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Their houses are scattered by the sides of rivers, and have plantations around them. They are built with small posts set upright, about seven feet high, hurdled with sticks, and daubed over with earth. The men clear the plantations, and the women cultivate them. The girls pick and spin cotton, which the women weave into cloth for their hammocks. The men make baskets very neatly with canes, reeds, and palmetto leaves, dyed of different colours. Each man has several wives, who live together in great harmony. They dance to the sound of a pipe or drum, and are expert at tumbling. When they go a hunting, the women carry baskets full of plantains, bananas, yams, potatoes, and cassava roots, ready roasted. Rivers are no interruption to their expeditions, men, women, and children being equally expert at swimming. They have no distinction of weeks, but reckon their time by the course of the moon.

CAFFRES. These are the natives of Caffraria, whom Mr.Walker thus describes : “ The Caffres are tall, active, and strong, and evince great courage in attacking lions, and other beasts of prey. Their complexions are black: their clothing consists of hides of oxen, which are as pliant as cloth.” Perhaps this kind of clothing has led voyagers to confound them with the Hottentots. "Industry is the leading trait in the character of the Caffres. The men employ much of their time in hunting, the women in cultivating the land. They also make earthenware, and curious baskets. They have a high opinion of the supreme Being, and of his power ; believe in a future state of rewards and punishments; and think that the world had no beginning, and will be everlasting. They have no form of prayers nor priests, yet undergo, at nine years of age, the initiatory rite of the Hebrews. Their government is limited monarchy, and their king is often poorer than his subjects. He is allowed a plurality of wives."

AVARS. These were a tribe of Sarmatian origin, deriving their name which signifies far distant, from their remote eastern situation with regard to Europe. Their name and their nation were unknown to the civilized world, till in the sixth century they revealed their existence to it by the terrors they inspired, and connected their history with its revolutions and its downfall. Driven before a tribe more fierce and powerful than themselves, they emerged from their priineval wilds, and appeared on the confines of the Eastern empire in the reign of Justinian. Their pride was not tamed by their defeats, nor their confidence dismayed by the appearance of a civilized and powerful state. Their ambassadors having gained admittance to the Roman emperor, represented their nation as the most powerful and most warlike people on the earth, as invincible when attacked, or irresistible when aggressors. Upon the faith of this character, they offered their services to the empire, and demanded gists and riches as their reward. Instead of endeavouring to dispel this cloud of bar.


203 barians, the timid monarch who then sat on the throne of the Cesars, courted their alliance, and purchased their protection. He sent an ambassador to their camp at the foot of mount Caucasus, to assure them of his friendship, and to point the line of their invading hordes to the country of his enemies.

Their camps were soon pitched on the Danube and the Elbe; and their savage fury either swept from the earth, or rendered tributary to their dominion, many tribes of Hungary, Poland, and Germany. Their king still retained an attachment to the emperor, who on his side appeared not averse to continue the alliance, till bis friendship was claimed by a more powerful borde, who eflected to treat the Avars as slaves and fugitives. The Turks had pursued them from their native wilds to the Wolga, to Mount Caucasus, and the Euxine, and they now appeared in the presence of the emperor requiring him to withdraw his countenance from a people whom they had followed so far as runaway subjects, and whom they now claimed a right to subdue or extirpate. The timid emperor yielded to this demand, and renounced the alliance of his friends the Avars. Their ambassadors, who came to renew the coalition, and to represent the advantages that might result from it, were dismissed without presents or promises, and their remonstrances or threats treated with haughty defiance. The king, called Chagan, and his tribe, were either awed by the power of the empire, or dissembled their resentment till a more convenient opportunity should occur for gratifying it, and retired into Germany, where they met in dreadful conflict with the fierce and powerful nation of the Franks. They were obliged to withdraw from the neighbourhood of the Franks, after repeated defeats, and might, like many other hordes of those barbarous ages, have been totally extinguished io their retreat to their native wilds, had they not had the good fortune to have formed a league with the Lombards, in conjunction with whom they destroyed the tribe of Gepidæ, and succeeded to their dominions. Their new allies directing their views to Italy, left them in possession of their extensive territories, which stretched from the Euxine to Germany and Prussia. They were now in a condition to repay the insults offered them by the Romans, and the most glorious of their kings, Baion, was not backward to display the power of his arms, and to extend the terror of his name. He made repeated inroads upon the empire, and demanded presents as the price of his retreat. Submission and exactions only increased arrogance, and the value of the presents bestowed only encouraged future demands. The emperor Maurice found he must either become a tributary to a barbarian, or repel his incursions by meeting him in the field. In five battles his general was victorious, 60,000 of the barbarians, with four of the king's sons, were killed in battle, and nearly 20,000 prisoners were taken. The Avars, however, were not finally subdued, and seizing the opportunity when the eastern parts of the empire were pressed with all the weight of hostility by the Persian kings, they renewed their dreadful inroads with augmented forces and more atrocious cruelties. Blood and rapine every where marked their progress, the most fruitful violations of nature and humanity every where distinguished their conduct. Their captives were either killed in cold blood or reduced to slavery, and virgins of the highest rank were abandoned to their brutal lusts.

