, with- rence with the king's want of a supply, and out the least restige of intestines.

the people's desire to save their money, to for5. M. termo. A most minute, simple ge- ward a motion in parliament, that in order to lalinous point; found in most animal and support the king's state, and supply his wants, vegetable infusions: of all known animals the all the religious houses might be conferred upon most minute and simple, being so extremely the crown, which were not able to spend above delicate and transparent as often to elude the 2001. a year; and an act was passed for that most highly magnifying powers, blending, as purpose, 27 Henry VIII. c. 28. By this act it were, in the water in which it swims. about three hundred and eighty houses were

MONASTER, an ancient town of the king, dissolved, and a revenue of 30 or 32,0001. a dom of Tunis, seated near the sea, 70 miles year came to the crown; besides about 100,000l. S.E. of Tunis. Lon. 11. 6 E. Lat. 35.50 N. in plate and jewels. The suppression of these

MONASTERY, a convent, or house built houses occasioned discontent, and at length an for the reception of religious; whether it be open rebellion: when this was appeased, the king abbey, priory, nunnery, or the like.

resolved to suppress all the restorthe monasteries, Monastery is only properly applied to and appointed a new visitation ; which caused the houses of monks, mendicant friars, and the greater abbeys to be surrendered apace; and nuns. The rest are more properly called re- it was enacted by 3! Hen. VIII. c. 13. that all ligious houses.

monasteries, &c. which have been surrendered The houses belonging to the several religious since the fourth of February, in the twentyorders which obtained in England and Wales seventh year of his majesty's reign, and which were cathedrals, colleges, abbeys, priories, hereafter shall be surrendered, shall be vested preceptories, commandries, hospitals

, frieries, in the king. The knights of St. John of Jeruhermitages, chantries, and free chapels. These salem were also suppressed by the 32 Henry were under the direction and management of VIII. c. 24. The suppression of these greater various officers. The dissolution of houses of houses by these two acts produced a revenue this kind began so early as the year 1312, when to the king of above 100,0001. a year, besides the Templars were suppressed; and in 1323 a large sum in plate and jewels. The last act their lands, churches, advowsons, and liberties, of dissolution in this king's reign was the act of here in England, were given, by 17 Ed. II. 37 Hen. VIII. c. 4. for dissolving colleges, free stat. 3. to the prior and brethren of the hospi- chapels, chantries &c. which act was farther tal of St. Johin at Jerusalem. In the years enforced by i Edw. VI. c. 14. By this act 1390, 1437, 1441, 1459, 1497, 1505, 1508, were suppressed ninety colleges, a hundred and and 1515, several others houses were dissolved, ten hospitals, and two thousand three hundred and their revenues settled on different colleges and seventy-four chantries and free chaples. in Oxford and Cambridge. Soon after the last The number of houses and places suppressed period, cardinal Wolsey, by licence of the king from 6rst to last, so far as any calculations apand pope, obtained a dissolution of above thirty pear to have been made, seems to be follows: religious houses for the founding and endow. Of lesser nionasteries, of which we have ing his colleges at Oxford and Ipswich. About the valuation

ve} 374 the same time a bull was granted by the same Of greater monasteries

136 pope to cardinal Wolsey, to suppress mona- Belonging to the Hospitallers

48 steries, where there were not above six monks, Colleges

90 to the value of eight thousand ducats a year, for Hospitals

110 endowing Windsor, and King's College in Chantries and free chapels

2374 Cambridge ; and two other bulis were granted to cardinals Wolsey and Campeius, where

Total 3182 there were less than twelve monks, and to Besides the friars houses, and those suppressannex them to the greater monasteries; and ed by Wolsey, and many small houses, of another bull to the same cardinals to enquire which we have no particular account. about abbeys, to be suppressed, in order to be The sum total of the clear yearly revenue of made cathedrals. Although nothing appears the several houses at the time of their dissolato have been done in consequence of these bulls, tion, of which we have any account, seems to the motive which induced Wolsey, and many be as follows:

d. others, to suppress these houses, was the desire of the greater monasteries 104919 13 31 of promoting learning; and archbishop Cran- Of all those of the lesser momer engaged in it with a view of carrying on nostries of which we have 29702 1 10 the reformation. There were other causes that the valuation concurred to bring on their ruin: many of the Knights Hospitallers head

2385 12 religious were loose and vicious; the monks house in London were generally thought to be, in their hearts, We have the valuation of attached to the pope's supremacy; their re- only 28 of their houses in

3026. 95 venues were not employed according to the in

the country tent of the donors; many cheats in images, Friars houses, of which we feigned miracles, and counterfeit relics, had have the valuation

75 1201 been discovered, which had brought the monks into disgrace; the Observant friars had op

