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men among the Israelites. Even the reformers, who so beautifully developed the contrast between the law and the gospel, were not always sufficiently guarded on this point. To such views must they be led, who accommodate themselves to what are often arbitrary and fanciful modes of interpretation ;-where, without regard to the context, a forced interpretation is at once given to the letter ; very remote resemblances, to the prejudice of the natural meaning of the word, are valued, and the truth which lies at the ground of the typical and prophetic meaning, is so disfigured, that the principle must always occasion mistakes in the application. When now, on the other hand, a contradiction is assumed, partly by entire sects, e. g. the Arminians and Socinians, and partly by particular individuals of our church, e. g. Calixtus; when these contradictions are drawn out into particulars, because individual doctrines, e. g. that of the trinity, cannot be found explicitly announced in the Old Testament ; even when the belief of the pious men in the Old Testament is declared to be only a belief indirectly in Christ ;—we cannot indeed, approve of every thing which lies at the foundation of such expressions as the foregoing, or which is introduced in connection with them,—yet neither can we entirely throw them aside, as the older theologians did. We cannot truly charge those who advance them with intentional unfairness, while they employ the bistorical mode of interpretation in opposition to a pseudo-dogmatic-while they follow out the principle, that, in connection with the application of generally received hermeneutical rules, one must seek to investigate what the writers themselves intended, as they were understood by their contemporaries, without daring to introduce any later views or notions. We censure such modes of interpretation only as would destroy the most undeniable connection between the Old and New Testaments, which recognizes in the former nothing of a higher character, and which willingly allows the most violent mode of proceeding, ere it will concede any references to Christ,—while it maintains that the New Testament is so essentially different from the Old.

The error of the older theologians, we would avoid, inasmuch as we do not directly maintain that the religion of the Old Testament is identical with that of the New, or that its writings, like those of the New, treat altogether of Christ; but this identity appears only so far as it [the Old Testament) is the norm and the source of religious truth for us.

We thus throw no obstacle in the way of the bistorical interpretation, but merely place it, (without determining at the outset its extent,) on the principles of the New Testament, — the christian interpretation ;- in the position which we are fully ready to justify. Here, especially, we must not consider merely what circumstances are in favor of a particular position, but how they bear upon and stand related to another -- the teleological method of considering the subject. Now, as little as the naturalist allows bimself to be satisfied, when he regards plants and animals merely from that point of view in which they promote the convenience or luxury of men, so little will a sound understanding allow itself to be persuaded, that a final end is only an accidental result of a process, without any intention being aimed at by the Author of nature. The natural philosopher knows well, that the higher formations in the series of organized development are from the lower, so that the one casts light on the other, and that it is certain, that the right means have not been employed for understanding the natural history of an organ, when it has been considered separate from its earlier condition, and no investigation has been had into its previous state. Even so no reflecting man will object, when we assert that the fundamental ideas and objections which are found in the dogmas and contests of philosophers (e. g. one may remember the controversy respecting innate ideas) are the same which occupy ourselves, although we are considerably advanced in the knowledge of their meaning, and in the modes of expressing them. Why then in the writings of divinely inspired lawgivers and prophets, should we dare to see only what the lexicons and grammars spell out from words ? Long and rightfully has the important idea been inculcated, that the books of the Bible are to be read as we read other writinys. Must we on that account wholly forget, that they are divine writings?

Finally, the inquiry concerning the Connection between the Old and New Testaments, (which has been handled, to a wide extent, and in many controversies, the true grounds of which by no means lie where the words employed would seem to imply) has been so developed, that we must here satisfy ourselves, to have indicated the principal point, in the critical examination of the Old Testament Scriptures in their relation to the christian church. We cannot here introduce the marked difference, asserted by Paul, Gal. 3: 15 seq., between the Abrahamic covenant and that of Moses, and their relations with each other and

with that of Christ, though this would be a subject not unimportant in itself, nor in its bearing on the controversies of both the Protestant sects, [the Calvinists and the Lutherans). One thing, however, will demand in the sequel a fuller examinaticn - the value of the Old Testament will naturally claim particular consideration, not merely that we may consider the subjects of revelation and of inspiration, but also that we may know how to consider them.



1.- The Union Bible Dictionary. Prepared for the American

Sunday School Union, and revised by the Committee of Pub

lication. Philadelphia : A. S. S. Union, 1837. pp. 648. It would not be easy to specify any more hopeful symptom at the present day than the spirit of biblical research which has sprung up along with the progress of Sunday School and Bible Class instruction. Neither teacher nor pupil now feels it to be enough merely to master the letter of the sacred volume, or to become familiar with the popular and common-place explanations of its text. The Scriptures are beginning to be searched and their hidden riches to be exposed and brought to the light. Every thing which can tend to put the reader in more perfect possession of the exact mind of the Spirit in his word is laid under tribute. Criticism, parallelism, antiquities, travels, topography, eastern manners, customs, costumes, idioms, scenery — in fine, the whole range of oriental illustration is now drawn upon in order to remove the obscurities of holy writ, and make what is plain plainer. The wants which have been made to be felt in consequence of this growing spirit of investigation have already been met to a considerable degree, and it is gratifying to know that so many of the ablest pens in our country are devoted to this service. That such is the case we have fresh evidence in the very valuable little volume here presented to the public by that institution which has done so much to foster this spirit, as well as to minister to its gratification. The Union Bible Dictionary' needs only the passport of its own merits to secure it at once a high place in the estimation of every student of the Bible.

