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procure in the yet wintry region of the high lands. I have long wished for this excursion, but could gain no information as to its practicability: having however, when on the Yeeilassies, noticed the direction of the several ranges of mountains, I resolved to explore the country further, and expect to be able to lay down a map for future travellers.
May ISth.—We travelled yesterday nearly thirty miles, for most of the way ascending from the valley of the Xanthus; today we have proceeded thirty-four miles toward the N.N.E., over a district elevated more than four thousand feet above the sea, and containing a large population, industriously employed in cultivating an excellent corn country: immense plains of young wheat look most promising. There are very few villages, the peasants living during their short season here in tents. This district loses much of the beauty we have so long seen, from having but few trees, and from the want of variety in the kinds. The arbor vita, or spreading cypress, alone grows on the hills; and here and there on the plain a wild pear-tree, at this season scarcely showing its leaf, only reminds us of the absence of more beautiful trees.
Our tent is pitched on the north of the range of high mountains which separates Lycia from Caria and Phrygia, and is decribed by Pliny as a part of the Taurus, ending in the west at Dgedala. Last night we pitched our tent on the north side of the plain of Satala-yeeilassy, the village lying to the eastward. In crossing the plain, and on the banks of the great tributary stream to the Xanthus which I mentioned before, we observed several columns and ornamented stones, of the Corinthian order, and evidently on their original site. These have probably belonged to a temple, but not of a very early Greek date. A little further on was another pile of squared stones—some carved into cornices and dentiled; and in the Turkish burial-grounds, which were scattered over the valley, many remains of sculptured white marble showed that the ruins of some ancient city were not far distant. An imperfect inscription, ill-cut upon a column, indicated by the form of the characters a late date, probably Christian.
Several pedestals, with figures in bas-relief,- also showed a state of art more of the Byzantine than of an early Greek age—how different to the simplicity and beauty of the works we have generally found in Lycia!
I am inclined to draw a line of separation between the ancient Lycians and the G-reeks who succeeded them, by the peculiarity shown in their architecture, sculpture, and language: these indications of the Lycians we have entirely lost. The nature of the country also shows a strong line of demarcation. I have found no trace of the Lycians on the high plains, and none more northerly than Arycanda on the eastern side of the promontory formed by Lycia; nor have I discovered any on the east of the valley of the Xanthus, or to the north of Mount Massicytus, the whole country containing traces of them being confined to the south-west of the range of Massicytus, and to the south of the northern chaiu from Daedala. I find no rock-tombs or gothic-formed sarcophagi, no Cyclopean walls or Lycian characters, in the cities on the eastern coast, or east of Lirnyra and Arycanda; an ill-designed tablet which I observed upon a rock on leaving Aim alee was unworthy of the Lycians, and, from its inscription, may be attributed to the Mylians, whose country extended over that region. I also passed, between these plains and the district in which we are now travelling, a natural barrier of mountains, from which we had an extensive view over the whole of the west of Lycia: this probably divided the country of the Mylians from that of the Cibyrates, who were to the north of Mount Massicytus—a conjecture which is in part borne out by Strabo, who says that Tlos was situated on the passage toward the country of the Cibyrates.
On leaving Lycia, I must note down a few reflections which arise from considering the many remains we have found in this highly interesting province. History assists us little in our investigation of the remains of the middle ages, in connection with the inhabitants of Lycia. Of its earliest people we have more correct information from the poems of Homer and the works of Herodotus; each author almost claims this district as his native country, and both seem to have been well acquainted with the poetic legends of its first inhabitants. They tell of Europa's visit, and of her sons possessing the country; and some of the most beautiful parts of the Iliad recount the history of the Lycian heroes, Sarpedon and Grlaucus. The exploits of Bellerophon, and the tale of the children of king Pandarus, are related at length; whilst the Chinisera and the natural peculiarities and beauty and fertility of the country are frequently extolled.
