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of soaroely veiled opposition; buted, and covered a huge but our interests were more traot of country. This deintimately and vitally affeoted manded the employment of than those of other nations. secret agents in India, AfThe start made had, however, ghanistan, Arabia, and Persia, proved a considerable deter. in order to unravel its intrirent to the trade from Masqat; oacies, and to lay bare the but until some satisfactory machinations of those who agreements were arrived at atilised every form of devioe with Franoe, Persia, the Sultan to hoodwink the opposition of Masqat, and the Amir of to the traffio, initiated by Afghanistan, operations con- our Government. And these dooted during one isolated agents, be it remembered, ever season would certainly not carried their lives in their suffioe to destroy the danger hands ; for one false move, once and for all. As events which might give them away, demonstrated, saoh agreements would probably result in their were not easily obtained; and having their throats out. it fell to Britain's lot, there. References—thoagh all too fore, to continue these very superficial, I fear-have been expensive, and partioalarly made to the highly important onerous and trying, operations part played by our vigilant for some years yet, before the naval foroes in these longnaval foroes in the Gulf oould drawn-out oonfliots of wit. beredaoed to normaldimensions, Most deservedly were their and the threat to our stability exertions rewarded in due on the Indian frontier regarded course by a naval medal, with as more or less dissipated. olasp, "Persian Gulf, 1909

In the preceding pages an 1914”; whilst, at the olose of attempt has been made to the first season's operations give some idea of the com- here deseribed, Admiral Slade plexity of the situation, to was raised to the dignity of disolose the network of in. K.C.I.E., and his capable trigue, and to prove the oom- and energetio subordinate, plicity of practioally every Capt. Hunt, R.N., of the Fox, ohieftain and tribesman on the awarded the C.S.I. for their Arabian and Persian coast. tireless labours to defeat the line in this trade. Its rami. gan-runners' aotivities. fioations were widely distri.


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My mother, who, like ing the Revolution, when for Charley's aunt, was no or- & whole hundred years the dinary woman, had a theory Irish Colt was hungry and by whioh she explained to contented. But none of her her own satisfaotion the dif- evidenoes for the theory seems feronoe in the fortunes of the to me 80 complete all that two races, known as the she did not live to see, the Saxons and the Celts, in the present oondition of Ireland. United Kingdom, and more The outbreak of the great espeoially in Ireland. How war meant to most of the far the 80-called Saxons are civilised races & period of really Saxons, and the 80- penary, siokne88, sorrow, and oalled Celts are really Celts, death. Their men who had did not concern her, and need tilled the fields were dragged not oonoern us : whatever their eway to die on them; their origins, the two races are suf. women were left bebind to fioiently distinot and distin- raise what orops they could guishable. Her theory she from the empty land, and to summed up in this way: the ponder in agony over the fate 08080 of all the differenoe in of their absent husbands, sons, the fortunes of the Saxons and lovers; the ohildren were and · the Celts is that the half - starved, and dying in Saxon populace are never thousands through honger, dangerously discontented till neglect, and disease. But to they have not got enough to the Celts of Ireland the out. eat, and the Celt populace are break of the war was a blessing. never dangerously disoontented Their men were not conscripted till they have,

to fight: any of them who My mother was always went to the war went merely ready to support her theory beoause they liked fighting, both with wise saws and modern which it must be admitted a instances. She was, what so considerable proportion of them few of our pastors and masters do. Those who preferred are now, very well read in his. peacefal paraqits continued to tory, and could oite from it oultivate their fields as secure goores of examples from the from danger as if no war story of the Irish Celts where existed. Not only so, but for & satisfied stomach was accom- everything which their fields panied by a dissatisfied heart, produced they received double and, as the logioians say, vice or treble the pre-war price. versa; her most notable ex. Never in the whole story of ample of the vice versa being, their race were they so well of course, the century follow. proteoted, 80 well paid, or in suob & condition of general thousands—in such numbers prosperity. While all the indeed that many of them other peoples of Europe were were afterwards sent baok stinted, the smallest Celtio again to the shipyards and farmer in Ireland could keep engineering shops, where their his family in luxury and at services were more needed by the same time put money in the State than at the front. the savings bank. But as his Those who remained at home breakfast table and his bank worked hard and were well balance went up his content- satisfied with the prices their ment went down. Fairly labour and produce brought. satisfied with things before There was no disoontent among the war, when his farm them even when, as sometimes brought him only & bare happened, their bours were living, he beoame fieroely dis- longer and their wages lower satisfied when it brought him than they thought was just. a bountiful subsistence. At so long as the war was on last he could not stand this they were satisfied to let these satisfaotory state of things things stand over and to sacriany longer, and he rebelled fice their own rights to advance against it; and he has con- the rights of their country. tinued his rebellion against During the war a very conit-and will, if my mother's siderable number of the adtheory is oorroot, continue re. Vanood Booialistio — perhaps belling against it until the Bolshevio would be more cordisorganisation of industry reot-ironworkers of Glasgow and markets in Ireland has found their way to Belfast. once more reduoed him to Why they crossed the North meagre rations. I must say, Channel is not very olear, sinoe for my own part, I look to wages were no higher and this for the restoration of order hours no shorter in Belfast in Ireland more confidently than in Glasgow. Possibly than to the Restoration of the Consoription Aot had Order in Ireland Act 1920, something to do with it. At which happens to be enacted any rate, a considerable numjust about four years after it ber of them oame to the shipmight have been useful. yards and engineering shops of

