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useful humane purpose. The thought was not suggested by the condition of his health, as at that time he was not deemed to be seriously afflicted, but there was the evidence of a deliberate purpose to arrive at some satisfactory coulclusion, and carry it into effect during his lifetime. He talked of many plans and made many suggestions. His greatest desire was to establish or aid in establishing some institution from which all mankind might derive wholesome benefit. His fortune was not ample enough to enable him to carry out some of his suggestions, and they were eliminated. No definite plan was reached. The friend was commissioned during his absence abroad to investigate, and on his return to be prepared to recommend something which was concrete and practicable, and which would, as he expressed it, do the greatest good to the greatest number.

There is room for difference of opinion as to what is the highest use in a humane sense to which a fortune may be devoted, and during the months of Mr. Hooper's absence the friend to whom the duty was confided sought for light on the subject. Many suggestions were made without reaching any satisfactory conclusion. On Mr. Hooper's return, the subject was again renewed, and after much discussion the conclusion was reached that the sum, approximating a million of dollars, should be devoted to a foundation to aid in advancing the science of medicine. It may be readily conceded that there is no human activity which in a large sense tends to relieve human physical suffering, to which rich and poor alike are subject, to a greater degree than the science of medicine. It remained to perfect the details. The angel of death summoned him before this could be done.

He left a simple will, entirely in his own handwriting, by which everything was left to his devoted wife. She had been fully advised and was in full sympathy with all his plans. To her was assigned the task of accomplishing his desires and fulfilling his wishes.

Shortly after Mr. Hooper's death and pending the administration of the estate, Mrs. Hooper executed a deed of

trust, whereby she hoped to be assured that in the event of her being suddenly called, her trustees, who were fully advised as to the desires of both Mr. and Mrs. Hooper, would perfect the plans. At the close of the administration and the distribution of the estate, a second deed of trust was executed and specific securities turned over to the trustees. The terms of these deeds of trust were rather indefinite, leaving much to the discretion of the trustees. This was necessary, as the plans themselves were yet vague and had not assumed a tangible shape.

But this much was later definitely determined by Mrs. Hooper:

1. That the institute or foundation should perform its functions within the city of San Francisco.

2. A foundation should be established for medical research attached to or affiliated with a teaching hospital.

3. The financial control of the trust fund should be lodged with some non-political and non-sectarian organization whose status would insure the perpetuation of the foundation.

The city of San Francisco was selected, because it was Mr. Hooper's expressed wish.

The University of California was selected as the trustee to administer the funds, because it was non-sectarian, nonpolitical, gave absolute assurance of permanency and ability to perpetuate the foundation, and represented the citizenry of the entire state.

Before perfecting these plans Mrs. Hooper, with her trusted advisers, visited the East and consulted with many of the leading men of the medical profession, of whom were Dr. Pritchett, of the Carnegie Foundation for Medical Research, in the city of New York; Dr. Welch, of the Medical Department of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore; Dr. Flexner, of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, in New York; Dr. Christian, of the Harvard Medical School; Dr. Warren of the Huntington Hospital and Tufts Medical College, all in Boston, and other institutions of a like nature.

With what faithfulness, loyalty, and devotion this task was performed is evidenced by the result.

The spirit in which these distinguished men--men of the highest rank in the medical world—advised and cooperated with Mrs. Hooper in crystallizing the plans, not only redounds to their lasting honor and to the honor of their profession, but has placed upon California an obligation of profound gratitude.

The advisory board, under whose auspices the work of the Foundation is to be carried on, has among its members the heads of two of the great institutes of research above named-Dr. Pritchett of the Carnegie Foundation and Dr. Welch of Johns Hopkins, and here we think a debt should be acknowledged to the labors of the Carnegie Foundation. The work of that great institute relating to medical education naturally led Mrs. Hooper and her advisers to seek the assistance of its president, under whose guidance the wishes of Mrs. Hooper have been placed in concrete form. These, with the other distinguished members of the Board, give the highest assurance of the faithful fulfillment of the great desire and aspiration of him whose name the foundation bears.

All honor to his memory and to the loving and loyal devotion of his well-beloved wife.

A civilization may be judged by the type of its monuments. In ancient days men erected temples and shrines to propitiate some avenging god, to secure favors, or as penitential offerings. Is there not a sign of promise for the age in which we live, when men are inspired to leave their fortunes for the benefit of mankind, with the sole inscription on the founded institution :

DEDICATED TO HUMANITY

THE MEANING OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

HENRY S. PRITCHETT

We meet today to inaugurate one of the greatest gifts made upon this continent to the cause of scientific research, all the more significant because the field of research concerns itself with the problem of human life and public health. We here set in motion an immortal agency for human improvement, an agency to endure for generations and for centuries. For the man who conceived this agency and for the wife who carried it into effect the gratitude of generations, yet unborn, will be a reward. To set in motion such an immortal power in human uplift is to become oneself a partaker in immortality.

To appreciate what this new institute of research may mean to this city and to this region one needs to remember the modest beginnings of Faraday's work in the little rooms of the Royal Institution in the first half of the last century; to recall the humble beginning of Pasteur's work on spontaneous generation, to recall Darwin's modest researches in an English countryside, and then to remember that today the places where these men worked are the shrines of national devotion. There is set here today an altar at which future Faradays and Pasteurs will light the torch of personal devotion and high service.

This institution for research is peculiarly fortunate because it begins its work as the part of a great university. Scientific research and education grow best when they go hand in hand. The atmosphere of a true university is that in which research grows best. The Medical School and the University will furnish the men for research work and the research institute will inspire teachers and students of medicine. Such a combination is that which leads to the happiest results, both for teaching and for investigation. No isolated institute of research is likely in the long run to attain the vigor and the fruitfulness which comes from a true university connection.

When one seeks to estimate the value of such an institution as the research institute to a community, almost inevitably he thinks of great discoveries for alleviation of human suffering, or the prevention of human illness; he recalls the triumphs over yellow fever, over diphtheria, over the terrors of spinal meningitis. He remembers the wonderful sanitary improvements which have come in with the applications of modern research. He likes to recall the American medical records in Cuba and on the Isthmus of Panama, and to see in imagination similar victories for sanitary science in our American cities. Looking into the vista of the future he likes to imagine tuberculosis banished, old age defied, and the weaknesses of our common humanity relieved, if not conquered, by modern science. All this is right. Research year by year, generation by generation, will attain to these triumphs, but it does something more than this. It is well for us to remember that in its highest and best form research is a service of humanity; it means unselfishness, devotion, imagination, vision. Not in the meetings of trustees, not in the applause of great audiences, are its problems wrought out, but silently, patiently, day by day and year by year. Only in this sense is research worth while. Only when it rests upon such a basis of devotion and sincerity does it attain its true aims. The research which is selfish, which is self-seeking, which is even selfconscious, fails to produce either the material or intellectual results. To this city—to any city and to any universitythe great service of true scientific research does not lie in the refinements of physical science; it does not consist of the skill which avails itself of the facts of chemistry, physics, and biology, but rather of that devotion, of that imagination which translates chemistry, biology and physics into terms of human aspirations and human hopes. In its highest form scientific research means to our minds and hearts the translation of those things which are material and which are temporary into those things which are spiritual and which are eternal.

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