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200 sabros, o, 228,000

On the Italian front therefore rifles and 3000 sabres, and per. we were still 6 to 4 in spite of haps 200 or 300 guns. We Caporetto.

were 3 to 1. In the East the Austrians In Mesopotania, 1 British had 34 divisions, some of which and 5 Indian divisions : 101 might be expeoted to come to battalions, 125,000 rifles, 9000 Italy; but, on the other hand, sabres, 300 field-gans, and 50 the Italians had not yet put heavy gans. Against these into the line all the divisions the Turks had nominally 5 they had reconstruoted out of divisions and 47 battalions, their defeated troops during but these only amounted to the winter, out of whioh they 18,000 rifles, 1000 sabres, and were ultimately to form the no more than 100 gans. Here Sixth Army.

we were 6 to 1. In the Balkans there were This survey would not be 23 Bulgarian, 2 German, and complete without a mention 2 Austrian divisions, a total of of Lettow - Vorbeok in East 27: 294 battalions, 228,000 Afrioa, with his 250 Europeans rifles, 3000 sabres, 972 field and 1500 Africans. A British guns, and 353 heavy guns. On and native force of 12,000 our side, 8 French, 43 British, rifles, with & ration (not a 1) Italian, 3 Greek, 6 Serbian, 1 combatant) strength of 55,000 Italian in Albania, 23 divisions were kept busy ohasing him. in all: 271 battalions, 219,000 So the Allies, in spite of rifles, 7000 sabres, 1100 field. losing the Russians and Rougans, and 380 heavy guns. manians, kingdoms of millions Here the enemy was slightly of men, who had thrown into superior; bat the Greek mobil- the balance more than 120 isation was not finished. Later divisions — in spite of not in the spring the size of their having more than one Amerioontingent would be doubled oan division at their side from or trebled; this would leave the & country which had sotually advantage to the Allies again registered 25 million men as

In Palestine and Mesopo- capable of military service-in tamia the Allies were over spite of these deduotions, at whelmingly larger than the the beginning of 1918, still Tarks, whose battalions, by the had the advantage. time they reached the front, War abstracts the world into were all reduced to 200 or 300 a ohess-board where each piece by desertion, General Allenby is measured in divisions. At in Palestine had 7 British the first meeting of the and 1 Indian divisions : 117 Supreme War Council, M. battalions, 100,000 rifles, 16,000 Venizelos harangued it for an sabres, 410 field-guns, and 93 hour on the past, present, and heavy gang. Faoing him were future glories of Hellas; but 11 Turkish divisions and 1 when he stopped drenching his second-olass German division audience with his eloquence, at and south of Damasous: the only voice raised was by 107 battalions, but only 29,000 General Robertson, who asked, and shrug and sigh over its 24,000 sabres; 8800 field-guns being too late. But if a central and 5500 heavy guns. The military organ of command for allies had available 97 Frenob, the whole front between the 57 British, 10 Belgian, 1 AmNorth Sea and the Adriatio erioan, and 2 Portuguese--alhad existed before, the ne- together 167 divisions, esti. cessity for the improvement mated at 1585 battalions, would have appeared as soon 1,480,000 rifles, 74,000 sabres; as they started disoussing, and 8900 field - guns and 6800 it could easily have been heavy guns. So the Allied oarried out in the early part totals were still superior to of the war.

the German, the German units, Caporetto deoided Mr Lloyd divisions and battalions, being George. At a conference held smaller than the Allied. The at Rappallo in the beginning rate at which their divisions of November, the Supreme War could be brought from the Council was founded as a con- East, where they still had 58, tral direoting politioal body for of rather inferior quality, was the whole allianoe: it was & about 10 a month. Of those, monthly meeting of the prin- perhaps 40 at the most could oipal Ministers of each country be expeoted to appear in at Versailles. There was a France, and so their maximum permanent staff of Military strength, between 200 and 210 Representatives at that place divisions, would be reached in to aot as their military ad- May. But the American divi. visers. These military ad. sions (of which one only was visers were Sir Henry Wilson; now in the line and counted) Weygand, Chief of the Staff to were beginning to come in ; 60 Foob in Paris; General Ca- that at no time would the dorna ; and later, General Bliss, German superiority in number Amerioan Chief of the Staff. over the Allies be near 80 This, as Major Grasset says, great as the Allied superiority “was a hesitating but not less over the Germans had been decisive step towards unity of for at least one and a half oommand.”

