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ART. VIII. Of Purgatory, etc.

The Romish doctrine concerning purgatory, worshipping as well of images as of relics, and also invocation of saints, is repugnant to the word of God.1

ART. IX. Liberty of Conscience.

God alone is the Lord of conscience and hath left it free from the doctrines and commandments of men, which are in any wise contrary to his word, or beside it in matters of faith or worship. So that to believe such doctrines or to obey such commandments out of conscience, is to betray true liberty of conscience; and, the requiring of an implicit faith and an absolute and blind obedience is to destroy liberty of conscience and reason also.2

ART. X. Of Civil Government.

God the supreme Lord and king of all the world, hath ordained civil magistrates to be under him, over the people, for his own glory and the public good; and to this end hath armed them with power, for the defence and encouragement of them that do good, and for the punishment of evil-doers.3 The power of the civil magistrate extendeth to all men, as well clergy as laity in things temporal; but hath no authority in things purely spiritual. Christians ought to yield obedience to the civil officers and laws of the land: unless they should command something sinful; in which case it is a duty to obey God rather than man.5

ART. XI. Communion of Saints.

Saints are bound to maintain an holy fellowship and communion in the worship of God, and in performing such other spiritual services as tend to their mutual edification: As also in relieving each other in outward things, according to their several abilities and necessities; which communion, as God offereth opportunity, is to be extended to all those who in every place call upon the name of the Lord Jesus.6

I Methodist Disc. Art. XIV. and Episcopal, Art. XXII.

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ART. XII. Of the Future Judgment and Retribution. At the end of the world Christ will appear for judgment, he will raise the dead, he will give to the pious eternal life and endless joys; but will condemn wicked men and devils to be punished without end. As Christ would have us to be certainly persuaded, that there shall be a day of judgment, to deter all men from sin; so will he have that day unknown to men, that they may shake off all carnal security and be always watchful, because they know not at what hour the Lord will come, and may be ever prepared to say, Come, Lord Jesus, Come quickly. Amen.2

Mode of Operation.

It only remains that a few words be said as to the manner in which this plan could with very little delay be adopted by all who approve of its principles and are desirous of coöperating in restoring unity to the body of Christ.

The call of a general convention of all the friends of the cause would probably not be expedient nor extensively successful; nor indeed is it necessary.

I. Let the friends of union, be they benevolent individuals or associations, extensively circulate this appeal among the different churches, ministers and laity.

II. Let the friends of the cause invite the different ecclesiastical bodies to which they belong to investigate the plan, and so soon as they approve of it adopt it each for itself and resolve henceforth to act upon it.

III. If any orthodox denomination find in it a single article or sentence or idea, which positively, (not by inference) teaches what they regard as error, let them strike it out, and adopt the residue. The writer is however not aware that such a clause is found in it. Other denominations would then also omit it as a disputed point, not belonging to the common ground of Protestantism, and the residue remain as the United Protestant Confession, regularly adopted by the confederated denomina

tions.

IV. Let vacant churches, and Christians of different denominations in destitute villages and neighborhoods be encouraged

1 Lutheran and Moravian Conf. Art. XVII.

* Presbyterian, XXXIII. 3. Congregational, XXXII. 3.

to unite in adopting the Apostolic Protestant Confession, and plan of union, and join in calling a minister of any one of the confederated churches.

V. Let each of the confederated denominations and missionary societies both voluntary and denominational resolve not to send a minister into any village or neighborhood already adequately supplied by a minister from another branch of the union, but advise their members to unite with their confederated brethren in supporting the minister already stationed among them, or some other one of good standing in either of the confederated denominations, in whose support they can agree.

VI. Whenever the confederated population of a district is unable to support a minister, let application be made to the proper officers of the missionary society of their choice, for such aid as they may need.

VII. Let the education and missionary societies of the confederated churches confer with each other, adopt rules of coöperation, and resolve with renewed ardor by the help of God to supply every destitute place in our land with faithful ministers, and labor with re-doubled zeal in the definite enterprise of sending the Gospel to every rational creature throughout "the field of the world."

This plan would tend to produce unity of spirit first, whilst it will prepare the way for greater unity in external forms; if the Lord designs to effect it. If its prominent features were faithfully carried out, the Protestant church would present as much external unity of organization, as that of the apostolic age, and therefore in all probability as much as is desirable; whilst, happy consummation! the members of the Saviour's body would again have the same care one for another; and whether one member suffer, all the members suffer with it, or one member be honored, all the members rejoice with it! and the intellect of the christian church would no longer be expended in internal contentions, but all her energies be directed to the conversion of the world.

