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him." Accordingly he obtained a feat in the house of Common's, as representative for the borough of Old Sarưm. He foon diftinguithed himself in Parliament, and particularly spoke with great eloquence against the Spanish convention in 1738. He also opposed the bill for registering seamen, which was brought into parliament in 1740, as a very arbitrary and indefenfible act; upon which Mr. Horatio Walpole thought proper to attack him with some personal sarcasıns. He reflected upon his youth ; and observed, that the discovery of truth was very little promoted by pompous diction and theatrical emotion. These infinuations exposed him to a severe reply. Mr. Pitt, standing up again, said, “he would not undertake to determine whether youth could be justly imputed to any man as a reproach ; but he affirmed, that the wretch, who after having feen the consequences of repeated errors, continues still to blunder, and whose age has only added obftinacy to lupidity, is surely the object of either abhorrence or contempt, and deserves not that his grey head thould secure him from insults": much more is he to be abhorred, who, as he has advanced in age, has receded from virtue, and becomes more wicked with less temptation; who prostitutes himself for money which he cannot enjoy; and spends the remains of his life in the ruin of his country.”
Some time before this Mr. Pitt had been appointed a groom of the bed-chamber to Frederick prince of Wales; but that office he resigned in 1745. In confideration of his opposition to the measures of the ministry in parliament, on various occasions, the duchess dowager of Marlborough left him a legacy of ten thousand pounds,“ upon account," as her Will expreffes it," of his merit in the noble defence he has made for the support of the laws of England, and to prevent the ruin of his country.”
In 1746, Mr. Pitt was made joint vice-treasurer of Ireland, and the: same year treasurer and paymafter general of the army, and a privy counselor. But, in 1755, he strongly opposed the continental connexions which were entered into by the miniItry; though he afterwards relaxed upon that subject, finding that power was not to be obtained without complying with the king's views and prejudices as elector of Hanover. After having resigned his former places, and been some time out of ofnice, on the 4th of December, 1756, he was appointed secretary of state for the southeru department..
In this situation he obtained the confidence of the publick to a very high degrec.; but, in consequence of some court intrigues, and his not being willing to comply with all the private views of the king, which were sometimes very inconsistent with the real interests of the nation, he received a royal command to refign his office. Some other of his frieads, and particularly Mr. Legge, chancellor of the exchequer, were also renoved from their posts. But the people of England, attracted by the con, fummate eloquence of Mr. Pitt, by his fingular difinterestedness, and the supposed purity of his views, united to look to him, as to the person in whom they confided, for the salvation of their country. Indeed, the whole nation seemed to rise up as one man, in vindication of the character of the displaced patriots. The moft respectable cities and corporations presented them with the freedom of their refpective bodies ; and addreffes were sent up froin all parts of the kingdom, foliciting their restoration to their different employments. King George II. therefore, found it necessary to comply with the wishes of the people; and accordingly on the 29th of June, 1757, Mr. Pitt was again appointed fee:cretary of state. Mr. Legge was also again made t
chancellor of the exchequer. Mr. Pitt was now confidered as prime minifter; and this office, it has been remarked, he held, till O&tober 5, 1761, with such honour to himself, such glory to the nation, and so greatly to the fatisfa&tion of the people in general, as never any minister in this king: dom before experienced. The ministry which preceded him had been unfortunate and unpopular. They had carried on the war, in which the nation was then engaged, without ability, and without spirit. But never was the great scene of things so fuddenly shifted, as one of his biographers remarks, as after Mr. Pitt came into power. " Whatever comprehensive genius, extended intelligence, deep political knowledge, and indefatigable industry could effect, was ours. From torpid, supineness, we astonished the enemy with unremitted activity: Not a thip, not a man, was suffered to remain unemployed. Europe, America, Africa, felt the in. fluence of Mr. Pitt's character in an instant. His glory, in the mean time, advanced, like a regular fabrick. Gradual in its commencement, it however discovered, to the discerning eye, a grandeur of design, and promised the most magnificent-effect. By degrees, it disclosed beauty, utility, and majeIty; it outstretched the eye of the spectator, and hid its head among the clouds.” Under the auspices of Mr. Pitt, Amherst and Boscawen reduced Cape Breton ; Wolfe and Saunders triumphed at Quebeck; Goree and Senegal were subjugated to the crown of Great Britain; the French were ruined in the East Indies, and their armies defeated in Europe; Belleille was rent from their monarchy, their coasts were infulted and ravaged, their fleets destroyed, their trade annihilated, and their state reduced even to bankruptcy.
On the 25th of October, 1760, died George II. king of Great Britain, in the seventy-seventh year of his age, and was fucceeded by his grandion, now George III. eldest son to Frederick prince of Wales. The new king ascended the throne with great ada vantages. His being a native of England prejudiced the people in his favour; and at the time of his acceffion Great Britain was in a very high degree of reputation and prosperity. The popularity of Mr Pitt had at this time arisen to a great height; but his popularity appeared to give no satisfaction to the king. As Mr. Pitt had conducted the war against France with such eminent ability, fo he also received the most accurate information of the hostile intentions and private intrigues of the court of Spain ; and he therefore proposed in council an immediate declaration of war against that kingdom. He urged his reasons for this measure with his usual energy; asserting, that “this was the time for humbling the whole house of Bourbon ;” and that if this opportunity were let slip, it might never be recovered. But he was over-ruled in the council, all the members of which declared themselves of a contrary opinion, excepting his brother-in-law earl Temple. Mr. Pitt now found the decline of his influence ; and it was soon too manifest to the nation, that the earl of Bute, who had a confiderable share in directing the education of the new king, had acquired an ascendancy in the royal fayour that was extremely injurious to the real interests of the kingdom.
It has been observed, that at the critical moment, in which Mr. Pitt's imagination" was fired with its largest, and most comprehensive plan, he found himself suddenly and invincibly prevented. In the councils, that were held upon this business, he demonstrated, in a manner he apprehended the most B 3
incontestible, the hostile dispositions of Spain. He expatiated upon the alarming nature of the family compact, of the conclusion of which he had received the fullest intelligence. He told them, that this was the instant to attack Spain, unprepared and with advantage. Even while they deliberated, the time would be past. Now she was willing to temporize. But, as soon as lier treasure was fafe in her harbours, he prophesied, with the utmost confidence, The would keep terms with us no longer. Beyond that time, we might endeavour to defer hostilities in vain. These things, however, with whatever else he could urge, were to no purpose."---- It had been the glory of Mr. Pitt's administration to abolish the fpirit of party, and to introduce into the fenate an unanimitý hitherto unexperienced. The ambition of lord Bute brought things back again to their original chaos, and gave new life to all the bitterness and implacability of faction."
Mr. Pitt, finding his influence in the cabinet at an end, declared, that was he was called to the ininistrv. by the voice of the people, to whom he confi lered bimself as accountable for his conduct, he would no longer remain in a situation which made him responsible for measures tliat he was no longer allowed to guide.” Accordingly he resigned the seals on the gth of October, 1961. On the i'ith of the same month his resignation was signified in the Gazette, together with the creation of Jadv Hefter Pitt, his wife, baroness of Chatham; and his own acceptance of an annuity of three thousand pounds, which was to be continued during his own life, that of his lady, and his eldest'fon.
On the 22d of the same month, the following vote was passed in the Common Council of the city of London: “Resolved, That the thanks of this court be given to the Right Hon. William Pitt,