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Gathelus the son of Cecrops, king of Athens, who married Scota, the daughter of Pharaoh, king of Egypt in the time of Moses.
BUCEPHALUS. This was the name of the horse of Alexander the Great, which was killed in the action with Porus, after crossing that river. Others say, this horse died of age, thirty years old ; and not in the battle, but some time after. Hesychius says, his being marked on the buttock with the head of a horse, gave rise to his name. This animal, which had so long shared the toils and dangers of his master, had formerly received signal marks of royal regard. Having disappeared in the county of Uxii, Alexander issued a proclamation, commanding his horse to be restored, otherwise he would ravage the whole country with fire and sword. This command was immediately obeyed. dear," says Arrian, was Bucephalus to Alexander, and so terrible was Alexander to the barbarians,"
HISTORY OF BAKERS. The learned are in great doubt about the time when bakers were first introduced, and baking became a particular profession. It is, however, generally agreed that they had their rise in the East, and passed from Greece to Italy, after the war with Pyrrhus, about the year of Rome 558. Till then, every housewife was her own baker; for the word pistor, which we find in Roman authors before that time, signified a person who ground or pounded the grain in a millor mortar, to prepare it for baking, as Varro observes. According to Athenæus, the Cappadocians were the most applauded bakers, after them the Lydians, then the Phænicians..
To the foreign bakers brought into Rome were added a number of freedmen, who were incorporated into a body, or, as they called it, ta college, from which neither they nor their children were allowed to withdraw. They held their effects in common, and could not dispose of any part of them. Each bakehouse had a patroness, who had the superintendency; and these patroni elected one out of their number each year, who had superiotended onee overall the rest, and who had the care of the college. Out of the body of the bakers, now and then one was admitted among the senators. To preserve honour and-ho-. nesty in the college of bakers, they were expressly prohibited all alliance with comedians and gladiators : each bad his shop or bakehouse, and they were distributed into fourteen regions of the city. They were excused from guardianship and other offices, which might divert them from their employment.
By statute 22 Hen. VIII. c. 13, bakers are declared not to be handicrafts. No man, for using the mysteries or sciences of baking, brewing, surgery, or writing, shall be interpreted an handicraft. The bakers were a brotherhood in England before 1155, in the reign of king Henry II. though the white bakers were not incorporated till 1307 by king Edward III. and the brown bakers not till 1621, in king James L.'s time. The bakers of London make the nineteenth conr
pany, and consists of a warden, four masters, thirty assistants, and one hundred and forty men on the livery, besides the commonalty.
The French had formerly a great baker, called grand panetier de France, who had the superintendence of all the bakers of Paris. Since the beginning of this century, they were first under the jurisdiction of the lieutenant-general de police. In some provinces the lord was the only baker in his seigneury, and kept a public oven, to which all the tenants were obliged to bring their bread! This right was called furmagium, or furmaticum, though, it rather merited the title of furtum, and made part of the bannalite.
AEROSTATion. In the modern application of the term, aerostation signifies the art of navigating through the air, both in its principles and practice. Hence also the machines which are employed for this purpose are called aërostats, or aërostatic machines ; and, on account of their round figure, air-balloons. In 1729 Bartholomew Grisman, a Jesuit of Lisbon, caused an aërostatic machine, in the form of a bird, to be constructed ; and made it to ascend by means of a fire kindled under it, in the presence of the king, queen, and a great concourse of spectators, Unfortunately, in rising, it struck against a cornice, was torn, and fell to the ground. The inventor proposed renewing his experiment; but the people had denounced him to the inquisition as a sorcerer, and he withdrew into Spain, where he died in a hospital. In 1766 the honourable Henry Cavendish discovered that inflammable air, (hydrogen gas) was at least seven times as light as the common air. It soon afterwards occurred to the celebrated Dr. Black, that if a thin bag were filled with this gaseous substance, it would, according to the established laws of specific gravity, rise in the common atmo. sphere; but he did not pursue the inquiry. The same idea was next conceived by Mr. Cavallo, to whom is generally ascribed the honour of commencing the experiments on this subject. He had made but little progress, however, in these experiments, when the discovery of Stephen and John Montgolfier, paper-manufacturers of France, was announced in 1782, and engaged the attention of the philosophical world. Observing the natural ascent of smoke and clouds in the atmosphere, these artists were led to suppose that heated air, if enclosed in a suitable covering, would prove buoyant. Accordingly, after several smaller experiments, by wbich this idea was fully confirmed, they inflated a large balloon with rarefied air, on June 5, 1783, which immediately and rapidly rose to the height of six thousand feet, and answered their most sanguine expectations.