I am inclined to consider almost all the works I have termed Lycian as belonging to this age and that immediately subsequent; many of the peculiar sarcophagi and obelisk-monuments, and much of the rock-architecture, the sculptures, and the language, as also the coins, belong to this period. None of these represent any subject which can be called Byzantine, Eoman, or even connected with the known history of Greece; the subjects are mythological, historical, or domestic scenes; the history representing the earliest legends and the renowned feats of the time of the Trojan war. The nearest parallel to the domestic scenes appears to be in the Etruscan paintings. The coins to which I refer have upon them Bellerophon, Pegasus, the Sphinx, Pan, and the wild beasts of the country; and on their reverse a triquetra, an unexplained but very ancient symbol, intermixed with the early language of the country.
Herodotus mentions the destruction of the Lycians about the year 550 B.c.# Probably about that period, and after
* Croesus, whose reign commenced 562 B.C., succeeded hi conquering the whole of the province of Asia Minor, excepting Lycia and Cilicia, which wards, the Grseco-Lycian coins appeared, with the head and emblems of Apollo, names of the country, and the initials of the several cities to which they belonged, in Greek characters; thesd are known for almost all the cities from Massicytus to Olympus. Patara, the seat of the oracle of Apollo, Sidyma, and many other cities, appear to have arisen at this period, and I should attribute also to this age many of the fragments of sculpture found at Xanthus. History tells us that the Lycians were a brave and warlike people, famed for the use of the javelin and their skill in archery: Xenophon says that they were sought to join the army of Cyrus in his march to the East; and they afforded great assistance in the expedition of Xerxes.
After this period the country became a colony of Greece, and was soon subjected to Borne; its history is thenceforth blended with that of the rest of Asia Minor, which was more or less overrun by a Byzantine and Christian people. The very little that has hitherto been .known, or rather surmised, of the Lycian language, appears to bear out this idea of the early history of the inhabitants of Lycia. The characters are not of Greek, but probably of Phoenician origin, and the root of the language, judging from many of the names of the cities, may have been derived also from the same nation, or from the Hebrew, which appears a natural geographical progression. In this point of view, Lycia is to me of the highest interest, more particularly from the extremely early works of a people whom, for the sake of distinction, I should call the Ancient Lycians, preceding a people who appeared to embrace the language and the mythology of the Greeks, and became Grseco-Lycians.
never became subject to him. In the reign of his successor, Cyrus, we find the following account of then* extinction as a nation: ""When Harpagus led Ms army toward Xanthus, the Lycians boldly advanced to meet him, and, though inferior in number, behaved with the greatest bravery. Being defeated, and pursued into their city, they collected their wives, children, and valuable effects into the citadel, and then consumed the whole in one immense fire. They afterwards, uniting themselves under the most solemn curses, made a private sally upon the enemy, and were every man put to death. Of those who now inhabit Lycia, calling themselves Xanthians, the whole are foreigners, eightv families excepted; these survived the calamity of then* country, being at that time absent on some foreign expedition. Thus Xanthus fell into the hands of Harpagus j as also did Caunus, whose people imitated, almost in every respect, the example of the Lycians."—Herodotus, Booh I. c. 176.
The coins found in this district, which are probably of the cities in the valley of the Xanthus, but certainly Lycian, bear marks of high antiquity, both in their manufacture and devices. Of the twenty-two reverses, I observe that one represents Pan, one of the oldest of the gods, and supposed to be first introduced from Egypt: one has upon it a sphinx; six have figures of lions and bulls, which may refer to Europa; four represent Pegasus; one, a horse (which may relate to the exploits of Bellerophon), and one a naked man: the remaining eight have each the skin of a lion's head. Other coins which I have found in the country, representing wild boars, may probably be also of this date. In these coins we find no trace of Apollo, Diana, Jupiter, Hercules, or Ceres, so universally honoured in this country at a later period, about the fifth century B. C, nor any trace of a head indicating the coins of the Roman ages. This I think is strong evidence of the antiquity of the early inhabitants, derived from their coins; the bas-reliefs afford a similar evidence.