Heraclius, the emperor of the east, having in vain endeavoured to purchase their retreat, was almost surprised by the barbarian king in an interview which the latter solicited, as preparatory to a mutual reconciliation. Having joined his forces with the Persians, the chagon invested Constantinople, and after endangering the safety of the city, by repeated assaults, was driven from it by the ancestors of the race that now possess it. After this period the fortune of the Avars began to decline, and we find them, in 795, surrendering themselves to the arms of Charlemagne, and offering to embrace his religion as well as to submit to bis sway.


The Pholeys are the inhabitants of Pholey, a kingdom of Africa, and a people of very peculiar manners. Mir. More, however, says, that the Pholeys live in clans, build towns and are in every kingdom and country on each side the river, yet are not subject to any kings of the country, though they live in their territories, for if they are used ill in one nation, they break up their towns and remove to another. They are rather of a low stature, but have a genteel and easy shape, with an air peculiarly delicate and agreeable. Though they are strangers in the country, they are the greatest planters in it. They are extremely industrious and frugal, and raise much more cora and cotton than they consume, which ihey sell at reasonable rates, and are so remarkable for their hospitality, that the natives esteem it a blessing to have a Pholey town in their neighbourhood, and their behaviour has gained them such reputation, that it is esteemed infamous for any one to treat them in an inhospitable manner. Their humanity extends 10 all, but they are doubly kind to people of their own race. They are, however, as brave as any people of Africa, and very expert in the use of their arms, which are javelins, cutlasses, bows and arrows, and occasionally guns. They usually settle near some Mantingo town, there being scarce any of note up the river that has not a Pholey town near it. Most of them speak Arabic, which is taught in their schools, and they are able to read the Koran in that language, though they have a vulgar tongue called Pholey.

Their houses are built in a very regular manner, they being round structures, placed in rows at a distance from each other to avoid fire, and each of them has a thatched roof, somewhat resembling a high crowned hat. They are also great huntsmen, and not only kill lions, tigers, and other wild beasts, but frequently go twenty or thirty in a company, to huut elephants, whose teeth they sell, and whose fesh they smoke-dry and eat, keeping it for several months together. They are almost the only people who make butter, and sell cattle at some distance up the river. They are very particular in their dress, and never wear any other clothes but long robes of white cotton, which they make themselves. They are always very clean, especially the womeo, who keep their houses exceedingly ueat.




The Portuguese are represented as inferior to the Spaniards, both in person and genius; as extremely treacherous, and crafty in their dealings; much given to avarice and usury; and vindictive, malicious, and cruel. The meaner sort are said to be addicted to thieving; yet they have shewn themselves on many occasions a brave and warlike people. They are justly famed for their skill in navigation; and for their many discoveries both in the East and West Indies. The women are not so prolific as in colder climes; but they are very beautiful whilst young, though their complexion is somewhat upon the olive. Their eyes are very black and sparkling, and retain their brilliancy after all their other charms are gone." The ladies spoil and disfigure their skins and complexions with paints and washes ; but, though lively and witty, they have a nice sense of female honour. Both men and women make great use of spectacles: Dot so inuch to aid their sight, as to give them the appearance of wisdom and gravity. Their dress, like that of the Spaniards, never used to vary, especially among ihe mea; but of late years, both sexes have given much into the French modes.