Total 140784 19 3

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If proper allowances are made for the lesser conces, had led the way. See Tanner's monasteries, and houses not included in this es- Notitia Monastica; and for an abstract, Burn's tinate, and for the plate, &c. which came into Eccl. Law, art. Monasteries. the hands of the king by the dissolution, and MONA'STICAL. MONA'Stic, a.(monasfur the value of money at that time, which ticus, Latin.) Religiously recluse; pertaining was at least six times as much as at present; and to a monk (Brown). also consider that the estimate of the lands was MONASTICALLY, ad. Reclusely; in gecerally supposed to be much under the real the manner of a monk (Swift.) kortit, we must conclude their whole revenues MONAULOS. (Greek.) A kind of single to have been immense.

finte, of higher antiquity than even the lyre, It does not appear that any computation and said by some writers to have been inho been made of the number of persons con- vented in Egypt. The Egyptians called it tained in the religious houses.

Photinx, or crooked flute: its shape was crook. Those of the lesser monasteries cis.

ed, and something like that of a bull's horn. solveel by 27 Hen. VIII. were rec- 10,000 MONCALLIER, a town of Piedmont, koned at about

seated on the Po, five miles S.E. of Turin. If we suppose the colleges and hospi

Lon. 7. 48 E. Lat. 45.2 N. tals to have contained a proportion- 5317 MONCALVO, a strong town of Italy, in able number, these will inate about

Montserrat, seated on a inountain, 12 miles If we reckon the number in the

S.W. of Cassel. Lon.7.19 E. Lat. 45. 10 N. greater monasteries, according to the

MONDAY, s. (from moon and day.) The proportion of their revenues, they

second day of the week. will be about 35,000; but as pro

MONETARIUS, or MONEYER, a name bably they had larger allowances in 30,000 which antiquaries and medalists give to those proportion to their number than

who struck the ancient coins or moneys. those of the lesser monasteries, if

Many of the old Roman and other coins have we abate upon that account 5000,

the name of the monetarius, either written they will then be .

at length, or at least the initial letters of it. One for each chantry and free

See Medal.

2374 chapel

MONETIA, in botany, a genus of the

class tetrandria, order monogynia; calyx four

Total 47,721 cleft; petals four, linear; berry two-celled, But as there were probably more than one

with a single seed in cach. One species only; person to oficiate in several of the free chapels; in fours, and opposite leaves glabrous on both

a prickly shrub of the East Indies, with spines and there were other houses which are not included within this calculation, perhaps they sides; flowers axillary and sessile. may be computed in one general estinate at MONEY, a piece of inatter, commonly metal, about 50,000. As there were pensions paid to

to which public authority has affixed a certain almost all those of the greater monasteries, the value and weight to serve as a medium in com

merce. See Coin, COMMERCE, and MEDALS. king did not immediately come into the full

Money is usually divided into real or effective, enjoyment of their whole revenues : however; and imaginary or money of account. by means of what he did receive, he founded

1. PEAL MONEY. six new bishoprics, viz. those of Westminster

History of real money. Real money includes (which was changed by queen Elizabeth into a all coins, or species of gold, silver, copper, deanry, with twelve prebends, and a school), and the like; which have course in common, and Peterborough, Chester, Gloucester, Prisiol, do really exist. Such are guincas, pistoles, pieces and Oxford. And in eight other sces he found- of cight, ducats, &c. ed deanries and chapters, by converting the

Ecal money, civilians observe, has three essenpriors and monks into deans áni prebendaries, tial qualities, viz. matter, form, and weight or

value. viz. Canterbury, Winchester, Durham, Worcester, Rochester, Norwich, Ely, and Carlisle. been first coined; afterwards silver and lastly

For the matter, copper is that thought to have He founded also the colleges of Christ-church gold, as being the most beautiful, scarce, cleanly, in Oxford, and Trinity, Cambridge, and finish: divisible, and pure of all metals. ed King's college there. He likewise founded

The degrees of goodness are expressed in gold professorships of divinity, law, physic, and of by carats; and in silver by pennyweights, &c. the Hebrew and Greek' tongues, in both the For there are several reasons for not coining them said universities. He gave the house of Grey pure and without alloy, viz. the great loss and Friars, and St. Bartholoinew's hospital, to the expence in reôning them, the necessity of hardcity of London ; and a perpetual pension to the ening them to make them more durable, and the poor knights of Windsor, and laid out great scarcity of gold and silver in most countries.

See Alloy sums in building and fortifving many posts in the channel. It is observable, upon the whole,

Ariong the ancient Britons, iron rings, or, as

some say, iron plates, were used for money; that the dissolution of these bonses was an act, not of the church, but of the state; in the with vinegar, that they might not serve for any

ilie Lacedemonians, iron bars quenched period preceding the reformation, by a king and other use. Seneca observes, that there was anparliament of the Roman catholic communion, ciently stamped money of leather, corium forma in all points except the g's supremacy; to publicar impressim. And the same thing was put which the pope himself, by his bulls and lin in practice by Frederic II. at the siege of Milan;

among

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