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The rules which Mr. Glennie gives for making reading intelligent are :-(1.) Each word must fall or rise from that which precedes it. (2.) Each falling or rising gradation continues as far as the emphatic word of the clause, and on that it returns. (3.) The emphatic word is determined by its embodying a fresh idea-and further rules are given for dealing with principal and subordinate clauses. These rules are to be illustrated on the black board, taking the horizontal line to represent the monotone. We can readily conceive, that the rules and the illustrations, would be a help to the higher classes in attaining an improved style of reading. The method, however, has been in use for many years. The “Introduction to the Art of Reading" published by the Irish School Society, has many pages in which the horizontal line is broken by raising or depressing a part of the words, to show what is the proper intonation; in fact the entire book is marked with the proper intonation and emphases. In like manner, it would be easy to show that such of our principal educational writers as were engaged in practical education, have developed methods for intelligent reading, and speak also of favourable results; though none have said what Mr. Glennie says :-"Three or four months will by this intellectual method, do more than the old mechanical process can effect in two or three years." We think with Jacob Abbott, that there are few bounds to what a man may do in working out a scheme upon which he has set his heart, but bis success is no guarantee that his method will attain the same results in ordinary hands. In the course of a long educational life, it has been our lot to hear, times without numher, of improvements in educational processes which were to render teaching a kind of intellectual pastime, but it has not been our good fortune to see the realization of the hopes that were raised. So far from it, we hear H.M Inepectors complain of a falling off in elementary instruction"; we even see a reaction setting in against some of the so-called improvements, and under these circumstances Mr. Glennie must forgive us, if we are not so sanguine of his scheme, as we could really like to be.
Elementary Notes on the History of Trance.- By Mrs. Edmonds. Tallant and Allen. The merits of this little work are rather more than its modest title would lead one to expect, and although we have no great faith in the good to be realized by meagre
lines of history, we think nevertheless, while the present system continues, Mrs. Edmonds' “ Elementary Notes" deserves to rank alongside the smaller French epitomies now in use.
The Struggles of a Village Lad. Tweedie, London. This book is written to illustrate the aphorism – There is nothing like trying," and further, to show the happy results from what the “ Band of Hope" did. The story is well told, is full of interest and gocd influences, and makes up precisely the kind of book to be placed in school libraries.
Elements of English History. By T. H. Rivington, London. The term “ Elements” is here properly used, for the book is elementary in an extreme degree. It is in truth a short chronology, which includes some few of the main facts in each reign. A little hand.book of this sort has its use, and we would recommend it if we could do so. But the value of chronology depends entirely upon its correctness, and this is not always to be found in these “ Elements." Thus, Alfred the Great is said to have divided England intu counties and hundreds, which it is clear Alfred did not do; neither did William the Conqueror establish the curfew bell, though T. H. says he did. Let the book be revised and it will deserve the patronage of teachers.
Arithmetic for Beginners. By Dr. J. Cornwell and J. G. Fitch, M.A. The authors of this work propose it as an introduction to their “Science of Arithmetic;" a manual which we noticed favourably some time since. The work before us is very complete as an ordinary working school-book. Without nege
lecting principles, it contains what pract cal schoolmast »rs know to be indispensable to success in arithmetic--an abundant supply of working examples. The examples given are wider in their range, and more varied in their character, than are usually found in boks of its size and price. We have no duot but this introduction will meet with a success even larger than that of the work to which it is intended to lead.
The Geography of Gloucestershire. By U. J. Davis. Nest, Gloucester. Mr. Davis has done himself credit in collecting and carefully arranging so much valuable information on the geography and history of the county of Gloucester. The geological section was kindly furnished by Professor Buckman, of the Cirencester College. The value of the work is further enhanced by the addition of a good county map. We cheerfully give the “Geography of Gloucestershire"! our recommendation, as well for its excellence as for its moderate price.