While the Celts of Ireland Belfast, and there they, after were thus showing their in their nature, set about trying tolerance of prosperity, their to stir ap trouble between the Saxon fellow-countrymen were workmen and employers who aoting very differently. The had been for years past on Ulstermen were also in a most the most friendly terms. Dur. favoured position. Their men ing the war they made little were not liable to consorip- progress. Their propaganda tion; but though, unlike the meetings were held on SunCelts, they have no love of days on the steps of the fighting for its own sake, they Custom House, Queen's Square joined up by the tons of and so little were these to the satisfaction of their fellow- able, they should be, if rightly workers that not even police understood, useful by way of proteotion could always pre- correotion and reproof. If they vent their being broken ap. correot the delusion of those Bat with peace things altered Liberal and Labour editors, to this extent, that the man who honestly entertain it, that jority of the men in the ship- the hatred of Home Role felt yards and engineering shops by the Ulster workman is a were made disoontented with creation of his employer, it will their hours and wages, and be good. If it opens the eyes before long some forty thou- of the English workman to the gand of them came out on way in whiob he has been bum. strike. And when the strike bagged in the matter, it will died out some disoontent sur. be better. But we cannot be vived. This led to the for- sure it will have either result. mation of a political labour Few of the editors honestly party, which, with the aid believed in the delusion: they of the Nationalists, has since only worked it up to humbug the made itself felt at both the English working man. And the Parliamentary and the Looal English working man does not Government eleotions. : appear to resent being hom.

Both the strike and the bugged by his instruotors. formation of this labour party During the negotiations whioh were hailed by the English preceded the first Home Rule Liberal and Labour press with Bill, Mr Labouchere was the delight. The favourite oon. liaison officer between Mr tention of those papers had Parnell and the Liberal leaders. always been that the opposi- Once he brought to Sir William tion of the Ulster Protestant Harcourt a new demand from populace was an artificial the Irish obief. “Tell him I oreation of the landlords and refuse," said Sir William employers, astately devised to angrily: “I will eat no more prevent the small farmers and dirt.” Mr Labouchere looked workmen of the North joining surprised. “Indeed," he said ; with those of the South in "you have eaten so much lately demanding land and labour and that I thought you bad got to government reform throughout like it." And possibly the all Ireland. Now, they said, English working man has been the workmen have broken 80 muoh humbugged by his loose from the control of the instruotors of late that he has masters, and we shall see got to like it. what we shall see. Well, they Let us now shortly oonsider were right, and all have seen the origin of the lamentable it who have eyes to see. disturbances in Ulster, and

The fieroe riots which have especially in Belfast where inreoently ooourred in Ulster, and finitely the worst ocoarred. At more especially in Belfast, were first the Ulster Loyalist had a deplorable, but like many other speaking liking for the Sinn things in themselves deplor- Feiners. All along he was oonvinced that the only thing the motor-oar in order to be buried Irish Nationalists wanted was in his native place by the graves separation from the British of his fathers. Empire. When their leaders in their rage the Ulster and their newspapers talked of Loyalists resolved that they Home Rale within the Empire would work no longer side by he simply regarded them as side with avowed sympathisers lying: what they wanted was with the perpetrators of such Home Rule as a step towards orimes. This resolution was separation. Accordingly when. first adopted by the workmen the Sinn Feiners declared that employed in the great shiptheir object was separation, he building yard of Harland & recognised them as in their way Wolff. This fact is to be noted honest men; and, being honest for two reasons. It was here mon, he liked them and felt they that the late strike of the ironwere men with whom it was pos- workers began, and that the sible to deal: if they agreed to now politioal labour party accept something less thansepar- originated; and, in the second ation they would probably keep place, the head of Harland & to their agreement. But so soon Wolff is Lord Pirrie, the leadas the system of murder was ing capitalist and employer in established his liking for the Ulster who is at once a Radioal Sinn Feiners came to a sudden and Home Ruler. The workend; and when that system men of the firm are nine-tenths had extended to the frontier of them Protestants, or, as the counties of Ulster fieroe dislike "Westminster Gazette' in a took its place. That dislike moment of oandour described rose to fary' when Colonel them, Sootobmen, wbioh, I supSmyth, a gallant fellow-Ulster. pose, means of Scottish blood ; man, who had shown his loyalty but among the remainder were to the Empire by faoing its some avowed and truoulent enemies in the field, and his Sinn Feiners. The Loyalists loyalty to Ireland by faoing her told these men they must leave assassins behind the hedges, was the yard. Most of them loft murdered at Cork in broad quietly enough, but some drew daylight while sitting in his revolvers and shouted, “Up, own club. His fury, over this the rebels !” and they were was further fired when he heard foroibly removed. When work that the Sinn Feiners had re. was over and the Loyalists fused to permit Colonel Smyth’s were returning home, some of body to be brought baok to them had to pass through what Ulster by train; and that it are now called Catholio, but had to be oonveyed by private what used to be called Irish,

" It was another member of this great firm, the Rt. Hon. A. M. Carlisle (a brother-in-law of Lord Pirrie's), who, on 9th August, when the Restoration of Order in Ireland Bill was being discussed in the House of Lords, interrupted the debate by calling out from the steps of the throne, “My lords, if you pass this Bill you may kill England, but you shall not kill Ireland I"

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