years. There ought therefore The plans elaborated be- to have been no cause for tween Fooh and Sir Henry anxiety. Wilson at Versailles oan be On the Italian front there better understood if the foroes were still the 11 Anglo-French in opposition, as they were to divisions sent there after be between the middle and end Caporetto, and 50 Italian divi. of February 1918, when the sions : 764 battalions, 633,000 fighting was expected to begin, rifles, 6400 sabres; 3700 fieldare known.

guns and 2100 heavy guns. By the flow of divisions The enemy had only 431 from the East, the Germans Austrian and 3 German, a in France then had 178 divi- total of 461 divisions : 439,000 sions-estimated at 1630 bat- rifles, 3400 sabres; 3000 fieldtalions, 1,232,000 rifles, and guns and 1500 heavy guns. On the Italian front therefore rifles and 3000 sabres, and per. we were still 6 to 4 in spite of haps 200 or 300 guns. We Caporetto.

were 3 to 1. In the East the Austrians In Mesopotania, 1 British had 34 divisions, some of which and 5 Indian divisions : 101 might be expected to come to battalions, 125,000 rifles, 9000 Italy; but, on the other hand, sabres, 300 field-gans, and 50 the Italians had not yet put heavy gang. Against these into the line all the divisions the Turks had nominally 5 they had reconstruoted out of divisions and 47 battalions, their defeated troops during but these only amounted to the winter, out of which they 18,000 rifles, 1000 sabres, and were ultimately to form the no more than 100 gans. Here Sixtb Army.

we were 6 to 1. In the Balkans there were This survey would not be 23 Balgarian, 2 German, and complete without a mention 2 Austrian divisions, a total of of Lettow - Vorbeck in East 27: 294 battalions, 228,000 Afrioa, with his 250 Europeans rifles, 3000 sabres, 972 field and 1500 Africans. A British gans, and 353 heavy guns. On and native force of 12,000 our side, 8 Frenoh, 41 British, rifles, with & ration (not a 14 Italian, 3 Greek, 6 Serbian, 1 oombatant) strength of 55,000 Italian in Albania, 23 divisions were kept busy chasing him. in all: 271 battalions, 219,000 Se the Allies, in spite of rifles, 7000 sabres, 1100 field. losing the Russians and Rogguns, and 380 heavy guns. manians, kingdoms of millions Here the enemy was slightly of men, who had thrown into superior; but the Greek mobil- the balance more than 120 isation was not finished. Later divisions — in spite of not in the spring the size of their having more than one Amerioontingent would be doubled oan division at their side from er trebled; this would leave the a country which had actually advantage to the Allies again, registered 25 million men as

In Palestine and Mesopo- capable of military service-in tamia the Allies were over- spite of these deduotions, at whelmingly larger than the the beginning of 1918, still Tarks, whose battalions, by the had the advantage. time they reached the front, War abstracts the world into were all reduoed to 200 or 300 a ohess-board where each piece by desertion, General Allenby is measured in divisions. At in Palestine had 7 British the first meeting of the and 1 Indian divisions : 117 Supreme War Council, M. battalions, 100,000 rifles, 16,000 Venizelos harangued it for an sabres, 410 field-gung, and 93 hour on the past, present, and heavy gans. Faoing him were future glories of Hellas ; bat 11 Turkish divisions and 1 when he stopped drenching his second-olass German division audience with his eloquence, at and south of Damasous: the only voice raised was by 107 battalions, but only 29,000 General Robertson, who asked, “How many divisions ean you and therefore it was a right give us in the spring ?” From which, in simple entirety, could the height of the Supreme War not be given any general of Coanoil the number of divisions any single nation, for no army Greece could supply stood for of any nation would bear Greece.

