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enchantments, &c. the invention of the Romancers, but
formed upon eastern tales, brought thence by travellers
from their crusades and pilgrimages; which indeed have a
caft peculiar to the wild imaginations of the eastern people,
We have a proof of this in the travels of Sir J. Maundevile,
whose excessive superstition and credulity, together with an
impudent monkish addition to his genuine work, have made
his veracity thought much worse of than it deserved. This
voyager, speaking of the isle of Cos, in the Arcbipelago,
tells the following story of an enchanted dragon. « And
“ also a zonge Man, that witte not of the Dragoun, went
“ out of the Schipp, and went thorghe the Inte, till that
“ he cam to the Castelle, and cam into the Cave; and
" went so longe till that he fond a Chambre, and there
5 he faughe a Damyselle, that kembed hire Hede, and
“ lokede in a Myrour : and sche hadde meche Tresoure
66 abouten hire : and he trowed that fche hadde been s.

comoun Woman, that dwelled there to receyve Men to “ Folye. And he abode, till the Damyselle, faughe the w schadewe of him in the Myrour. And sche turned hire “ toward him, and asked him what he wolde. And he “ fayde, he wolde ben hire Limman or Paramour. And 6 fche asked him, if that he were a Knyghte. And he

fayde, nay. And then sche fayde, that he myghte not " ben hire Limman. But sche bad him gone azen unto his * Felowes, and make him Knyghte, and come azen upon " the Morowe, and sche scholde come out of her Cave " before him; and thanne come and kysse hire on the “ Mowth and have no drede. For schalle do the no “ maner harm, alle be it that thou see me in lykeness of a “ Dragoun. For thoughe thou see me hideouse and horrible « to loken onne, I do the to wytene that it is made by « Enchauntement. For withouten doubte, I am none 6 other than thou seest now, a Woman; and herefore “ drede the noughte. And zif thou kysse me, thou schalt “ have all this Tresoure, and be my Lord, and Lord also 66 of all that Ife. And he departed, &c." p. 29. 30. Ed. 1725. Here we see the very spirit of a Romanceadventure. This honest traveller believed it all, and so, it seems, did the people of the idle. And some men feyen (lays

he) that in tbe Isle of Lango is zit tbe Daugbire of Ypocras in forme and lykenee of a great Dragoun, ibat is an bundred fodme ir lengibe, as Min feyn; for I bave not fien bire. And tbei of obe Iles collen bire, Lady of the Land. We are pot to think then, these kind of stories, believed by pilgrims and travellers, would have less credit either with the wri. ters or readers of Romances : which humour of the times therefore may well account for their birth and favourable reception in the world.

The other monkish historian, who supplied the Roman. cers with materials, was our Geoffry of Monmoutb. For it is not to be supposed, that these childıen of fancy (as Stakefpear in the place quoted above finely calls them, infinuating that Fancy hath its infancy as well as manhood ) should stop in the midst of so extraordinary a carier, or confine themfelves within the lists of the terra firma. From Him therefore the Spanish Romancers took the story of the British Artbur, and the Knigbes of bis round.table, his wife Guen:der, and his conjurer Merlin. But still it was the fame subject, (essential to books of chivalry) the wars of Christians against Infidels. And whether it was by blunder or design, they changed the Saxons into Saracens. I suspect by design: For chivalry without a Saracen was so very lame and imperfect a thing, that even that wooden image, which turned round on an axis, and served the Knights to try their Swords, and break their lances u on, was called, by the Italians and Spaniards, Saracino and Sarazino; so closely were these two ideas connected,

In these old Romances there was much religious fuperftition mixed with their other extravagancies; as appears even from their very names and titles. The firf Romance of Lancelot of the Lake and King Artbur and his Knights, is called the History of Saint Greaal. This St. Greaal was the famous relick of the holy blood pretended to be collected into a vessel by Foseph of Arimatbea. So another is called Kyrie Eleison of Montauban. For in those days Deuteronomy and Paralipomenon were supposed to be the names of holy

And as they made Saints of their knights-errant, so they made knights.errant of their tutelary saints; and each pation advanced its own into the order of chivalry,


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Thus every thing in those times being either a faint or a devil, they never wanted for the marvellous. In the old Romance of Lancelot of tbe Lake, we have the doctrine and discipline of the church as formally delivered as in Bellar. mine himself. “ La confession (Say's the preacber) ne vaut I rien fi le cœur n'est repentant; & si tu es moult & eloigné “ de l'amour de nostre Seigneur, tu ne peus eftre racordé li

non par trois choses': premierement par la confession “ de bouche ; secondement par une contrition de cour, " tiercement par peine de ceur, & par oeuvre d’aumone & o charité. Telle est la droite voye d'aimer Dieu. Or va " & si te confesse en cette maniere & recois la discipline “ des mains de tes confesseurs, car c'est le signe de merite.

