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p. 497.

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shunned, unless its chilly terrors were tempered with wine or aqua vitæ. In Coghan's book, before quoted, (and he was a physician,) there is not only one section to show that "" Water myxte with wine quencheth thirst the better," but another, giving instructions "how water may be drunke without harme." Our forbears also rarely drank their wine" simple of itself." They were ever brewing it into a caudle, a posset, or a mess of some kind. Coghan's book and others like it contain numerous recipes for such drinks. The least that was done was to spice the wine, or stir it with a sprig of sage or rosemary. The difficulty made by Falstaff's order for brewage" of sack is directly due to the very easy typographical error of pottle' for poffet.' Sack, as we have seen, was merely wine, and the posset of sack - a common and highly esteemed drink in Shakespeare's time was made with eggs, or with milk, or with both, or without either. In the Compleat Cook, London, 1655, are three recipes for the making of posset; one with both milk and eggs, one without milk, and one without eggs, but merely with warm water, sugar, and spices, as Falstaff seems to have desired his posset to be made in the Scene in the Merry Wives of Windsor. A posset of sack was considered " the sovereign'st thing on earth,' in cases of great fatigue and exposure, such as the fat knight had undergone. See in Webster and Decker's Westward Hoe, 1607, Act II. Sc. 2, " Mistress Birdlime. O my sides ache in my loins, in my bones! I ha' more need of a posset of sack, and lie in my bed and sweat, than to talk in music." There can be no doubt that Falstaff's need was the same as Mistress Birdlime's, and that even he did not propose to drink three quarts of sheer sherry wine in the course of ten or fifteen minutes.

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till sack commences it, and sets it in act and There is much probability in Tyrwhitt's conjecture that Shakespeare in these words alludes to the Cambridge Commencement and the Oxford Act; for by these names those two universities, as he remarks, "have long distinguished the season at which each of them gives to her respective students a complete authority to use those hoards of learning which have entitled them to their several degrees in Arts, Law, Physick, and Divinity."

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the first principle I would teach them," &c. :The quarto has "the first humane principle." If indeed the adjective were written by Shakespeare in the first draught of the play, I believe that he struck it out as weakening the sentence.

p. 499.

p. 500.

p. 502.

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p. 503.

SCENE IV.

"As flaws":- Flaws are small blades of ice that are sometimes congealed in the atmosphere of a clear cold morning which suddenly succeeds a humid night.

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“'Tis seldom when the bee," &c. :- Mr. Singer prints "seldom-when" both here and in Measure for Measure, Act IV. Sc. 2, considering seldom' an adjective in composition, as in seldom-time,' &c. But this involves the

use of when' as a substantive. I have not met with such a use of either of these words, cither by itself or in composition; and the folio separates them by a comma. The allusion to Samson's adventure with the lion is manifest.

"Hath wrought the mure," &c. :-These lines are an unmistakable imitation, almost a quotation, of the following, upon the same subject in the first edition of Daniel's Civil Wars, which appeared in 1595:

p. 504.

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"The people fear me" :- i. e., it is perhaps desirable to remark, the people make me afraid, not are afraid of

me.

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"They bear the King to a bed," &c.:· -There is no stage direction here, either in quarto or folio. The King was probably removed into the recess which occupied the back part of the stage in our old theatres, and before which a curtain was usually drawn.

p. 505.

Wearing the wall so thin that now the wind
Might well look thorow and his frailty find."
Book III. St. 116.

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with homely biggin bound": -Biggin' is a corruption of beguine, and means a cloth such as was worn upon the head by the members of that charitable sisterhood.

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"That scalds with safety":- The old copies have, "That scaldst," &c.,- a disagreement so common in the works of our old dramatists that I am not sure that it is due either to accident or oversight.

this golden ringol":-i. e., this golden circlet. The old copies misprint "rigol."

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[He is not here]":-These words are omitted from the folio; accidentally, as Warwick's speech shows.

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culling from every flower": The quarto las "tolling," &c., and as it also omits "the virtuous sweets," we see the intentional consistency of the folio reading.

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sickness hath determin'd me":-The quarto

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p. 509.

p. 507. "The moist impediments":-The folio has "most impediments' a misprint hardly worth notice.

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p. 508. Thus my royal liege":- The quarto superfluously has "my most royal liege; 'most' having probably been caught from the line above. It is retained by most editors.

to the might of it": Mr. Collier's folio of 1632 has, with some plausibility, "the weight of it." "That thou might'st win," &c.:-The folio misprints "might'st join."

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has "sickness hands determin'd me -a manifest misprint, which Mr. Collier yet retains, explaining the line, "Until the hands of his friend sickness have determin'd me"!

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p. 511.

p. 512.

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for what in me was purchas'd" :—' Purchase' was used to express any mode of obtaining possession, except inheritance.

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And all my friends": - The old copies have "thy friends" a manifest misprint, which it was yet left for Tyrwhitt to correct, except in Mr. Collier's folio of 1632. The mistake of m for th was common, as the reader of. these Notes must have observed, and if the t in th be left uncrossed, it can hardly be distinguished from m in most manuscript.

