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intellect. Joy, cheerful and agreeable sentiments, well represent this type. This tone is distinctly analytic.

2. Full voice. What is here called the full voice, also variously called the “orotund," the “pulmonic," and the "chest” voice, is the deep, full, strong voice. It calls into use the deep or chest resonance. It, too, is a normal voice, and is expressive of strength, vastness, grandeur, sublimity. It is not analytic, but is manifestive of great masses of feelings.

3. Aspirate voice. This kind of voice, as a habit, is abnormal. It is the voice that does not use up all of the breath, and it has been condemned as a vicious quality. The whisper is its exaggerated form. It is expressive of undesirable conditions of mind,- of secrecy, vagueness, fear, darkness, moral impurity.

4. Guttural voice. This is an abnormal, throaty voice. It is expressive of the malevolent feelings,- of passions that produce the snarl, the growl, and disgust.

Besides the kinds of voice already given, the late Professor Monroe, after the Delsarte method, further analyzed it into a threefold division. Somewhat modified, these divisions are the intellective, the vital, and the affectional voice.

1. Intellective voice. — The intellective type is characterized by high pitch, clear, hard, non-flexible tones. It uses head resonance. Every word is distinct and penetrative.

This is the didactic voice. It is primarily cold and factive.

The mind is discriminative ; the ideas, ultra-objective ; the mood, intense.

The teacher, uninfluenced by other emotions, falls into the habit of this voice, and must guard against its exclusive

To dull pupils, he, with all the characteristics of this voice heightened, says, “I will explain this point again, and I trust that you may understand it this time." The argumentative quarreller, insisting upon his own against

use.

his opponent's facts, uses this voice. This type of voice is primarily expressive of thought, and is adapted to convince.

It is not forgotten that both anger and joy sometimes express themselves on the high pitch with singing voice. But the mental state is never exclusively intę Hective":nor: emotional ; so in expression, the forms are never efetusively appropriated to any type. It is true, however, of the intellective type that it expresses itself as we have said. It is characteristic. Although joy and anger may sometimes express themselves in the high-pitched, ringing voice, it is not the characteristic form for all emotions. Indeed, emotions that so express themselves may have a large intellective element. Certainly this is true of the anger that employs this tone. It grows out of an urgency of my fact against your fact, as in quarrelling, or a clear differentiation of things that are the cause of the anger.

2. Vital voice. The vital voice, as a type, is the opposite of the intellective voice. It is low in pitch, strong and full. It uses the chest resonance, and may be degraded into the throaty voice.

It is recognized as the brute voice; it is the voice of the groan.

Its lowest stratum is represented by the swaggering bully. Notwithstanding these uncomplimentary descriptions of this type of voice, in certain forms it has a legitimate use. It is expressive of ideas of power, of strong passion, and sublime sentiments. Energy and the urgency of weighty matter suitably employ this voice. It is hortatory rather than didactic. It is expressive of strong and urgent passion, and is adapted to move the listener.

In this characteristic voice the orator Mirabeau urges: I exhort you, then, most earnestly to vote these extraordinary supplies, and God grant they may be sufficient. Vote then at once.”

3. Affectional Voice. - The affectional voice is characterized by medium pitch, soft, smooth, flexible tones.

This voice is expressive of the æsthetic feelings. Sentiments of kindness, sympathy, affection, and of the milder poetic moods, nanifest themselves by its use, as do also plain and unimpassioned thought. The affectional voice is adapted to persuade.

The usá- of the three types of voice may be illustrated as follows: A father warning his youthful son against the folly of certain conduct, concludes with some irritation: “Now, the reasons for changing your conduct are as clear as noonday; and I trust that you will be governed accordingly, and never repeat the folly.” After a repetition of the offence, the father, now angry, concludes an interview by saying, “ I have argued the matter, now I warn you, James, that I will flog you if you do so again!"

But James is still incorrigible. The case is desperate. Arguments and threats have alike failed. The father tries the experiment of kinder methods. “Now, look here, my boy, you know how dearly we love you; unless you change your conduct

you

will break our hearts. Let me persuade you to do as I wish!”

To express the mental states of the first interview the father would naturally use the intellective voice; at the second, the vital; and at the third, the affectional.

The content of scientific text-books and similar matter is distinctly, but not exclusively, intellective; and is suitably expressed by the corresponding voice. In the same way, passionate orations are mainly vital, and the greater part of poetic sentiments affectional. As intellective, emotional, and volitional activity are always present in the mental content of any discourse, no hard and fast classification of speeches according to types is possible. In no speech is the intellective, vital, or affectional type exclusively present. One or the other of the types may predominate; but all will be more or less present, and in best literature blend in richest variety. When it comes to the

divisions of the discourse, one part may be vital; another, mental; and still another, affectional.

To determine the type of any speech, as a whole or in part, confirm your analysis by applying each of the types in succession.

To make the type clear, try the delivery of Mirabeau's Speech before the Senate in the affectional, intellective voice. Again, attempt the delivery of Alice Cary's "Order for a Picture” in the intellective or the vital voice. We do not assert that emotional expression never uses the high and ringing pitch, nor that kind and gentle sentiments never use low pitch. But that the analysis is true for the type is easy of verification.

Faults. The use of the intellective (factive delivery) for all matter, and also the use of the vital voice in a similar way, are common.

The affectional voice is oftener needed. All should aim to make it the habitual voice, rising to the intellectual, and broadening and strengthening to the vital when necessary.

Sec. III. Inflection. - By inflection is meant the slide of the voice from one pitch to another. It includes slides and circumflexes. When the tone slides from a lower to a higher pitch, it is called a rising slide; when from a higher to a lower, it is called a falling slide. The distance of the slide may be a semitone, or any number of tones to the limit of the individual's range of pitch. Besides the simple up and down slides, the tone may, without any break, slide up and then down, or the reverse. In the former case it is known as a falling, and in the latter as a rising circumflex.

Monotone, or the absence of slides, is an aspect of inflection.

Inflection is expressive of emotion. As inflection is primarily expressive of emotion, it is consequently an element of force. It manifests the feeling that accompanies the

thought. “It was not what he said, but the way he said it," is a frequent tribute to the power of inflection.

Principles of Inflection. -1. The rising slide is prospective. While the emotions are on-going, – that is, while there is the feeling of incomplete idea, — the rising slide is used.

1. Rising tones appeal:

(1) To bespeak attention to something that follows, as completing a statement.

(2) For solution of doubt.

(3) For the expression of the hearer's will, as in response to a proposition.

(4) To question the possibilities of an assertion, as in surprise.

(5) Rising tones are deferential.

II. The falling slide is retrospective. When the emotions have rested, — that is, when there is the feeling of the completed idea, - the falling slide is used.

2. Falling tones assert:
(1) To express completion of statement.
(2) To express conviction.

(3) To express the speaker's will, as in command, refusal, or contradiction.

(4) To express impossibility of denial. (5) Falling tones are peremptory.

III. The circumflexes are compound in their meaning, partaking of the character of the rising and falling, or of the falling and rising tone; these, then, are querulous-assertive or assertive-querulous.

Circumflexes, partaking of the nature both of the rising and falling slide, are used :

(1) When the emotions are unsettled, as in mental perplexity.

(2) In double meanings, as in sarcasm, scorn, etc. (3) In conscious insincerity, as when a man of trade

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