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the similarity it followed

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movement became less and less with the glamour of a divine prominent; and that the Der- mission. In the Sudan, the vish horde was kept together Mahdi turned indifferent Moonly by the sare knowledge hammedans suffering from that desertion would entail the political oppression into fanamurder of their women and tios and patriots. In Somalichildren and relatives, as well land, the Mullah traded upon as the loss of their stook, and the superstition and indeby the generally accepted be- pendent spirit of his fellowlief, oarefully fostered in the countrymen to convert them haroun, that 80ocessful de- into robbers and out-throats. serters were subjeoted by the In short, Somaliland dervishBritish Government to tortures ism was but a despicable imitaeven more terrible than those tion of a genuine patriotio and praotised in the Dervish oamp. religious revolt.

Although the similarity is To resume, the Mullah more apparent than real, it followed ap his first coup of is difficult to consider the Der. April 1899 by a further vish movement in Somaliland successful foray against the without making some compari. Habr Yunis in August, and son with Mahdiam in the ho reoccupied Burko with & Sudan. The rebellion of the foroe estimated at 5000 men. Mahdi was primarily a revolt He gave himself out as the against the injustices and Mahdi; and ominous rumours oorruption of the Egyptian spread foretelling an advance officials, which had turned on Berbera. The Consulfertility into soareity, and the General urged an expedition native content of the savage on the Home Government, but into the misery of the op- our commitments elsewhere, pressed. The Dervish move- more partioularly in South ment in Somaliland was also Afrioa, were such as to pre& revolt against the rule of clude the immediate adoption the foreigner, but against a of this course. During the foreigner who had come to first seven months of 1900, give peace to warring tribes, the Mullab was comparatively to replace corruption by jus- inactive, but in August be ties, and ponary by prosperity. suddenly swooped down upon The politioal revolt in the the Aidegalla tribe and caused Sudan was only made possible all the friendly tribes to by the fire of religion or fana- evaouate the Haud in oontioism, oall it what you will, fusion. Next month the Habr which the Mahdi kindled in Awal tribe suffered severely the humble breasts of his at his hands. starving and naked fol. It would be superfluous to lowers, aniting them proudly discuss here in any detail the ander his inspiring leadership. campaigns wbich followed. The Somaliland Mullah also They are exhaustively described invested his political objeot, in the Official History of the the expulsion of the foreigner, Operations in Somaliland, 1901,

04,' published by the War Office camels, in addition to many in 1907; and it will be suffi. sheep, oattle, and horses. But sient for the purposes of this disorganised transport and the paper to outline very briefly shaken moral of the Somali the general course of events. levies prevented the pursuit of

The first expedition started the Mallab to his retreat in in April 1901, and operations the Mudug distriot. terminated in the following It was now evident that the Jaly. The force employed situation was such as to demand consisted of a looally-enlisted regular and seasoned troops. and hurriedly-trained levy of At the time of the sotion of 1500 men, of whom 500 were Erigo, the foroe in Somali. mounted. The casualties in- land had consisted of 2400 flioted on the Dervishes were rifles, of which no less than 1500 estimated at some 1200 killed were looal levies. This force and wounded, and, in addition, was immediately increased by 800 prisoners were taken, in- s further contingent of 900 olading some notable head- King's Afrioan Rifles, and by men.

300 Indian infantry. A strong The Mullah's power bad column was to advance from thus been appreoiably shaken, Obbia in Italian Somaliland and for & time he remained and occupy the Mudug. Anquiesoent. But not for long. other column was to operate In Ootober 1901 he renewed on the Berbera-Bohotleh line. his activities, and, thanks to And, simultaneously, an Abyg. the illicit arms traffio, he had, sinian force of 5000 rifles, 20by January 1902, not only companied by British officers, recovered from his losses, but was to advance along the Webi had foroed the majority of Shebeli, to prevent the Mallah's the Dolbabanta tribe to return retreat westward. The advance to his standard. By the time from Obbia oommenced on the our second expedition was 22nd February 1903; and the launched in June 1902, his enemy immediately fell back following was estimated at on Walwal and Wardair, deny. 15,000, of whom 12,000 were ing as an opportunity of trying said to be mounted and 1500 conclusions with his main foroe. armed with rifles. Against On two occasions, however, this, our Expeditionary Force small advance parties engaged consisted of some 2000 rifles, large foroes of Dervishes. At partly King's Afrioan Rifles, Gumbura, & reconnaissance of but principally locally-enlisted two companies



