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III. THE VERB; literally, “the word” in a sentence
(i.e. the principal word); as, “ Children, obey your
parents.” IV. THE PARTICIPLE; a word “partaking of” (Lat. parti
ceps, i. e. partem capiens, part-taking) the nature both of a verb and an adjective; for, like a verb, it has tenses, and governs cases; as, ruling the city; having-ruled the city; and, like adjectives, it qualifies
and has the power of agreement; as, the ruling city. The Indeclinable Parts of Speech are : V. THE PRE-POSITION ; a word “placed before,” in order
to govern some case of a noun (Lat. præ, before ;
positum, placed); as, ad urbem (acc.), to the city. VI. THE AD-VERB; a word generally "attached to a verb,”
in sense (Lat. ad, to; verbum, a verb); as, he acted
wrongly. It is also used 1. With participles ; because they are parts of the verb;
as, having acted wrongly: and 2. With adjectives, which are often almost undistinguish
able from participles ; as, a decidedly flourishing
town; sadly extravagant. They usually indicate, either
1. Time; as, then:
3. Manner; as, harshly. VII. THE CONJUNCTION ; a word "joining together” words
or clauses ; as, day and night (Lat. con, together ; jungo, I join). It unites like cases of nouns, and like tenses of verbs; as, the history of the kings (gen.) and queens (gen.); he loves (pres.) and reverences
(pres.) his father. VIII. THE INTER-JECTION; a word “thrown amongst” the
other words of a sentence, but unconnected with them (Lat. inter, amongst ; jactum, thrown); as, “ he lived (alas !) too long for fame.”
NUMBER AND CASE. There are Three Numbers in Greek: 1. Singular ; which speaks of one only; as, ó intros, the
horse. 2. Dual; which speaks of two; as, to inaw, the two horses. 3. Ρlural; which speaks of two, or more; as, οι ίπποι, the
horses. Each number has Five Cases, as will be seen below (Declension I.).
ό, ή, το (the).
NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE. The Declensions of Substantives are Ten : five of Simples, and five of Contracts.
The first four declensions are pari-syllabic (Lat. par, equal; syllaba, syllable), i. e. have an equal number of syllables in the nominative and genitive.
The fifth declension and all the contracts are im-parisyllabic (Lat. in, not ; par, equal; syllaba, syllable), i. e. have not an equal number of syllables in the nominative and genitive, but increase in the genitive.
· DECLENSIONS OF SIMPLE SUBSTANTIVES.
ο ταμίας, the steward ; ο κριτής, the judge.
Plural. Nom. rapi-as | N. A. V.
a l Nom. Cal Gen. · -ov
G. D. -aly Gen. -ñv Dat.
Dat. -ULS Acc.
Acc. -as Voc.
SECOND DECLENSION. Two terminations: -a and -n, both feminine; as, η μούσα, the song και η τιμή, the honour ;
% % Aóa, the friendship. Singular.
The same. Dat.
- ? Acc. –ăr
The same. Dat.
Acc. N.B. All words ending in a pure (i. e. with a vowel or p
before it) must be declined like pilía; but All words ending in a not pure (i. e. with any con
sonant except ø before it) must be declined like uovoa.