November 8th, 1858. Sir. - In your magazine for the present month you have a letter signed A. L., treating upon the subject of salaries. Your correspondent is pleased to express surprise at the fact that such an injudicious stateinent (as he says that of Mr. Watkins is), should be allowed to go forth with an inspe, tor's sanction. Now, Sir, I should really like to be informed who is better able to come to a true conclusion, and who a better right to give expression to such conclusions, than gentlemen whosc duty is with the teacher and his work? I say none, if we except the teacher himself. A. L. next calls into question the correctness of Mr. Watkins' statement, and of course it would not be becoming in me to take upon myself the task of answering the imputation. But I would draw attention to a fact which speaks for itself. It is this : that a man, in either of the classes to which he refers, is able to sustain his wife and family in their own sphere of life, without having to bring his wife from home to assist in making both ends meet.” I am gure I need not remind you that not only are schoolmasters frequently obliged by circumstances so to do, but also that school committees encourage this evil, for the purpose of making expenses fall less heavily upon the school funds. In how many cases £60 per annum is offered to a man and wife, which t:gether with the government allowances will not much more than make up the £90, to which A. L. refers as the share of the master alone! Woman's missiou is home! Is it fair, then, to give such salaries to masters that the wife and mother is obliged to labour to help to keep up that respectability in their family which the public ask the teacher to maintain, but wbich they are so little prepared to assist him to do, by giving him a fair salary for value fully received. I am forgetting, however, that the children of teachers are frequently spoken of by employers as encumbrances. May God forgive the man who applies such a term to one of His choicest gifts to us.
In the next place A. L. refers to the time during which the teacher is at work. He sets down 71 hours per day as the maximum period of his employment in school duties. It is true that teachers might with justice make it so; but in few cases is it done. I know some schoolmasters and mistresses who meet some of their elder children over hours for the purposes of instruction : and many who give their pupil teachers half-an. hour, or an hour, on school days, as well as a couple of hours on the Saturday, over and above the bare hour and a half required by the government minute. Besides this there are many minor things connected with school work which an earnest teacher finds to do. But, of course, all this stands for nothing. Again, he says the teacher is engaged only five days per week; and, to my surprise, you endorse this erroneous statement in your leader upon this subject Surely A. L. forgets that now-a-days the prevailing fashion is to compel (1° cannot with truthfulness use a milder term) the day school teacher to take part in the Sunday school. That, which is accepted from every other class as a labour of love, is demanded of them as a positive right on the part of too many school managers. So much is this the case that an instance came to my own knowledge very lately, in which a manager told a schoolmistress that she might have been sure there was a Sunday school connected with the church, and that she would be expected to attend it. The fact is, Sir, that not a few teachers find Sunday the hardest day of their week! Then as to vacations of six or seven weeks in the year : I would beg to call A. L.'s attention to thc fact, that in towns the general period of holidays does not exceed a month in the year.
A. L. overlooks the undeniable fact that where one master gets £90 per annum, that at least half-a-dozen do not get above £70 from all sources, and many less even than that; and then with the utmost coolness he asserts that we ought not only to be contented, but thankful! And then, as though this were not enough, he, after professions of friendship and good will adds the libellous statement ti at “ very many of our trained masters are set up, conceited, and dissatisfied.” If he had said that it was a wonder that so very few of the class to whom he alludes were afflicted with maladies, the existence of which he so much regrets, he would have been much nearer the mark; for the anomalous position which society obliges the teacher to take is enough to make him concentrate himself in self, ana selfishness is the root of those evils which A. L. so much deplores.
Being one of the profession, although not now in an elementary school, will, I trust, be deemed a sufficient apology for my troubling you with these remarks, the insertion of which, in the next number of your magazine, will oblige Your obedient servant,
J. G. N.
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SIR, -I shall feel much obliged if you will kindly answer the following queries:1. (a) In Wilson's Chemistry, p. 274, I find sugar written thus :-CHO
(6) In Tate's Chemistry, p. 68, the same substance is written :-('HO
(c) In Stockhardt's Chemistry, p. 440, it is written :-CHO Now, I can understand a and b to mean CH 0 + H 0 and 21°O respectively, but is the third (c) a correct way of writing it?" If so, why do C H (olefiant gas,) CH (gas from oil,) C H (Napthene,) though multiples of ea:h other, form different substances ? and yet in the case in question, though also a multiple of the other, to form the same substance.
2. In the Minutes for 1855, page 130, q. 24, runs thus :
"A compound, consisting of the two elements A and B, has been analyzed, and found to contain
100 The equivalent of A is 56, and of B 16, what is the formula of the compound'.
The elements seem to be Cadmium and Sulphur, and to be present in the proportion of 2 Cd. to 3 S., but as I am fast in the matter, will you kindly answer the question for me. I am, Sir, your obedient Servant,
W. B. [1. Grape sugar CAO, and cane sugar C H O are two different chemical substances. We are not aware what hypothesis is the basis of Stockhardt's notation, but conclude that as H and 0 are present in sugar in the proportion to from water, he supposes one atom to be present as water, and suppresses it in the notation. CHO+HO=CH(=CH O. With regard to the absolute number of atoms supposed to be present in a compound organic atom, it is to a great extent a matter of hypothesis. Liebig has the following passage in one of his letters :-"Grape
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Bugar may be regarded as C H O or C H O according as we suppose it to be derived from twelve or twenty-four atoms of carbonic acid by the replacement of half the oxygen by the same number of atoms of hydrogen." The notation of the hydrocarbons again cannot be said to be fixed : e.g. Brande writes olefiant gas CH. To state. however, the kind of evidence which is brought to support either hypothesis would lead us too far. The practical hint to you is to consider that certainty on these points has not yet been arrived at.
