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189 In fine, according to the Abbé Rochon, they are devoid of vice and of virtue; the gratifications of the present moment solely occupy their reflections; they possess no kizid of foresight, and have no idea that there are men in the world who trouble themselves about the evils of futurity. But such a description of any human beings is hardly credible. All the women of Madagascar, excepting the very poorest, wear a covering over their breasts and shoulders, ornamented with glass beads, and none go without a cloth about their loins. They commonly walk with a long slender rod or stick. The men marry as many women as they can support.

The Abbé gives the following description of the people in the south division of the island. “ That part of Madagascar in which Fort Daupbin is situated, is very populous. When the chiefs go abroad, they are always provided with a musket, and a stick armed with iron, adorned at the extremity with a little tuft of cow's hair. They wear a boonet of red wool. It is chiefly by the colour of their bonnet that they are distinguished from their subjects. Their authority is extremely limited: however, in the province of Carcanossi, the lands by custom belong to their chiefs, who distribute them among their subjects for the purpose of cultivation; they exact a trifling quitrent in return, wbich in their language is called jaensa. people of Carcanossi are not altogether ignorant of the art of writing; they even possess some historical works in the Madagascar tongue, but their learned men, whom they term Ombiasses, use the Arabic characters alone. They have treatises on medicine, geomancy, and judicial astrology; the most renowned live in the province of Matatane; in that district magic still remains in all its glory, and the Matatanes are actually dreaded by all the other Madagasses on account of their excellence in this delusive art. The Ombiasses have public schools, in which they teach geomancy and astrology. The natives have undoubtedly learned the art of writing from the Arabians, who made a conquest of this island about three hundred years since.

“The people of Anossi, near Fort Dauphin, are lively, gay, sensible, and grateful; they are passionately fond of women, are never melancholy in their company, and their principal occupation is to please the sex ; indeed, whenever they meet their wives, they begin to sing and dance. The women, from being happy, are always in good humour. Their lively and cheerful character is extremely pleasing to the Europeans. I have often been present at their assemblies, where affairs of importance have been agitated; I have observed their dances, their sports, and their amusements, and I have found them free from those excesses which are too common among polished nations.”—“If the people of Madagascar,” adds the Abbé,“ bave availed themselves of treachery, they have been forced to it by the tyranny of the Europeans. The weak have no other arms against the strong. They are uninformed and helpless, and we avail ourselves of tbeir weakness to make them submit to our covetousness and caprice. They receive the most cruel and oppressive treatment, in return for the hospitality which they generously bestow on us; and we call them traitors and cowards, when we force them to break the yoke with which we load them.”

ALIBAMONS. This is one of the native tribes of Americans on the river Alibama in Georgia. This tribe is remarkable for their hospitality and frankness. They believe in a future state of existence, resembling the sensual paradise of Mahomet. Their dead are buried in a sitting posture, with a pipe and tobacco ; but the bodies of suicides, who are considered as cowards, are thrown into the rivers. As they marry only one wife, they are exceedingly jealous of their honour, though their young women are allowed to trifle with their chastity. This spirit of jealousy induces them to set out on their hunting parties with their families, in canoes, about the end of October; and after travelling through a distance of eighty or a hundred leagues, they return at their seed-time, in March, loaded with skins and dried Aesh. Their diet consists chiefly of toasted maize cooked with flesh, which they call sagamiti. The Alibamons have their magicians and little deities or manitus, and pretend to heal diseases by magical incantations.

