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The other part of the plan oondaot of the operations in of campaign was the Palestine France led to a resalt that no offensive : Allenby already had one had anticipated. But the an overwhelming preponder- first winter edition of the plan anoe over the Turks. That was better both in means and preponderance was to be conception than its autumn further increased; he was to 8000e8sor. Allenby's British be reinferoed from Mesopo. troops were taken from him tamia with foroes originally after the disaster of the spring, fixed at & higher figare, but and Indian divisions substi. ultimately amounting to i tuted. Fool's authority 88 Indian division. An Indian chairman of the Exeou tive oavalry division in France was War Board was better conto be sent to him. His foroes ceived and clearer than his were so large that the real authority 28 generalissimo, diffioulty was supplying him, which was to “00-ordinate and his capacity for hitting the action of the British and hard depended muoh more French armies.” If the second upon the rate at which the edition of this plan of oamrailroad from Egypt could be paign finished the war, the pushed forward. But with a first edition would have done little time and a great deal it even more surely. So great of railroad material, it was in war is the importance of a rookoned he onght to be able good plan that, as soon as it to annihilate the very inferior was found and carried out, Turkish foroes in front of the war ended. In the winter him.

of 1917-1918, a friend talking To this Eastern project the of the diffioulties in front of Freneh members of the the Allies, said to Fooh's Chief Supreme War Counoil at of Staff, Weygandfirst presented some opposi. “However bad our situation tion, bat agsented on oondition may soom now, it was worse that no white troops were re- for you and General Fooh moved from France for this at the Marne; for you were attempt. There was also the heavily outnumbered, and we opposition to it from General will still be superior till the Robertson, the Chief of the month of April.” Imperial General Staff.

Weygand answeredThis plan of oampaign, in “Our situation is maoh its two parts, a central oom. worse now; for then we had mand in France and an the magnificent plan of Marshal offensive in Palestine, was in Joffre, and now we have no effeet the plan that carried plan at all.” the Allies to viotory in the The Supreme War Council autumn: Allenby's annihila. adopted this plan at a session tion of the Turkish Army in in the last days of January front of him knooked out the and the first days of February oorner-stone of the edifice of 1918. The utmost preodations the enemy's power, and Fooh's of secrecy were adopted: for some of the sittings most of defended by Ludendorff unless the seoretaries were exoluded information was acquired where from the room. The copies of the blow was intended to fall: the plan of oampaign and of then forces sufficient to meet the minutes of the meeting it might be concentrated in were limited to a few copies that quarter. The information and put in the hands of only was therefore inestimable. a few people. For Ludendorff, Pablio opinion in France and as he has now told us, was as Italy had been oanvassing the anxious about being attacked question of a supreme comas the Allies were. His posi. mander in the field during the tion, a few weeks before the whole winter, and was naturcampaign oould be expeoted to ally concerned at the disoonopen, was anxious and pre- neotion between the three oarious : on almost every front armies defending its soil. To he was outnumbered. The reassure this opinion the news collapse of any of the numerous that these armies had been fronts meant the loss of an given a certain unity ander Ally whose fall would probably Fooh was published in the bring down another, till the papers, but in a vague and four Central Powers knocked misleading way. The other each other down like skittles. decision, to overwhelm the Through the two main channels, Turkish armies in Palestine, was Danish and Swiss, along with guarded with greater preoadthe indigoretions of the enemy tions of secreoy than any other whioh reached the ears of the decision ever taken by the Allies, they could know his ap- Supreme War Counoil. prehensions, which he oonfesses A very sprightly and brilin his published memoirs. Ver- liant writer on military affairs, dan, olose to the line of railroad Colonel Repington, had till the wbioh gave them lateral com- beginning of January been munioation, was e sensitive military correspondent of The point in the German defensive Times': at that date he left system, and here the German The Times,' which had grown General Staff anticipated an oritioal of General Robertson, attack by the Allies that would and beoame military corre. forestall theirs. There was no spondent of the Morning georet more precious than where Post. There he became the the Allied attack was coming. avowed exponent of that The various theatres of war, in General's views, referred to which the system of the Central himself as the offioial spokesPowers lay, were strung out man of the General Staff, and along an awkward line, separ. published information whioh ated by nature, and in the East he could not have obtained oonnected by railroad lines of anywhere but from the War oommunioation insufficient, de. Office. A letter from bim, footive, and slow. Ignorant written in Paris on February where the aim of the Allies 5, was published, denouncing was, no portion oould be firmly the Inter-Allied War Council

VOL, CCVIII.-NO, MCCLIX,

which had just been held. to seize the printing presses On February the 11th another of the Morning Post,' and so artiole by him was published suppress it entirely; but after in the Morning Post.' This a talk with his Attorney. was a detailed and acourate General, Sir Gordon Hewart, 200ount of the decisions and Mr Lloyd George adopted & discussions of the last Session course much more astute. The of the Supreme War Council. editor and Colonel Repington It desoribed with fulness the were only prosecuted and fined Executive War Board 88 for a technioal offence under “ The Versailles soldiers under the Defence of the Realm Aot; the presidenoy of General and Sir Gordon took care Fooh," "controlling and direot- during the prosecution to ing the reserves," and reveals make only the disclosures the machinery by oritioising about the General Reserve a it. Farther, he calls on Par- subjeot of complaint: the liament to intervene, and not passage about the side-show, permit "& side-show" to take which revealed the secret of place. The side-show he de- the Allies, he treated as in. soribes, in the very words of offensive. This artfal treat. Mr Lloyd George, as recorded ment may have attenuated in the minutes of the session, the effeot of the betrayal. as “the delivery of a knook. The editor of the Morning out blow to Turkey.” So as Post,' whose patriotism was to leave nothing in doubt, he above suspicion, aoted, and indioates the theatre of war Colonel Repington no doubt where the side - show is to also, from their own sense of take place : “the Turks will daty, and (as the magistrate retire in front of us from who convicted them said) they Damasous to Aleppo."

