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the old method of forming the past tense by reduplication. In villages many Saxon words are still in use, as housen, for house; posen, for post; cbilder, or cilder, for children.

The Norman Invasion introduced many French or Norman-French words into our language. We pass the Danish invasions, for they oply produced local, not general, effects. William 1. attempted to entirely suppress the Anglo Saxon language, but failed. Examples of French and Norman-French are very abund.. ant, a3, eclat, depot, entrepot, encore,, &c., are French words. And the change caused by the Norman invasion cannot be better illustrated than by the following :- In the lower classes, kine, oxen, calf, and sheep, were retained, but the Normans gave these when dressed as food the names we now have,-beef, veal, and mutton. Most of the pure French words have been taken into the language of late years, and most of them have received no alteration, but are admitted pure. Also modern times have seen the introduction of most of our Latin, Italian, and Greek deriva:ives. And most of the latest have been adopted for scientific purposes. But many of our earlier derivatives were added when the advancement of civilization demanded some new term to express some new relation or new thing caused by this advance. As specimens of words in English derived from Latin, noun, verb, report, vessel, commerce, merchant, current, society, lecture, library, duel, and almost innumerable others.

Words taken inío our language from the Greek have almost solely been taken in for scientific purposes, and are not near as common as those derived from the Latin. Examples-calendar, bases, phenomenon, misanthrope, philanthropy, &c.

In our language also many German words were introduced, independent of t'e great change in our language by the Anglo Saxon conquest.

Also we find Italian and Hebrew words.

Italian, as grotto, dilletanti, and most of the terms used in music, as largo, larghetto, andante, andantino, allegro, presto, rallentando, piu, a poco a poco, mezzo, forte, piano, &c.

Hebrew are not so numerous, but are found chiefly in the Bible, as, Eloi, eloi, lama sabacthani, talitha cumi, corban, cherub, seraph, seraphim, &c.

SECTION III.- Question l. Practice. Com. noun, third person, singular number, neuter gender, nom.

case to the verb was, Ilold. With the preposition to preceding it, a verb in the infinitive mood.

Transitive, governing another, or man understood. Another. An adjective, qualifying man understood. Little. An adjective here used as a noun, singular number, third person,

neuter gender, and objective case, governed by the preposition by. Manumit. A verb in the infinitive mood, transitive, governing villeins in the

objective case, and being governed itself by the verb were. All.

An adjective of quantity, qualifying Abbots and Priors.

An adverb, modifying much. As.

The whole expression so much as may be considered an ad

verbial phrase, and ” is an adverb. As. Here equivalent to who, consequently is a pronoun, or a conjunction

introducing “were bound to their churches." Gotten.

A perfect partiiple from the verb got, governed by the verb had. Still. An adverb modifying the verb kept.

Monks – Monos, alone.
Friars, Frater, a brother.
Another- An (one) and other.
Manumit- Manus, the hand, and initto, send.
Clergy-Ciericus, a servant.
Father- Pater, a father.




The adjective form of clergy is “clerical.”
The adjective form of laity is "lay,” as the “ lay brethren.”

Villein had formerly no bad meaning in it, it simply meant a villager, or a poor person who was bound, as a kind of slave, calied a serf, to a barın, who did fealty to the king for the estates he possessed. The word's meaning has been extended, and now means a dishonest person,

Knave had a bad meaning formerly as it has now, and meant a dishonest perso3.

SECTION IV. The high officials in the Church of Rome, together with the monks and friars, seeing the system of ser:dom was of so perilous a nature, and so detrimental to Christianity, so terrified the nobles and lay lords generally, when they were on their death beds, or when in their confessions they revealed some enormous crime, for which they needed absolution, with threats of their after punishment, that many of them not only released their bond-fellows, but did it with pleasure. This was not effectel however, at once but was the result of time and renewed efforts of the Roman Catholic clergy. But although the clergy persuaded the lay nobles to manumit all their villeins, yet they had such a horror of despoiling the church, and lessening its importance, that they dared not rub the church of such valuable property as was afforded by the serfs in connection with their churches, abbeys, and priories, or in estates that had been bequeathed the church, by releasing them from that bondage, which they nevertheless acknowledged was a dangerous practice. Therefore they retained their serfs.

