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As another instance of this kind, we may consider the following line of VIRGIL,
Ah! may I not with wond'ring eyes review,
After some beards, my small but dear domains * ? Where by the beards, that is, of corn, we may understand the ears of corn ; by the ears of corn, corn itself ; by corn, the summer that produces it ; and by the summer, the whole year : so that the sense is the same as if it had been said,
Ah! may I not with wond’ring eyes review,
This Trope is something like an echo in some spacious winding dome, which returns again and again upon us before it ceases its found; or may be resembled to the kernels of some fruits involved in manifold rinds, which must be all stripped off before we can come at the substance.
§ 4. Though a Metonymy may not be so necessary as the Metaphor, nor take such a wide compass, yet it is a Trope of very great use and extent. It gives a vast scope and liberty to the fancy: it both adorns and invigorates our stile; or, as Dr WARD describes it, “ enriches a dir, 6. course with an agreeable variety, and gives « both force and beauty to an expression t." * Poft aliquot mea regna videns mirabor aristas?
Eclog. i. ver. 70. + WARD's Oratory, vol. i. page 414.
The SYNECDOCHE considered.
$1. The definition of a Synecdoche. § 2. (1) A
Synecdoche puts the whole for a part; (2) A Fart for the whole ; (3) Uses a general name for a particular of the same kind ; (4) Uses a particular name for a general. § 3. That a certain number is put for an uncertain, is to be ascribed to the Synecdoche. 4. That the plural number shall stand for the fingular, and the fingular for the plural, is owing to the Synecdoche. § 5. The definition of an Antonomasia. § 6. An Antonomasia, (1) Puts a proper for a common name ; . (2) Puts a common nanie for a proper, $ 7. Rule to be observed as to the Antonomasia. $ 8. The value and use of the Synecdoche.
the A Synecdoche * is a Trope, which puts
name of the whole for a part, or the .name of a part for the whole ; a general name for a particular under that general, or a particular for the general.
* From ourexdi xonas, I comprehend, or receive foge. ther.
$ 2. (1) The Synecdoche puts the whole for a part. Thus Virgil says,
Parthia shall drink the Gallic Arar first,
And Tigris sooner quench Germania's thirft *. So the sea may be put for the waves of the sea. In like manner man shall sometimes mean the foul of a man, as LAZARUS, Luke xvi. 23. is said to be ss in ABRAHAM's bosom:ss and at other times man shall signify the body, Gen. iii. 19. * Till thou return to the ground,s that is, till thy body return to the ground. Thus we say, fometimes intending only the body, and sometimes only the foul, that man is mortal, or that he is immortal.
(2) A Synecdoche puts à part for the whole. The head shall signify the man, the pole the hea. vens, the point the sword, the winter the whole year, and the general shall include both himself and his army. We have instances of this kind in Scripture; Isa.vii. 2. ss the tribe of ÉPHRAIM" is put for the whole people of Israel: and Matt. viii. 8. the Centurion tells our Lord, that he was not worthy that he should come « under his roof, so that is, into his house.
(3) The Synecdoche uses the general name for a particular of the same kind. Put up your wear pon, that is, your sword. So a bird is used by VIRGIL for an eagle:
• Aut Ararim Parthus bibet, aut Germania Tigrim.
Eclog. i. ver. 63.