knew the risks they were The article also tells Luden- taking. Colonel Repington dorff that Allenby's real diffi. disavows in this article hav. oulty was, the very point of ing an “official report of these the discussion that the Supreme proceedings,” or “spoken to War Council had had, “How any of our military or military long will it take for our broad. representatives who attended"; gauge railway, at the rate of but he protests too much. In half a mile a day, to reach this and subsequent articles Aleppo?The article is a from his lively pen he quotes summary - a very excellent sotual phrases—the natural, feand concise summary-of the lioitous, epigrammatio phrases principal decisions and disous. of Mr Lloyd George recorded sions that had taken place at in the minutes of the session : a session where the Supreme they must have oaught his War Counoil had refined on quick literary eye as he read their usual precautions for them over. He could not have georeoy, extravagant as these had all the information he usually were. The first de published, which was absooision of the War Cabinet was lutely complete, unless he had been shown an official report General Staff in London, and of the proceedings. The per- was suoceeded at Versailles by son who showed them to General Rawlinson. Colonel Repington can only Fooh, when he oame to Verhave been an offioer of the sailles, was an old man, unwell General Staff, and it is per- and worn with anxiety, and fectly easy to guess who it beginning to lose his trim was. That officer was oer- horseman's figure. He shone tainly not General Robertson, in debate as much as he did who is far too rough and in action. In his profound straightforward for these de- grasp of any question : in his vious methods. But it must oapaoity for dealing at once, have been an officer of the and conolusively, with any General Staff of whioh General opposite point which he reRobertson was the obief, and jeoted : in the skill with which to defeat a plan whioh General he exposed the fallaoy of an Robertson opposed he disclosed unsound argument: in the that plan to a journalist, and flexible readiness with which thus through him to the he adapted his attitude to any enemy. It not only told contrary idea he felt unable Ludendorff the plan, but to refute: in the facility and through the artiole suggested rapidity with which he evolved to him & means of parrying schemes to reach a common the blow, to “evade Allenby's agreement: in the closely offensive by retiring, and bring woven and orderly logio of his the U-boats down the Danube thought : in the rapid, almost to Constantinople." No officer exuberant, flow of his speech : was punished in oonsequence in the flashing power of illusof the conviotion of Colonel trating his meaning: in his Repington and the editor of ruthless contempt for weaker the Morning Post.'

dialecticians,-in all these he The Executive War Board— resembled a great Chancery Fooh, Wilson, Bliss, Cadorna special. In the simplicity of

-got to work at once. Foch his ways-he had not even an proposed that the General Re- A.D.C., and he used to arrive serve should begin by being a alone, his papers under his seventh of the total Allied arm, with an absence of cereforce from the North Sea to mony astonishing to any one the Adriatio, and fixed it at accustomed to the pomp that thirty divisions; and letters surrounds even a brigadier : were addressed to each oom- in the roughness of his ways, mander-in-chief asking him if a strong contrast to the gentlehe would contribute his quota, manly English and grand proportionate to the number of manner of the Italians : in his divisions he commanded, to the extreme piety,-in all these he General Reserve. On Febru- was like a rustio French curé, ary 15th, Sir Henry Wilson redolent of the soil, the true suoceeded Sir William Robert- soil of France, the soil of son as Chief of the Imperial peasants and soldiers, descendants of those who accomplished angle and Rheims. But if he the Gesta Dei per Francos, very is suocessful and drives one or different from the glittering other of these lines baok, he foam of Paris. In sheer in- himself presents an anguarded telloot he towered above every and open flank, and the more one at the Supreme War AUOGOssful he is, and the more he Council as much as Mr Lloyd enlarges the angle, the longer George did in courage,

and therefore the more open During the first half of the and unguarded his flank will be. month of February the Ger- "I will therefore divide my man soheme of attack became General Reserve into three porolearer. The Allied and the tions, each larger than the German lines formed an angle, other. The smallest portion and the German divisions in I will place in Dauphiné, olose large masses began to accumu. to the best crossing into Italy; late towards the point of the the largest I will concentrate angle: here also appeared Von round Paris; the third portion Hutier at the head of an army. I will place round Amiens. He was a specialist in surprise From the concentration of attacks, and at the capture of German troops the attaok Riga, in the preceding autumn, must come in the Rheims or the Germans had used a new Cambrai region; therefore the manoeuvre invented by him. balk of the General Reserve Instead of oolleeting their at- roand Paris is best situated to taeking divisions in front of come to the help of either the point at whioh it was region. The Amiens portion aimed to break through, they stands behind the British Fifth were kept very far baok from Army, the weakest point of the line, and brought up to the line, and ready to support the point stealthily the night it. The Dauphiné portion is before, so that the enemy, situated so as to be able to go though he might guess the to the assistanoe of the Swiss region, could not guess exaotly or the Italians, in the unlikely where. While these divisions event of their being attacked, were at this distance from the or to rejoin the rest of the line, they praotised over ground General Reserve." artificially made to resemble Fooh did no more than outthe real point of attack. It line the part to be played by was an invention appropriate the General Reserve, for it to the German genius for secret never was to come into existand tireless organisation. enoe. Major Grasset quotes

Fooh in effeot said to the Napoleon as saying that the Exeoutive War Board

art of war is simple enough to "Ludendorff must launch anderstand; it is doing it that his mass of attaok either is diffioalt. The outline of westward or southward, either Fooh's plan was perfectly towards the British side of simple: Ludendorff had formed the angle and Cambrai, or his mass of manoeuvre near the towards the French side of the apex of the angle formed by

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