PATAGONIANS. These are the inhabitants of Patagonia, in South America. From the accounts of Commodore Byron and his crew, and the testimonies of other navigators, some of the Patagonians are of a gigantic stature, and clothed with skins; others go almost quite naked, notwithstanding the inclemency of the climate. Some of them also who live about the streights, are perfect savages; but those with whom Byron and his people conversed, were gentle and humane. They live on tish and game, and what the earth produces spontaneously. A vast deal has been said respecting the stature of the Patagonians, by people of differeut nations, and on various occasions. Mr. Charles Clarke, who was on board Byron's ship in 1764, says that some of them are certainly nine feet, if they do not exceed it. Captain Wallis, on the other hand, who went out to the Straits of Magellan after Byron's return, found that the tallest man among them measured only six feet seven inches high ; several were within an inch or two as tall; but the ordinary size was from five feet ten inches to six feet. All agree, however, that the hair is black, and harsh like bristles; that they are of a dark copper colour; that their features are rather handsome than ugly; that they clothe themselves with skins; that they paint themselves variously, and there is reason to suspect that by that variety they distinguished their tribes. One remarkable observation made by our vogagers is, that the Patagonians could repeat whole sentences after our men, more distinctly than almost any European foreigner, of what nation soever. Another very remarkable particular is, that they had none of the characters of a ferocious people, there were no offensive weapons among them, except the scymeter, and a kind of sling which they use in hunting, consisting of two round stones of about a pound weight each, connected together by a thong. These stones were fastened to the extremities of the thong; and when they threw them, they held one stone in the hand, and swung the other about the head.




The Spaviards want neither inclination nor capacity for the sciences, but have hardly any opportunity of acquiring any true learning or knowledge, at least in their schools and universities. They are admired for their secrecy, constancy, gravity, patience in adversity, and loyalty. They are also said to be true to their word, great enemies to lying, and so nice and jealous in point of hononr, that they will stick at nothing to wipe off any stain that is cast upon it. Among their vices and defects are reckoned their pride, and contempt of foreigners, their indolence, laziness, lust, bigotry, and credulity in believing the feigned miracles and legends of their monks. They are also extremely passionate, jealous, and vindictive, and are noted, above any other European nation, for despising and neglecting agriculture, arts, and manufactures.

MANNERS AND CHARACTER OF THE Dutch. The Dutch boors or busbandmen are very industrious, but heavy and slow of understanding. The seamen are a plain, blunt, but rough, surly, and ill-mannered sort of people. Their tradesmen are something sharper, and make use of all their skill to take advantage of ibose they deal with. Every class of men is extremely frugal. All appetites and passions run lower and cooler than in other countries, avarice excepted. Quarrels are very rare, revenge is seldom heard of, and jealousy scarcely ever known. It is very uncommon for any of the men to be really in love, or even to pretend to it ; nor do the women seem to care whether they are or not. People converse preity much upon a level here, nor is it easy to distinguish the man from the master, or the maid from the mistress; such liberties do they allow their servants, or rather are obliged to allow them, for they may not be struck or corrected, but the dispute must be referred to the magistrate.

The Dutch are tall and strong built, but both men and women have the grossest shapes that are to be met with any where. Their garb, except among the officers of the army and some few others, is exceedingly plain, and the fashions change as seldom as in Spain. The men are addicted to drinking, which some think necessary to this foggy air, both for their health, and the impovement of their understanding. Among their diversions, that of skating in winter is one of the chief. It is amazing to see the crowds in a hard frost upon the ice, and their dexterity in skating ; both men and women darting along with inconceivable velocity. The Dutch are remarkable for their cleanliness ; noihing can exceed the neatness of their houses, towns, and villages. Many of them have distinguished themselves by their learning, and some even by their wit and ingenuity; witness Erasmus, Grotius, &c. The Dutch excel also in painting and engraving, particularly the former; and some of them have been no contemptible statuaries.