In conclusion, we would commend this humble, well-meant effort to the blessing of that divine Saviour, who has watched over his church amidst all the vicissitudes of her history. If this plan is accordant with his will, may he graciously accept and prosper it; and if not, may he defeat it, and at the day of final account, regard with favor the upright intention from which it has emanated!

ARTICLE IV.

CAUSES OF THE DENIAL OF THE MOSAIC ORIGIN OF THE PENTATEUCH.

Translated from the German of Prof. Hengstenberg of Berlin, by Rev. E. Ballantine, Assistant Instructor in the Union Theol. Sem., Prince Edward, Virginia.

Introductory Notice, by the Translator.

[THE following article is a translation of the greater portion of the Prolegomena to the last work published by Hengstenberg, entitled Authentie des Pentateuchs, Bd. I. (Authenticity of the Pentateuch, Vol. I.) This work is another step in prosecution of the author's design of giving to the world a complete work on Introduction to the Old Testament. The general title of that work is Beyträge zur Einleitung ins Alte Testament (Contributions to Introduction to the Old Testament), of which this is the first part of the second volume. The first volume was upon the Authenticity of Daniel and the Integrity of Zechariah. The author takes up his topics not in regular order, but as he judges them to be called for by the state of things. He thus gives the course and order which he has chosen for the discussion of his subjects (Vorwort zur Authentie des Daniel und der Integrität des Sacharjah): "the antiquity of Job, the age and credibility of the books of Chronicles and Esther, the sources of the historical books, the allegorical interpretation of the Song of Solomon, etc., and afterwards, if the Lord give life and health, all other topics of Introduction; so that these Beyträge when completed, may, with the help of copious synopses and indexes, serve as a Manual of Introduction." May the Lord speed his work.-Those who are acquainted with the fundamental investigations of Hengstenberg are prepared to expect in the work before us one worthy of the subject. The call for such a work may be inferred from the author's statement of the different opinions on the authorship of the Pentateuch, infra pp. 31-38. Its design is, to vindicate the Mosaic origin, and so the historic truth, of the Pentateuch. This volume refutes the objection made to its Mosaic origin from the supposed later discovery and use of the art of writing; proves the existence of the Pentateuch in the kingdom of Israel by the Samaritan Pentateuch, and quotations of and allusions to the

Pentateuch in the books of Kings, Hosea, and Amos; and by a fundamental investigation into the signification and mutual relation of the different names of God, and the use of them in the Pentateuch, shows that that book is the connected work of one author. The chapters on the Samaritan Pentateuch, on the Names of God, and on the history of the Art of Writing, would. if translated, be interesting and useful Articles for the Reposi

tory.

The course of the whole discussion on the authenticity of the Pentateuch is thus indicated by the author (S. LXXXII) : "After the settlement of the preliminary question on the relation of the genuineness of the book to the history of writing, it must be proved from the unity of object and plan, of circumstances and of language, that the Pentateuch is a closely connected whole, which could have been produced only by one author. (Here belongs our investigation on the Divine names.) Then it is to be shown that in the work itself, Moses is designated as the author. Then we must inquire how the whole after development of the people, and their literature, stands related to the Pentateuch. For if the Pentateuch is from Moses, it must have formed the basis not only of the civil but also of the religious life of the people. (Here belongs the chapter on the relation of the Pentateuch to the kingdom of Israel.) Then it is to be shown that the internal character of the Pentateuch is not opposed to the genuineness, but rather necessarily supposes it. Here are to be examined the philological, the historical, and finally the theological character of the Pentateuch. As Appendix, it is to be shown that the testimony of Christ and his apostles, as well as the relation of the Pentateuch to Divine revelation as a whole, is all in favor of its genuineness. This appendix is of course designed only for those who on the subjects of revelation and inspiration agree with the author."

The Prolegomena to this work, the greater part of which is contained in the following Article, are designed to show the causes why the Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch has been denied. The author shows convincingly that these causes have been any thing else than want of proof for the genuineness. In pointing out these causes, he has given us a striking and interesting history and character of Rationalism or rather of infidelity in Germany. He has pointed out the position occupied by many of the leading men of Germany of the last and the present century, and has shown the weakness and the dangerVOL. XI. No. 30.

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