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tory of Russia, which may be satisfactorily consulted on this as well as on other subjects; it is replete with information*.
PROTESTANTS. UNDER the appellation of Protestants, we include all who dissent from Popery, in whatever country they reside, or into whatever sects they have been since distributed. Abroad they are divided into two sorts—the Lutherans, who adhere to Luther's tenets; and the Reformed, who follow the discipline of Geneva. They were called Protestants, because, in 1592, they protested against a decree of the Emperor Charles the Fifth, and declared, that they appealed to a general council. At present this vast class comprehends those whom Papists used contemptuously to style Hugonots in France; the Refugees in Holland, who fled thither upon the revocation of the edict of Nantz, 1685; the Presbyterians in Scotland; the Episcopalians and Nonconformists in England; together with a numerous body of Christians in America.
* Mr. Tooke is well known as the able translator of Zolikufre's, Sermons, which are well worthy the attention of the religious world.
As the Protestants originated at the REFORMATION, it will be proper to give a brief account of this illustrious period of Ecclesiastical History.
THE EEFORMATION IN GERMANY. FOR the three first centuries the religion of Jesus Christ stood on its own basis, was rapidly propagated among Jews and Gentiles, and suffered severe persecutions from the Roman emperors. At the commencement of the fourth century, Constantine became a convert to Christianity, and incorporated it with the state. “ It was not till the fifth, or near the sixth century, that the Bishop of Rome arrogantly assumed an illegal supremacy over his fellow pastors, and in process of time aimed at a secular government of princes as well as subjects. Though several emperors embraced and defended Christianity, yet the gradual decay of the Roman empire was a serious impediment to the rising preachers of the newly established religion. Those accomplishments which adorned the conquests of the Romans, and the perfection of science, which had dignified their statė, in such an extent, were gradually swept away by the barbarous nations which defeated them, and the close of the sixth century could not trace a vestige of that exalted nation's government, or its laws. Between four and five hundred years was
the glorious luminary of the gospel eclipsed by the dismal return of ignorace and of superstition*. To these dark ages (as they are by some justly termed, and by others, called the night of time) are to be attributed the doctrine of indulgences, partial absolution, transubstantiation, the creation and worship of saints, purgatory, monastic seclu
* The Crusades, commonly called the holy wurs, were expeditions undertakeu by the Papists to drive the Turks from Palestine, or the land of Judea, and thus to rescue the holy sepula chre out of the hands of infidels. There were eight of these crusades, the first in the year 1096, the last in 1270, assisted by Prince Edward, afterwards Edward I. King of England. The number of lives lost in these Quixotic expeditions, is incredible; and it will remain to future ages a matter of astonishment, how enthusiasm and superstition could so completely infatuate the human mind. An account of the crusades is given in Robertson's Charles the Fifth, and in Hume's History of England. Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, elegantly translated by Hoole, is founded or the crusades, and affords considerable amusement.
, The Inquisition was a tribunal erected by the popes for the examination and punishment of heretics. It was founded in the twelfth century, 'by Father Dominic and his followers, who were sent by Pope Innocent the Third to inquire into the number and quality of heretics, and then to send an account to Rome. Hence they were termed Inquisitors, and their court the Inquisition. This infernal court was established in all Italy and the dominions of Spain, except Naples and the Low Countries. Its cruelties were shocking beyond description; and were only one half of the bloody tale true, yet even then there is sufficient to freeze you with horror! See Dr. Chandler's. History of the Inquisition, which is full of interesting infermation on the subject.
sion, &c. So swift was the extinction of knowledge, and its revival so impeded, that persons of the greatest eminence in point of station could scarcely read or write. The clergy themselves, who engrossed what little science was remaining, could scarcely translate the liturgy ; and, when ordained, were expressly obliged to affirm, that they could read the Gospels and Epistles, and explain them.
“ The REFORMATION was effected in the sixteenth century, by the pious labours and unwearied studies of those bright characters, Erasmus, Luther, Huss, Jerome of Prague, &c. and as it should seem the particular act of Providence to faciliate their labours, and extend their influence, we find but half a century before the days of Luther, the art of printing was discovered, and not long before, that of the making of paper.
“ This indefatigable Reformer, having the way somewhat cleared for him by Erasmus, had the happiness to discover a copy of the Bible in the neglected library of his monastery. From so valuable a discovery the talents and application of this great nian were called forth into more than ordinary exercise; and he quickly drew aside the veil which had concealed the rooted errors and abominations of the priesthood, and exposed the craft and artifice which had deluded the disciples, and disgraced the doctrine of the
cross. Unawed by persecution, he proceeded coolly to examine into the several pretensions and inventions of the church of Rome, and overthrew them. He asserted and proved, that monastic retirement, if not contrary to, was no where required by the laws of God; and proposed to the Elector of Saxony, by whose permission he reformed the several churches within his dominions, to expel all abbots and monks, and to convert the convents of mendicant friars into public schools and hospitals. He proceeded to expose all the absurdities and superstitions of the Romish church, and had the satisfaction to see his cause prevail."-Birch's Consilia.
Dr. Robertson also observes :-" It was from causes seemingly fortuitous, and from a source very inconsiderable, that all the mighty effects of the REFORMATION flowed. Leo the Tenth, when raised to the Papal throne, found the revenues of the church exhausted by the vast projects of his two ambitious predecessors, Alexander the Sixtb, and Julius the Second. His own temper, naturally liberal and enterprising; rendered him incapable of that severe and patient economy which the situation of his finances required. On the contrary, bis schemes for aggrandizing the family of the Medici, his love of splendour, his taste for pleasure, and his magnificence in rewarding men of genius, involved him daily