These were persons who fought for the annusement of the public in the arenas of amphitheatres in the city of Rome, and of other places under the dominion of the Romans. The term is derived from their use of the gladius, or sword; and the origin of this horrid custom is said to have been the practice of sacrificing captives to the manes of chiefs killed in battle. It seems, however, more probable that it arose from the funeral games of antiquity, when the friends of the deceased fought in honour of his memory; an instance of which occurs in the twenty-third book of the Iliad, at the burning of the b-dy of Patroclus : Achilles having ordained every solemn rite usual upoa those occasions, Homer adds,

“ The prizes next are order'd to the field,

For the bold champions who the cæstus wield.” The leather which composed the cæstus being loaded with lead, enabled the combatants to give each other mortal blows, though the hands only were used. Epeus, of gigantic stature, challenged the whole of the Grecian chiefs, who were terrified at his bulk, and Euryolus alone accepted his defiance.

“ Him great Tydides urges to contend,

Warm with the hopes of conquest for his friend ;
Officious with the cincture girds him round,

And to his wrist the gloves of death are bound.” The captives slain on this occasion were not commanded to fight; they had been led to the pile, and died with the sheep, oxen, coursers, and dogs, that the bodies might be burnt by the flames which cou sumed that of Patroclus :

“ Then last of all, and horrible to tell,

Sad sacrifice! twelve Trojan captains fell." The above quotations positively prove that the Romans deviated from their predecessors in the practice of this barbarous custom. The Greeks appear to have destroyed their prisoners on a revengeful principle, and despatched them immediately; but the former delighted in cruelty, and would rather purchase captives, or destroy the lives of ill-disposed slaves, than send the ashes of their friends to the urn bloodless, or the spectators of the obsequies home, without the gratification of witnessing wretches cutting each other to death, though not under the influence of previous anger.

According to Valerius Maximus, and Lampridius in Heliogabalus, gladiators were first introduced at Ronie by M. and D. Brutus, at the funeral of their father, in the consulship of Ap. Claudius and M. Fulvius. The examples of great men, however detestable, ever produce imitators. Hence, though the brothers may have acted from motives of family vanity only, other great personages, perceiving that the people delighted in the sight of blood, determined to gratify them by adopting the custom; which was afterwards extended to public exhibitions given by the priests in the Ludi Sacerdotales, and managed solely for the amusement of the populace, or perhaps to confirm them in an habitual contempt for wounds and military death.

Thus the family alluded to, introducing perhaps three pairs of gladiators to the citizens of Rome, was the means of multiplying their number to an amount which is shocking to humanity, for the subsequent emperors appeared to have attempted to excel each other in assembling them at their birth-day celebrations, at triumphs, the consecration of edifices, at their periodical games, and at the rejoicings after great victories.

As the disposition of several of the chief magistrates who are recorded as having exhibited gladiators was mild and merciful, it is but fair to suppose that Julius Cæsar, who produced three hundred and twenty pairs in his edileship, Titus, Trajan, and others, submitted to the custom in compliance with the temper of the people, rather than from any predilection to it in themselves. But ihere are few pernicious practices which do not carry their punishment with them. The prevailing frenzy bad at length arrived to such an excess, that the gladiators became sufficiently numerous to threaten the safety of the state, for, when the Catiline conspiracy raged, an order was issued to disperse the gladiators in different garrisons, that they might not join the disaffected party; yet although the fears of the government were excited, it does not appear that any steps were taken to lessen their number, as the emperor Otho had it in his power, long afterwards, to enlist two thousand of them to serve him against Vitellius.

The people thus cut off from society, and rendered murderers per force, were fully justified in considering the whole Roman state their enemy; nor was it surprising that they were sometimes willing to revenge themselves upon their oppressors. Spartacus, a gladiator,

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