having its leaders dismissed The plan of campaign for by a foreigner. 1918 was the work of Fooh, ' In effeot, the funotion of a Sir Henry Wilson, and Mr generalissimo would have been Lloyd George, in the sense that to fix the quantity and use of while some of the leaders of the Allied Reserve, if this the Alliance favoured some whole front was treated as a parts of it, and others others, single front. This would have they were in favour of all of been his work in a defensive it, and imposed it on all the campaign, such as was antiother leaders. They, in effeet, cipated. Assuming that any said to the Sapreme War point or points were threatened Counoil

by the enemy, suoh a general. “We will stand on the issimo would have decided the defensive on the Western front number, place, and movement till the Amerioans arrive : on of units from the rest of the the defensive, if we give the front that were to go to the Allied armies on the front from defence of that point. the North Sea to the Adriatic Fooh and Sir Henry Wilson a single organ of oommand, we put forward & simple and inshould be able to resist the genious proposal, with the enemy, if they were able to objeot of giving the three resist us. But let us take the Allied armies all the advanoffensive in Palestine: Turkey tages of a generalissimo with. is exhausted, and a defeat in out the objeotions: the three Palestine will knook Turkey commanders-in-chief were to out. Such a result will have remain commanders-in-chief ; further consequences which we but at Versailles there was to cannot foresee, but which be formed an Executive War might be deoisive."

Board, with Fooh as chairThere were thus two parts man; Sir Henry Wilson as to this plan, a central command the British, General Cadorna in the West and an offensive in as the Italian, and General Palestine.

Bliss as the American memA central eommand seems bers. This Board was to have easy to create. The French the right to demand from each solution was that it should be commander-in-chief a certain given to a French general-& number of divisions which it natural olaim on a front where could control. Divisions placed they had 103 divisions to in this General Reserve would 62 British and 50 Italian; but, be ear-marked, and not to be as Sir Henry Wilson always used by any commander-ininsisted, the right to command chief without permission of involves the right to dismiss, the Executive War Board, which had authority to fix means of the General Reserve their number, place, movement, will do thig.” and use.

Linked to this oreation of a The Executive War Board, central command was the exbrought into existenoe to handle tension of the British front. the General Reserve, gave each After a very close consideraoommander-in-chief the advan- tion, it had been decided by tages of a generalissimo. The the military representatives, General Reserve was & bank- subjeot to the creation of a ing account on which each General Reserve, to extend that could draw if he was attaoked: front as far as Barisis, though his drafts would be fixed by the French wanted it carried the War Board, sooording to as far as Berry-au-Bao. This their judgment. On the other left the Fifth British Army hand, he had none of the dig. under Gough, which joined on advantages of a generalissimo. to the French, andaly extended, No oommander-in-chief oould and the Allied line along suspeot his forces were being Gough's front unduly thin. exploited for the benefit of an Taking all the factors, and Ally's foroos, for each nation there were many, into conhad its representative on the sideration, Barisis was a point War Board. Sir Henry to which the British armies Wilson and Fooh in effoot ought to go. Proceeding on argued

entirely different methods of "The system by whioh each caloulation, both General commander - in - ohief attacks Cadorna's and Sir Henry separately is possible when on Wilson's staffs, working inthe offensive. But we must dependently, fixed on this now stand on the defensive. point as giving them their Ludendorff will have about just extension. 200 divisions: he will leave The military representative 100 in the line and attack arguedone of the three commanders “If the Allied line in France in - ohief - French, British, or was treated as one front, it Italian — with a m888 of could not be equally strong at manouvre of 100 divisions : every point. Some portion no single oommander-in-chief must be thinner than others. oan resist without the assist. But the 'oreation of the General ance of the other. But no Reserve made this partioular oommander-in-chief parts with point a matter of indifference. his reserves willingly. There For if the weak point was atwill be discussions and con- taoked, the General Reserve sequent loss of time that may could be drawn there at once, be disastrous. There must be and the War Board had the some superior authority to authority to make the General deoide at once how muoh each Reserve as large as it liked, of the others must contribute drawing from all armies. So to help the one attaoked. The the weakest point conld at Executive War Board, by onoe be made the strongest."

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