This work, though comprising all the most valuable portions of the Dictionary connected and improved by the editorial labors of the Rev. Dr. Alexander, has still received such essential additions and modifications as to render it in fact a strictly original work; one in which a leading design has been throughout to adapt it most fully to the present improved state of biblical science. In connection with this, the object has been to make it so to correspond in principle, character, and uses with the other publications of the Society, that the whole shall form together a kind of complete Biblical Cyclopaedia.

From a thorough examination of the entire volume we feel prepared to say that it is a most successful attempt to supply the various desiderata in all former works of the same kind, nor could we easily point out a volume of the same compass which embodies a larger amount of valuable information selected with more judgment or digested in better order. Far from being a mere dictionary of proper names adapted to the biography or geography of the Bible, it contains a condensed, but extremely satisfactory, summary of explanations upon all the leading terms and subjects which naturally excite inquiry in the mind of an attentive reader of the Scriptures.

The prominent excellencies which have struck us in the perusal of the Union Dictionary' are (1) The judgment, tact, and discrimination displayed in the matter brought together under the different articles, and the neat simplicity with which it is expressed. On an inspection of the whole, the epithet judicious would perhaps best convey the impression produced upon the mind of the intelligent reader. Nothing is wanting, nothing superfluous; just that is said, for the most part, under every head, which it was important should be said, and nothing more.

And while the most rigid accuracy of definition has evidently been studied in every page, an equally anxious and successful effort is visible to clothe the whole in a style of perspicuity that shall adapt it to the comprehension of every grade of intellect. (2). The air of freshness and of manifest authenticity which is imparted to the illustrations drawn from the journals of missionaries and travellers to the East. In this department while nearly every thing is new, it is yet so pertinent, that it is not easy to describe the interest and relish with which it is pursued. (3) The amount of pictorial illustration and its peculiarly authentic character. The work abounds with plates handsomely executed and evidently drawn from the very best sources. In contemplating them the mind feels an inward assurance that they are not mere fancy sketches, but the most faithful representations which could be obtained. It is evident that great pains and great expense have been incurred in this department, but both have been well laid out. It would be easy to specify other points of excellence which characterize this volume, but we conclude our very earnest recommendation of it by adverting to its freedom from sectarian peculiarities and the great care and accuracy with which it has been brought out. The services of of the most distinguished biblical scholars in the country, the committee

say, have been employed in a general revision of it, while many of its most important articles have been subjected to a critical examination in other quarters. At the low price of 75 cts. per copy an extensive sale alone can repay the labor and cost bestowed upon it, and that it is abundantly entitled to such a circulation, we have no hesitation in affirming.



Introduction to the Literature of Europe, in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth

and Seventeenth centuries. By Henry Hallam, F. R. A. S., Cor. responding member of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences in the French Institute. London: John Murray, 1837. Vol.

I. pp. 659. View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages, by Henry Hallam. From the sixth London Edition, complete in one vol

New York: Harper & Brothers, 1837. pp. 568. Mr. Hallam has been long and favorably known as a writer on both sides of the Atlantic. His view of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages has been published in six editions in England and two in this country. His Constitutional History of England from the accession of Henry VII. to the death of George II., in some respects a continuation of the History of the Middle Ages, has been issued in three English editions and in one or two American. We do not know, that Mr. H. has published any other works, except papers for periodical publications, etc. He is a member of the committee of Lord Brougham's Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, and accords, we suppose, with that distinguished man in politics.

Of the Literary Introduction the author says: “Some departments of literature are passed over, or partially touched. Among the former are books relating to particular arts, as agriculture or painting, or subjects of merely local interest, as those of English laws; among the latter is the great and extensive portion of every library, the historical. Unless where history has been written with peculiar beauty of language, or philosophical spirit, I have generally omitted all mention of it.” The principal authorities that the author mentions are the Bibliotheca Universalis, and the Pandectae Universales of Conrad Gesner ; the Bibliotheca Selecta of Possevin ; Fabricius's edition of the Polyhistor of Morhof; the Origine Progresso e Stato attuale d'ogni Litteratura of Andrés, a Spanish Jesuit, characterized as an extraordinary performance ; the History of Literature, a plan undertaken in Germany, (but a small part of which has been completed), under the general direction of Eichhorn, - in which Bou

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