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p. 510. It hath been prophesied," &c.:

*

This prophecy is mentioned by Holinshed, in the following passage of his Chronicles, which, it will be seen, Shakespeare sometimes closely followed: "At length he recovered his speech, and understanding; and perceiving himselfe in a strange place, which he knew not, he willed to know if the chamber had anie particular name, whereunto answer was made, that it was called Jerusalem. Then said the king: Laud be given to the father of heaven, for now I know that I shall die here in this chamber, according to the prophesie of me declared, that I should depart this life in Jerusalem." Vol. III. fol. 541, Ed. 1586.

ACT FIFTH.

SCENE I.

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By cock and pie": See the Notes on The Merry Wives of Windsor, Act I. Sc. 1, p. 308.

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little tiny kickshaws” : — ‘Kickshaws' is not only a corruption of quelque chose, but in Shakespeare's time and after, the French and the English forms were

p. 512.

p. 513.

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p. 515.

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both used. "Now to these full dishes may be added in Sallets, Fricasies, Quelquechoses, and devised paste, as many dishes more." Gervase Markham's English House

wife, 1653, p. 100.

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No worse than they are [back-]bitten":- Thus the quarto; the folio having "than they are bitten," the injurious variation being doubtless due to accident.

p. 516.

the wearing out of six fashions (which is four terms or two actions)":-The terms of the law courts were of great social importance in old England, and especially in old London. They determined what is now called the season, and which has come to depend entirely on the sittings of Parliament. The times of holding these terms were of such consequence that they were stated in Almanacs; and even Grafton's Abridgement of the Chronicles of England, 1572, opens with "A necessary and perfect Rule to knowe when the Termes beginne and ende, and how many Retornes are in every Terme."

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without intervallums":- So the quarto; the folio, "with intervallums" an obvious misprint.

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SCENE II.

"Led by th' impartial conduct":-Thus the quarto: the folio misprints, imperial conduct."

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and God save your Majesty": The rhythm of this line, which has hitherto, in all editions since 1623, been printed “and Heaven save," &c., caused Mr. William Sidney Walker and the present editor independently to conjecture that it was originally written, and God save," as in the text. And so it was, as appears by the quarto, which, too often followed merely because it is the older and rarer impression, is here disregarded, from mere inattention, however, and the copying of one editor's text by another. The change in the folio was made out of respect for puritanic scruples, or the statute so often before referred to.

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"Not Amurath," &c. :-The Sultan Amurath, or Murad, III. died in 1595; and his son and successor, Mahommed III., put all his brothers to death to secure his own seat upon the throne. Malone's supposition, that Shakespeare alluded to this transaction, is more than probable; indeed, quite certain.

"And struck me," &c. :- There is no contemporary record of the act to which the Chief Justice here refers. It is first mentioned in Sir Thomas Elyot's Governor, which was published in 1531, and doubtless written con

p. 518.

p. 519.

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p. 520.

siderably more than a century after the date of the alleged Occurrence. Tradition was most probably Elyot's only authority. Holinshed and Stowe reproduce Elyot's story, and the blow is one of the incidents of the Famous Victories, in which also there is a similar conversation with regard to it between Henry V. and the Chief Justice, who is retained in office and made Protector of the realm during the King's expedition to France. The story was universally believed in Shakespeare's time, and was well suited to his purposes; and this was enough for him, and should satisfy us. It is interesting, however, to know that Chief Justice Sir William Gascoigne, the alleged recipient of the Prince's blow, was not retained in office by Henry V., but was superseded by Sir William Hankford, March 29th, 1413, just eight days after Henry came to the throne, and ten days previous to his coronation— a speedy dismissal. Arrears of salary, too, were paid to him in July, 1413, as " late Chief Justice of the Bench." The King, however, as a mark of favor, issued a warrant in November, 1414, giving him four bucks and four does annually from the forest of Pontefract. This has been shown by Tyler, in his Memoirs of the Life and Character of Henry V., Vol. I. p. 369.

SCENE III.

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a last year's pippin... with a dish of carraways": Coghan, in his Haven of Health, 1584, Chap. 5, says, "For the same purpose [the cure of flatulence] Careway seedes are used to be made in Cumfittes, and to be eaten with Apples."

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well said, Davy": - Davy has not said a word. His master means well done, -approving the "spread." your servingman and your husband":—i. e., one who husbands your affairs.

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"And ever among," &c.: Ever among' is a very ancient English, or rather semi-Saxon, idiom, meaning always, constantly. Silence's Muse is wronged in the old copies by having its effusions printed as prose. They are doubtless old folk-songs; but they have escaped discovery elsewhere.

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proface!" :- A corruption of the Italian buon pro vi faccia may it do you good. It is of frequent occurrence in old Italian, French, and English books.

"An we shall be merry":-Thus the quarto. The folio has " If we," &c.; which seems to have been an arbitrary modernization of the printing office. "An we

VOL. VI.

JJ

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