of the 2nd and locally - trained Somalis. King's Afrioan Rifles and 48

or me Daring this expedition, which rifles of the 2nd Sikhs came up culminated in the severe but with the Mullah's main force, successful sotion fought at commanded, so it is said, by Erigo in Ootober 1902, the their obief in person. The fight Dervishes sustained some 1400 which ensued appears to have casqalties, lost a large number lasted two and a balf hours. of prisoners and some 25,000 The Dervishes charged tbe Brit.


of per muni Dervisho Mellal, receive His Chalid

ish square from dense bush More than 8000 troops, of some 300 to 600 yards distant, which 1000 were Britieb, were their horsemen and riflemen employed, in the hope that being driven baok time and the Mallab's power would be again with oruel losses. The permanently shattered. The square was eventually broken enemy's foroe, which numbered by a rush of spearmon, but not between 6000 and 8000 fightbefore all our ammunition had ing Dervishes, was concenbeen exhausted. The Dervish trated at Jidballi, where the casualties, estimated by some Mullah, deciding to make a at 2700, are unknown: for no stand, received a most crushBritish officer survived to tell ing defeat. His casualties in the true story of Gumburu. the actual fight at Jidballi Dar oasualties were all officers (10th January 1904) must (9) and 187 men killed and 29 have been very large ; but far men wounded. Another aotion greater were his losses during at Daratoleh-in which were the course of his subsequent engaged some 800 Dervishes, flight northwards to Jidali, flushed with their victory at and thence eastward into Gumburu, with their leaders Italian territory. On the wearing the uniforms of the other hand, oar casualties were dead British officers-resulted slight, exoept in officers, of in the infliotion of heavy oasu. whom 3 were killed and alties on the enemy, our losses 9 wounded, out of a total of amounting to 2 officers and 13 27 killed and 37 wounded of men killed, and 4 officers and all ranks. It appears that the 25 men wounded. In the mean- Mullah only sought sanotuary time the Abyssinians inflioted in Italian territory after re& orushing defeat on the Der- ceiving solemn assurances of vishes, olaiming to have killed a safe passage from Osman 1000 of their spearmen. Im- Mahmoud, the Sultan of the mediately after this engage- Mijjertein, the Italian Somali ment, which took place on the tribe, who was equally solemnly 31st May 1903, the Mullab pledged to us to prevent him made a daring but successful from crossing the Italian movement eastward to the frontier. Had it not been for Nogal valley. Unfortunately, this breach of faith, the Mollah however, it was impossible to would doubtless have had no intercept this movement, as, alternative but to surrender. owing to camel transport and Thus, this fourth expedition other diffionlties, our troops was completely successful in were being withdrawn to all but bringing the Mullah Bohotleh.

himself to bay, and so putting His Majesty's Government an end to his movement The now decided on a further in- greater portion of his wealth, crease to our force in Somali- which among a desert-dwelling land in view of the Mullah's nomad people consists of the position in the Nogal and its flooks and berds upon which proximity to our sphere. their very existence depends,

estima Jiaballion the above al ago the common person shattere in

had been captured. The moral greatly pleased at this. Our of his Dervishes as a fighting men who have fallen in battle body had been atterly de- have won paradise. God fights stroyed; and their numbers, for us. We kill, and you kill. estimated at 6000 to 8000 We fight by God's order. That before Jid balli, could not have is the truth. We ask for exceeded 800 on the oonolusion God's blessing. God is with of the oampaign. Above all, me when I write this. If you the Mullah's personal prestige wish for war, I am happy ; was temporarily shattered ; and, if you wish for peace, I and the disoredited refugee in am content also. But if you Italian territory must have wish for peace, go away from out a poor figure as compared my country baok to your own. with the defiant onemy who, If you wish for war, stay where during the third expedition, you are. Hearken to my indited the following letter to words. I wish to exchange a the British people :