SECTION V.-Question 2. In teaching Grammar to a young class, I should commence with writing an easy sentence on the board, such as “ Ice is cold.” Then I should proceed with them to analyze the expression. Ask what the first word is, and, getting it, draw out it was a name we gave to a certain thing. Then give them a definition of a noun, require several examples, and from each child giving an example, a reason for the word he gave me as a noun. After they could well understand and be able to distinguish a noun, we might proceed to notice the difference between certain noins. This difference might be found out by the children, by selecting two of the nouns they would give, namely, one of each class, and asking them to look for a difference. Next give them a definition of a proper and also of a common noun. Then, I should go on to add a word to a noun, as “long stick," and ask what difference the addition of the word long had made. Then getting other words find from them that from adding these words we get a better and more definite idea of the thing or noun about which we are speaking. Next tell them all these words, which added to a noun tell something more concerning it, are called adjectives. Next I should teach a verb to them in this manner :Writing a sentence on the black board, as “ Tom eats apples." From what they had been taught they would know “ Tom” and “apples” were nouns, and that Tom was proper, and apples common. Then I should enquire what

was, by asking what alteration was made by putting the word between the two nouns, and thus find out that “eats" tells us something that Tom does, and that all such words are called verbs. These would be the oniy parts of speech I should teach to a young class of scholars.


SECTION 1.- Question 2. This answer betrays an insufficient knowledge of the leading laws of orthography. The reason given for spelling “agreeable” is fanciful. Benefiting's is spelt with only a single " t," and the rule is that the final consonant must then



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only be doubled when the emphasis falls upon the last syllable. On this account “ befit” becomes " befitting," and all monosyllables as • fi!," con," "scan," &c., necessarily reduplicate the last consonant, "Bisextile" should be written

* bissextile" (leap year). The rule is that when two words enter into composition, the one ending and the other commencing with the same consonant, both should he retained, as in the example mis-spelling," contained in the question. Of the meaning and derivation of “bis-sextile," the writer is altogether beside the mark.

SECTION II.- Question 1. This answer, although it exhibits some careful study and correct information, has some faults. It is too long, and in the first part, especially, introduces irrelevant matter about the Saxon settlements. Most geographical words, and some of those cited, are Celtic, not Saxon. Why are these more exceptional forms of inflexions en given, as if the ordinary s and es were not Saxon? The answer would be shortened by omitting the examples under the two last heads.

SECTION III,Question 1. Practice is not nominative to was, as it forms part of the predicate and is not the subject of the sentence. Hold is infinitive, but why? The writer fails, we presume, to see that to hold is really a verbal noun in apposition to " practice." Manumit is in the infinitive, but is governed rather by the predicate “were glad,” than by the simple substantive verb “ were."

If so much as is an adverb phrase, and as is an adverb, it should be shewn what predicate they limit. Gotten as a participle cannot be said to be governed by had. Had gotten together forms a distinct tense, or “ gotten” may be viewed, like an adjective, as qualifying manors, in the objective case, which manors.

Clericus does not mean servant. Knave had not originally the meaning now attached to the word, but was to his master's person what villein” was to the soil.

The parsing portion of this answer is at least "imperfect," and should be so valued.

SECTION IV. The paraphrase is scarcely simple enough. The expression "How dar gerous a practice it was for one Christian man, &c.," is not well rendered. · The idea " detrimental to Christianity” is not the right idea, which is rather that the practice was injurions to a man's spiritual interests because it was inconsistent with his Christian character. Confession did not necessarily imply" crime." We do not like the periphrasis “nobles and lay lords” for laity. It is always unwise to change a word in the original, when no other word or phrase will do as well. On the whole we should endorse the paraphrase “ very fair."

SECTION V.-Question 2. Before commencing to reply to this question, the writer should observe that no particular age and stage of progress is specified. He must therefore propose to himself the period he thinks present to the examiner's mind. On this very point the answer contains a confusion. If the class were ignorant of the simplest parts of speech, the complete sentence “Ice is cold,” for analysis, is beyond their reach. We expected to find that the writer would proceed to use this example in order to explain the difference between a subject and predicate, as the foundation of the difference between a noun and verb, but this does not prove to be his object. In fact, the writer explains the meaning of an adjective before that of a verb, although his example does not contain one. If, however, he produced the sentence for the simple purpose of distinguishing the noun, there would have been less objection. His least error is in proceeding to confuse the mind of the


child by distinguishing different kinds of nouns. The universal rule should be observed to keep to the main road and avoid the byepaths, i. e. to keep back all exceptions and all inflexions to a later stage of advancement. This rule the writer bimself does observe in saying nothing about case or tense in the example “ Tom eats apples." He exercises a sound judgment in confining his young class to these parts of speech. As a hint to composition, the word "get,” at any time questionable, occurs twice in the same sentence. The whole paper by no means shows a want of careful instruct but our criticisms will point out to the writer and to our readers how far a performance in the eyes of an examiner may really fall far short of the right standard.