-Or mande le roy ses evesques, dont grande partie « avoit en l'oft, & vinrent tous en sa chapelle. Le roy " vint devant eux tout nud en pleurant, & tenant son plein “ point de menues verges, si les jetta devant eux, & leur ** dit en soupirant, qu'ils srissent de luy vengeance, car je “ fuis le plus vil pecheur, &c.-Apres prinst discipline & “6 d'eux & moult doucement la receut.' Hence we find the divinity-lectures of Din Quixote and the penance of his fquire, are both of them in the ritual of chivalry. Lastly, we find the knight-errant, after much turmoil to himself, and disturbance to the world, frequently ended his courie like Cbarles V. of Spain, in a monastery, or turned hermit, and became a faint in good earnest. And this again will let us into the spirit of those dialogues between Sincba and his matter, where it is gravely debated whether he should not turn Saint or Arcbbishop.

There were several causes of this strange jumble of nonsense and religion. As first, the nature of the subject, which was a religious war or crusade : 2dly, The quality of the first writers, who were religious men: And 3dly, The end in writing many of them, which was to carry on a religious' purpose. We learn, that Clement V. interdicted Justs and Tournaments, because he understood they had much hindered the crusade decreed in the council of Vienna. “. Torneamenta ipsa & Haftiludia five Juxtas in regnis “ Franciæ, Angliæ, & Almanniæ, & aliis nonnullis pros vinciis, in quibus ea consuevere frequentiùs exerceri,

“ specialiter interdixit.” Extraw. de Torneamentis C. unic. temp. Ed. 1. Religious men, I conceive, therefore, might think to forward the design of the crusades, by turning the fondness for-Tilts and Torneaments into that channel. Hence we see the books of knight-errantry so full of folemn justs and torneaments held at Trebizonde, Bizance, Tripoly, &c. Which wise project, I apprehend it was Cervantes's intention to ridicule, where he makes his knight propose it as the best means of subduing the Turk, to assemble all the knightserrant together by proclamation.

WARB. L. 17. From tawny Spain, &c.] i. e. he shall relate to us the celebrated stories recorded in the old romances, and in their very stile. Why he says from tawny Spain is, because these romances being of Spanish original, the heroes and the scene were generally of that country. Why he says, lost in tbe world's debate, is, because the subject of thole romances, were the crusades of the European christians against the Saracens of Asia and Africa. So that we see here is meaning in the words.

WARB. Ibid. in the world's debate.] The world seems to be used in the monastick sense by the king now devoted for a time to a monaftick life. In tbe world, in seculo, in the buitle of human affairs, from which we are now happily sequeftred, in the world, to which the votaries of solitude have no relation,

Johns, L. 25. In former editions ; Dull. W bieb is the Duke's own person ? ] The king of Navarre is in several passages, through all the copies, called the Duke : but as this muit have sprung rather from the inadvertance of the editors, than a forgetfulness in the poet, I have every where, to avoid confusion, restored king to the text.

THEOB. P. 10. L. 8. In old editions,. A bigb bope for a low heaven; ! A low beaven, fure, is a very intricate matter to conceive. I dare warrant, I have retrieved the poet's true reading; and the meaning is this. “ Though you hope for * high words, and should have them, it will be but a low

acquisition at best.” This our pvet calls a low baving : and it is a substantive, which he uses in several other pallages.

THEOв. .

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P. 130

L. 21.

L. 10. Read - or forbear laugbing? Against the old copies.

CAPELL. L. 16. taken with the manner.] The following question arising from these words, shews we should read taken In the marner. And this was the phrase in use to signify, taken in the fact. So Dr. Donne in his letters, But if I melt into melancboly wbile I write, I shall be taken in the manner; and I fit by one, too tender to tbefe impressions,

Ibid] On this very expression in 1. Henry 4. Dr. W. says, "witb obe manner," the old reading is right, it is a law phrase, to signify taken in the fa&. Great wits have short memories.

CANONS OF Crit.* P. 11. L. 26. --base minow of iby mirib,] A minow is a little fish which cannot be intended here. We may read, sbe base minion of by mirtb.

Johnson. P. 12. L. 11. Read, with the antient copies vesel.

CAPELL.* Scene 3.) Here the second scene begins in

Capell. · dear imp. ] Imp was antiently a term of dignity, lord Cromwel in his last letter to Henry VIII. prays for the imp bis Son. It is now used only in contempt or abhorrence ; perhaps in our author's time it was ambiguous, in which state it suits well with this dialogue. JOHNSON,

P. 14. L. 20. - craffes love nat bim.] By croles he means money. So in As you like it, the Clown says to Celia, if I poould bear you I pould bear no cross. JOHNSON.

Moth. And bow easy is it to put years to tbe word tree, and Nudy tbree years in two words, obe dancing borse will tell you.) Banks's borse, which play'd many remarkable pranks. Sir Walter Raleigh, (History of ibe world, first part, p. 178.) says “ If Banks had lived in older times, he would have « Thamed all the inchanters in the world : for whosoever

was most famous among them, could never master, - or instruct any beast as he did his horse." And Sir Kenelm Dig by Treatise of Bodies, chap. 38. p. 393.) observes, is that this horse would restore a glove to the " due owner, after the master had whispered the man's

name in his ear; would tell the just number of pence in " any piece of lilver coin, newly shewed him by his master;

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