machine-gan for ammunition. "I wish to rule my own If you do not want it, I will oountry and proteot my own sell it to some one else. Send religion. If you will, send me me a letter saying whether you a letter saying whether there desire war or peace." is to be peace or war. I intend In Maroh 1905, the Illig or to go from Burao to Berbera. Pestalozza Agreement was conI warn you of this—I wish to oluded between the Italian fight with you. I like war, Government and the Mullah, but you do not. God willing, whereby peace was deolared I will take many rifles from between the Dervishes on the you, but you will get no rifles one hand and the British and or ammunition from me. I Italian Governments on the have no forts, no houses, no other. The Mullah was ascountry. I have no oultivated signed & port and certain fields, no silver, no gold for territories in Italian Somali. you to take. I have nothing. land, beyond whioh he and his If the country were oultivated Dervishes undertook not to or contained houses or pro- enoroach. The Mullah also perty, it would be worth your agreed to become an Italian while to fight. The country proteoted subject. This agreeis all jungle, and that is of no ment was, however, nullified use to you. If you want wood soon after it was concluded, and stone, you can get them in as the Mullah left Italian plenty. There are also many territory, and by 1907 had ant-heaps. The sun is very re-established himself on the hot. All you can get from me British side, raiding and looting is war-nothing else. I have far and wide. met your men in battle, and In 1909 the Home Governhave killed them. We are ment deoided opon a change

1 Scil., a machine-gun lost by the King's African Rifles at Erigo in October 1902, and recovered by them in January 1920.

of polioy in regard to Somali. vanquished, he resasoitated the land. The administration, old dread of the Dervish name. military and political, was Such a state of affairs oould entirely withdrawn from the not be permitted to oontinue interior, and all diroot control indefinitely; and in 1912, with was abandoned. Aotive ad. a view to keeping the main ministration was limited to the trade routes in the vioinity of three coast towns; and the the coast towns olear, it was friendly Somali tribes in the decided to form a small Somali interior were given armsandam- Camel Constabulary, 150 strong, munition with whioh to defend to maintain order among our themselves against the Mullah. friendlies within & radius of This polioy had been carried fifty miles or so of Berbera, into fall effect by Maroh This expedient proved an im1910. Disorder, which beggars mediate success, and comdescription, ensued. The friend- parative peace was restored ly tribes abandoned themselves among the friendly tribes-80 to an orgy of internecine war. muoh so that the force, enfare, using against each other couraged by initial successes, the arms which had been given was subsequently based on them to defend themselves Burso, eighty miles inland. against the common enemy. But in August 1913 they en. The motive was not a desire countered at Dalmadoba and for supreme control on the engaged a party of Dervishes part of any one tribe, but the estimated at 2000 rifles. The Somali's besetting sin of ac- heaviest casualties-estimated quisitiveness, which impels him at between 200 and 600—were to raid his neighbour's flooks inflicted on the enemy; but and herds—if he can. It was 50 per cent of our small foroe, impossible to oontrol such a including the Commandant, situation from Berbera. Logs were killed. of confidence in the British After this set-back the Government, the disaffection of Camel Constabulary was reSomali Government servants in organised on military lines the coast towns, and a collapse and its numbers raised to 500, of trade, were the immediate and the Indian contingent sequelce of this state of un- was also inoreased to 400 ohooked anarohy. In the mean- strong. This addition to the time, the Mullah was not slow military establishment at the to take advantage of so deplor- disposal of the Proteotorate able a situation. By sudden Government was sanotioned and unexpeoted attaoks upon for the purpose of enabling the friendly tribes, whom he the friendly tribes to avail found soattered and unpre- themselves of their grazing pared, he obtained the stook, grounds and water without food, clothing, and ammuni- molestation by the Mullab. tion which he 80 urgently The objeots in view in Somalirequired; and by the ineffable land were defined in the House atrocities and mutilations of Lords on the 13th April whioh he practised upon the 1914 by Lord Emmott, then

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