80 x

SIR, -I send you a solution of the question proposed by W. G. S.:-

Let x = number of cattle
.. 100 x = price of cattle in shillings
Let y = number of geese
:: Y = prices of geese in shillings
Whole number of animals is 100...
100 - x - y = number of sheep ...
20 (100

X y) price of sheep in shillings
Whole money expended is 2,000 shillings
100 x + y + 20 (100


0 80 x = 194

they i.e.

2: Y:: 19 : 80. Whatever numbers x and y represent, they stand in the ratio of 19 to 80, or they are equimultiples of the last mentioned numbers. Now, the only integral equimultiples whose sum shall be less than 100, are 19 and 80, the numbers themselves therefore,

= 19 and y = 80 also let z = sheep.
x + y + z = 100 i e. % = 1;
19 = number of cattle

1 = number of sheep
80 = number of geese.

Yours respectfully,


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SIR, - Will you or one of your correspondents oblige by parsing in full the word "" mine' in the following sentence, especially noticing its relation to the verb “ will lend,”

!f you want a pen I will lend you mine :". Also “ than whom" in the following sentence;

“ I sent it by my servant, than whom none can I trust better;"'And the verb “to'be King” in the following ;-. P" He wished to be King."

ENQUIRER. [Mine had best be considered the possessive case of the personal pronoun only

differing from my in the absence of the noun, as none does from no. Mine there fore, qualifies pen understood the object to, the verb • lend.'

Than whom. Than is a conjunction, introducing the sentence understood 'I can

trust,' in which sentence whom is the object to trust.' The perfect sentence is

" than I can trust whom none can I trust betleri' 'To be King' regarded as a portion of the sentence is an extension of the predicate.

Taken together it is in the intinitive mood governed by · wished. Taken separately " to ceisin the infinitive governed by · wished' and King is in the objective case because himself understood before to be' is in the objective.-Ed.)

Devonshire. Rev. Sir, -A short time ago (March) a correspondent asked for some information on Drawing, to put him in te right path to obtain a certificate of competency in a subject which promises soon to rank (with the Government) next to the three elements of education. As there are five necessary papers, it would be best to speak of each separately.

I. Free Iland Outline Drawing. Let me advise any teacher, who is within a few miles of a School of Art, to make an effort to attend the classes there formed, for a few weeks, so that he may get an insight into the Government system of drawing; any sacrifice he might make would weil repay, in the saving of time. Or, what would still be better, arrange with such master to attend in his (the schoolmaster's) own school, and give the children one lesson per week. Want of funds to do so may now be no excuse, as by a recent minute, the masters sent out by the Department of Science and Art, are required to attend national and other public schools to give or e lesson per week, on the condition that each child pay sixpence only, for the whole year. Every child in the school is not required to enter the class, but only those who wish. Why I take time to point out the above condition is simply this, that I feel perfectly satisfied that the method developed in teaching children, especially the black-board exercises, will enable any master who practices it to obtain tiis certificate. It is to this that I myself am mostly indebted. As an instance of its simplicity, allow me to say that after two years, all the pupil teachers in my school can now give the weekly drawing lesson to their class, as a matter of ordinary routine; while the master of the School of Art is dispensed with-with many thanks. If a difficulty is found in the above, write to the Secretary of the Department of Science and Art, Cromwell Gardens, South Kensington, London, for a list of drawing examples, &c., and obtain a grant. The following works would be necessary :1. De La Rue's Free Hand Outlines

£0 5 0
2. Dyce's Outlines

0 5 0
3. A set of 12 Outline Plates, numbered 598-614 0 1
4. Weitbricht's Outlines

0 2 0
5. Robinson's Manual..

0 8 6. Burchett's Geometry

5 0 7. Burchett's Perspective



0 0 0

£1 6 2

By grant these would cost about 149,

The student being compelled to help himself, let him take 2, 3, and 5, and go througli those carefully first, when I feel confident he will easily get a good insight into Free Hand Outline.

II. Practical Geometry. This is the easiest of the five subjects, for all that is required may be found in Burchett's Geometry, in the best and most convenient form possible.

III. Practical Perspective. This is also ready to hand in Burchett's Perspective ; about three-fourths of the book will be quite sufficient. And let me advise the student if he . as any other work on the subject, to lay it aside as useless. I went through five popular works on the subject, before I saw this, and can safely say knew nothing about the subject. But as soon as I saw Burchett's, it was at my finger ends in a few days.

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