2. The question does not demand of you to find what the substances are, but only to discover in what proportion they exist in that compound. Suppose that x atoms of A are united to y atoms of B. 70
ข Therefore the formula of the compound is A R.-ED.]
Shrewsbury, November 22nd, 1858. Sir, — Would any of your correspondents be good enough to explain the following note which I have taken from Pott's iuclid, page 45, Def. xxxv:-" It is possible for two right lines never to meet when produced, and not be parallel.”
Sir, -"A Miner" having referred me to my Morell, I find it there prophetically written ,- It is frequently difficult to determine whether a word used in any given sense is a conjunction or an adverb. The test by which this may be determined is the following :-If the word is moveable to any other part of the sentence it is an adverb; but if it cannot be moved from the beginning of the sentence which it introduces without destroying the sense, it must be, strictly speaking, a conjunction.” Having applied this test to when and how in the passage given, I am convinced of what I never have doubted, viz., that they are conjunctions For my part I call words woich connect the different parts of an extended sentence conjunctions; so that I am afraid I must remain, at least until I change my definition, ignorant of even that generally known fact that a conjunction is not the only word which unites subordinate sentences with principal ones. Assuming that when and houo contained no notion in themselves, I was unable to see that they could extend another notion, simply from the arithmetical difür ulty of believing that 0 +1=2. “ A Miner” admits my premiss, but supports an opposite conclusion by instancing the adverb. Having always had a latent belief that adverbs did convey notions, I was startled to fird Mr. Morell confronting me. I find, however, on referring to page 26 of his Grammar (Constable's series) that, whatever his private opinions may be, he publicly teaches that notions are expressed by adverbs, and sets them down as notional words accordingly. Possibly there is a mistake somewhere.
November 11th, 1858. SIR,- I have four pupil teachers and a candidate, and am obliged to teach them either in my own private sitting room, or in the class room and find the gas and firing. The former I cannot do : first, because there is no convenience. I cannot have the use of maps or black boards. I must give up teaching the theory of music, as I cannot then have the use of the music board. I must also give up the weekly examinations, which I find invaluable, because I have not a table large enough. 2nd. I have only one sitting room, and co not want it turned into a school room, to say nothing of the spoiling of carpets, table covers, &c.; besides, I consider thé classroom the proper place to teach the pupil teachers. Will you, Sir, through the medium of your periodical, give me answers to the following:
1st. Are teachers obliged to find candles and firing. 2nd. If not, and the managers will not, to whom must I apply. By so doing you will oblige
TOPSY. [I'he practice is so different in different places, that we can give no authorised reply to our much-injured correspondent. Some of our readers may be better informed.-Ev.]
Bristol, 16th November, 1858. SIR,- In your last is a letter from "A Sh aker,” expressing surprise that certain arithmetical questions in your September number had not been answered, inferring that schoolmasters were unable to solve them, and kindly directing them to a place where they might obtain information. As some of your non-scholastic readers may possibly be thus led into error concerning either gehoolmasters' acquire. ments, or their readiness to answer enquiries in your periodical, allow me to state in reply, that the questions referred to were not given for your correspondents to answer, and so far from their being above the acquirements of trained teachers, they form part of an examination paper set to students, who had only completed one fourth of the usual period of normal training Hence “A Shoemaker's" surprise is uncalled for.
May I inform " Justitia" that he will learn how the subject he mentions may be brought before the ineeting to which he refers, by applying to the General Secretary of the Associated body, Mr. Ullathorne, Brandon Hill Schools, Bristol. I am, Sir, very faithfully yours,
The New Schools, Great Malvern, Nov. 20. Sir, -Will you kindly allow me to ask, through the Papers for the School. master," to be recommended a good and cheap work on Calisthenics, and games suitable for the play-ground.
I am, Sir, yours obediently,
London, November 19th, 1858. SIR-Would you or a correspondent favour me with an analysis, according to Morell, of the following passages, parsing the words in italic :
“But me, scarce hoping to attain that rest
Always from port withheld, always distress'd
Some have played
At building human wonders, mountains high.”
E. C. W.
November 21st, 1858. SIR-Would you kindly inform me how, in parsing, to treat such phrases as the following :-"In general," "in common," "in case,' as regards,"
!" si from hence.”