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a method frequently employed in orations. The treatment given the speech as a whole should be applied to each division or paragraph of the address. 2. Analyze the sentence to determine its logical relations. (1) Every sentence consists of two principal elements. The first element is that of which something is stated; the second is that which is stated of the something. The first is the subject; the second is the predicate. The student should clearly distinguish the subject from the predicate, and group with each its respective modifiers. (2) Reduce to the proper place parenthetical and other subordinate matter. (3) To state anything of a subject involves an act of A judgment. This is the essential function of the proposition. and is the typical act of thinking. The judgment is the unit of thought; hence the value of analyzing the matter of discourse for the judgments. The method is illustrated in the treatment of the following paragraph from Macaulay's estimate of the character of Charles the First: — “The advocates of Charles, like the advocates of other malefactors against whom overwhelming evidence is produced, generally decline all controversy about the facts, and content themselves with calling testimony to character. He had so many private virtues | And had James the Second no private virtues 2" The judgments are: Charles's advocates are like advocates of malefactors against-whom-overwhelming-evidence is produced. Advocates of malefactors decline all factcontroversy. Advocates of malefactors content themselveswith-calling-testimony to character. The next sentence in the paragraph is exclamatory; but it has the force of a declaration. Charles had many private virtues. Condemned James the Second had private virtues. So, also, all the statements expressed and inferred in this and other selections may be put in the form of judgments.
3. Dwell on the meaning of each word. Every clear speaker defines the meaning of his words in order to determine their significance.
In the case of nouns, take more than the simple definition of the dictionary. Let it include some of what the logicians call the attributes or qualities. I am sure rather smart people will frequently find how imperfect is their knowledge of words. Giving the qualities of the word reveals, moreover, the animus of its use. Attend only to those attributes in which the speaker is interested. Take that of “advocates,” for instance, in the paragraph already used. Advocates are men; advocates are men with special qualifications; advocates are men engaged to defend their clients; advocates are men prejudiced in favor of their clients; advocates are dependent and partial men. Other attributes may be added. Treat in a similar way “malefactors ’’ and other words.
4. Analyze the sentence to determine the new idea. We have seen that, to be significant, the idea must point to something beyond itself. This fact is utilized in attending to the relations of one sentence to another. In delivering a succession of sentences, since the old idea has a hold already upon the thought, the new idea should be made most easily apprehensible by giving it greater prominence. Hence, the old as related to the new must be clearly thought. In the second sentence of the previous quotation, the pronoun He [Charles] is the old idea, for it is contained in the preceding sentence. It relates the new idea of the second sentence to the old idea of the preceding sentence. “Arizoate z/irtues * is this new idea of the second sentence. In the third sentence, “And had James the Second no private virtues 2" virtues [the old idea) is the term relating the third to the second sentence. James the Second is the new idea. So each sentence of the composition has something new, but at the same time something old, that points to other sentences. In this manner the sentences of wellconstructed discourses form a chain. To determine the new idea is of prime importance, and well worth the student's most careful and prolonged attention. It contributes equally to clearness and force. Upon it correct emphasis and all movement depend.
5. Analyze the speech in order to supply the ellipses. All language is more or less elliptical; that is, it omits words necessary to a full and complete expression of the ideas. In good composition only obvious ideas are omitted; these are suggested by the form of the language, including punctuation, by the context, and by logical relation of the parts expressed. Ellipses are sometimes of a logical, and at other times of a grammatical nature; but whether of one or the other, elliptical expression economizes effort. It is the shorthand, the direct method of speech. The unexpressed ideas, that is, the ideas between the lines, are frequently the most important in connection with the emotional content of the speech. The time, pause, and pitch element of delivery are immediately regulated by mentally supplying the ellipses. Treating the same selection for purposes of this analysis, the ellipses may be supplied in brackets. “The advocates of Charles [the First are, or being] like the advocates of other malefactors, against whom overwhelming evidence is produced, generally decline all controversy about the facts, and [although obviously unfair, they complacently] content themselves with calling testimony to character. [They say that] He had so many private virtues 1 [Marvellous, indeed!] And had James the Second [whom you condemn] no private virtues [You answer, yes.] Was Oliver Cromwell [whom you execrate], his bitterest enemies themselves [and not impartial men] being judges, destitute of private virtues [You answer, no.]” The second paragraph is richer still in ellipses. Observe, that, in delivery, pauses occupy the place of the ellipses or omitted words.
6. Fill out the content through the imagination. Through the imagination we realize and make specific the idea. Charles the First is individualized, possibly pictured to the mind. “Advocates’’ is no longer a general term, but a specific and localized set of men, possibly individualized.
In the process, imagination uses the visual and aural memory; that is, the memory of things as we have seen them and sounds as we have heard them. At times the memory of other sense-perceptions also is used. Frequently there is very little constructive activity of the imagination, and the mind simply reproduces the sight, sound, or other sense-perception through memory. At other times the mind acts more constructively; this is properly called imagination. Delivery that is graphic, that brings the events before the mind of the listener in clear and specific form, makes splendid use of the imagination or the perceptive memory. For this purpose take the following stanzas from Longfellow’s “Paul Revere's Ride”: —
“He said to his friend, “If the British march
Picture the two men standing in the street in secret counsel. See the lofty tower; see the signal light—one, two; see the opposite shore; the rider upon his horse; see the Middlesex villages and farms wrapped in midnight slumbers; again, see them stirring with life. The scene becomes definite and vivid, first to speaker, then to listener.
When these objects are reproduced in the mind, motor reactions result, and the eye and arms act in gesture just as though the real objects were before the mind. By this
means the story is illustrated, and thus made real to the eye
of the auditor.
“Till in the silence around him he hears
The speaker imaginatively hearing these sounds realizes more fully the idea, and through his voice and gestures, the mind of the listener becomes similarly affected. The objects of the imagination are to be regarded as a series of illustrations, and not as a bird's-eye view of things; hence the same object may be made to appear in different directions at different times. The speaker should control the location, and place the object where it can best be used. 7. Analyze the language in order to call up the associated ideas. It is a matter of common knowledge that according to certain laws of the mind, whenever certain ideas present themselves in consciousness, certain others are suggested. The principal associations are as follows: (1) Contiguity. Ideas that occur close together in time or space suggest one another; (2) ideas of similarity and contrast; and (3) ideas of cause and effect. In the stanza last quoted, “silence” suggests “hears” [the muster]; “muster,” “men; ” “men,” “barrack;” “bar
The ability to look from the printed page or manuscript, an ability seldom well mastered, is due, not simply to a sharpening of the eye gained by practice, but also to the confidence with which the mind utilizes the associational