The Turks are generally robust and well-shaped, of a good imien, and patient of hardships, which renders them fit for war. They shave their heads, but wear their beards long, except the military and those in the seraglio, who wear only whiskers. They cover their heads with a white linen turban of an enormous size, and never put it off but when they sleep. None but Turks must presume to wear a white turban. Their breeches or drawers are of a piece with the stockings; and they have slippers instead of shoes, which they pull off when they enter a temple or bouse. They wear shirts with wide sleeves, not gathered at the wrists, and over them a vest tied with a sash; their upper garment being a loose gown, something shorter than the rest. The women's dress much resembles that of the men ; only they have a stiffened cap with horns, something like a mitre, on their heads instead of a turban, and wear their hair flowing down. When they go abroad, they are so wrapped up that their faces cannot be seen. The Turks sit, eat, and sleep, according to the custom of the East, on sophas and cushions, mattresses and carpets. Rice is their most general food, and coffee their common drink. Their most usual salutation is to bow their heads a little, laying their right hand upon their breasts; but to persons of rank, they stoop so low as to touch the border of their vest. The women are kept under a rigorous confinement. They have generally delicate skins, regular features, black hair and eyes, with an admirable chest. Many of them are complete beauties. Their cleanliness is extraordinary; for they bathe twice a week, and suffer not the smallest hair or least soil to be upon their bodies. As to the qualities of their minds, they are said to want neither wit, vivacity, nor tenderness, and to be exceedingly amorous. It is no doubt for this reason that the men never suffer their wives' faces to be seen, not even by the dearest friend they have in the world. There is no need of much wit to behave one's self well here;' for a good mien and gravity supply the place of merit in the East, and much gaiety would spoil all. Not that the Turks want wit, but they speak little, and pride themselves in sincerity and modesty, more than eloquence. The Turks use no unnecessary words, whereas the Greeks talk incessantly. Though these two nations are born under one climate, their tempers are more different than if they lived in the most distant countries. The Turks make profession of candour and faithfulness, and are charitable good-natured people, jealousy excepted, and very sober. On the other hand, they are extremely proud, insolent and indolent, superstitious and covetous. They are also much addicted to unnatural lusts; and despise all other nations in general, especially those which are not of their own religion. The common appellation they give to Christians is that of-dogs.

An uniformity runs through all the actions of the Turks, and they never change their manner of living. They seem to have no kind of genius for the improvement of the arts and sciences, though they live under the influence of the saine heaven, and possess the same

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countries, as the ancient Grecians did. They generally loiter away their time, either among the women in the harem, or in smoking, or in taking opium; and though they herd together, you will observe as little conversation among them as among so many horses in a stable. They seldom travel, or use any exercise or rural sports, and discover little or no curiosity to be informed of the state of their own or any other country: but Turkey, after all, is not without men of parts, probity, and honour; nor without benevolent, liberal, conver. sible, and ingenious people. They behave very commendably to their slaves and servants, and frequently better than the Christians do to theirs. There are no hereditary governments, or titles of nobility, in Turkey; and indeed the commonalty there enjoy the greatest liberty.

INHABITANTS OF POLAND. When Poland was an independent kingdom or republic, the inhabitants consisted of nobles, citizens, and peasants. The first possessed great privileges, a hich they enjoyed, parily by the indulgence of their kings, and partly by ancient custom and prescription. Some of them had the title of prince, count, or baron, but no superiority or pre-eminence on that account over the rest, which was only to be obtained by some public post or dignity. They had the power of life and death over their vassals ; paid no taxes ; were subject to none but the king ; had a right to all mines and salt-works on their estates; to all offices and employments, civil, military, and ecclesiastic; could not be cited or tried out of the kingdom ; might choose whom they would for a king, and lay him under what restraints they pleased ; and none but they and the burghers of pårticular towns could purchase lands. In short, they were almost entirely independent, enjoying many other privileges and prerogatives besides those we have specified; but if they engaged in trade, they forfeited their nobility.

The Poles are personable, and have good complexions. They are esteemed a brave, honest people, without dissimulation, and exceedingly hospitable. They clothe themselves in furs in winter, and over all they throw a short cloak. No people keep grander equipages than the gentry: they consider themselves as so many sovereign princes; and have their guards, bands of music, and openhouses; but the lower sort of the people were, and we fear still are, in the lowest state of slavery. The exercises of the gentry are hunting, riding, dancing, vaulting, &c. They reside mostly upon their estates in the country; and maintain themselves and families by agriculture, breeding of bees, and grazing.

MANNERS OF THE PEOPLE OF Persia. The ancient Persians are kuówn to have been exceedingly voluptuous and effeminate. After the conquest of the empire by Alexander, the Greek discipline and martial spirit being in part communicated to them, they became much more formidable ; and hence the Parthians

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