Mr. Montgolfier repeated an experiment with a machine of bis construction, before the commissaries of the Academy of Sciences, on the eleventh and twelfth of September. This machine was forty-seven feet high, and about forty-three feet in diameter. When distended, it appeared spheroidical. It was made of canvass, covered with paper both within and without, and it weighed one thousand pounds. The operation of filling it with rarefied air, produced by means of the combustion of fifty pounds of dry straw and twelve pounds of chopped
wool, was performed in about nine minutes; and its force of ascension, when inflated, was so great, that it raised eighit men, who held it, some feet from the ground, This machine was so much damaged by the rain, that it was found necessary to prepare another for exhibition, before the king and royal family, on the nineteenth. This new machine consisted of cloth, made of linen and cotton thread, and was painted with water colours both within and without. Its height was Dearly sixty feet, and its diameter about 13 feet. Having made the necessary preparations for inflating it, the operation was begun about one o'clock on the nineteenth of September, before the king and queen, the court, and all the Parisians who could procure a conveyance to Versailles. In eleven minutes it was sufficiently distended, and the ropes being cut, it ascended, bearing up with it a wicker cage, in which were a sheep, a cock, and a duck. Its power of ascension, or the weight by wbich it was lighter than an equal bulk of common air, allowing for the cage and animals, was 696 pounds. This balloon rose to about 1440 feet; and being driven by the wind, it descended gradually, and fell gently in a wood, at the distance of 10,200 feet from Versailles, after remaining in the atmosphere eight minutes. The animals in the cage were safely landed. The sheep was found feeding ; the cock had received some hurt on one of his wings, probably from a kick of the sheep; the duck was perfectly well.
The success of this experiment induced M. Pilatre de Rozier, with a philosopbical intrepidity which will be recorded with applause in the history of aërostation, to offer himself as the first adventurer in this aërial navigation. Mr. Montgolfier constructed a new machine for this purpose in a garden in the Fauxbourg St. Antoine. Its shape was oval; its diameter being about forty-eight feet, and its height about seventy-four feet. To the aperture at the bottom was annexed a wicker gallery, about three feet broad, with a ballustrade about three feet high. From the middle of the aperture was suspended by chains, which came down from the sides of the machine, an iron grate or brazier, in which a fire was lighted for inflating the machine, and port-holes were opened in the gallery, towards the aperture, through which any person, who should venture to ascend, might feed the fire on the grate with fuel, and regulate the dilatation of the enclosed air of the machine at pleasure. The weight of the aërostat was upwards of 1600 pounds. On the 15th of October, the fire being lighted, and the machine inflated, M. Pilatre de Rozier placed himself in the gallery, and ascended, to the astonishment of an immense number of spectators, to the height of eighty-four feet from the ground, and kept the machine afloat above four minutes, by repeatedly throwing straw and wool into the fire: the machine then descended gradually and gently, through a medium of increasing density, to the ground; and the intrepid aëronaut assured the spectators he had not experienced the least inconvenience in this aërial excursion. This experiment was repeated on the seventeenth and the nineteenth, when M. P. de Rozier, in his descent, and in order to avoid danger, by reascending, evinced to a multitude of observers, that the machine might be made to ascend and descend at the pleasure of the aëronaut, by increasing or diminishing the fire in the grate.
The balloon having been hauled down, M. Girande de Villiette placed himself in the gallery opposite to M. Rozier, and being suffered to ascend, it hovered for nine minutes over Paris, in the sight of all its inhabitants, at the height of about three hundred and thirty feet.
In another experiment, the Marquis d'Arlandes ascended with M. Rozier much in the same manner. In consequence of the report of the preceding experiment, signed by the commissaries of the Academy of Sciences, it was ordered that the annual pension of six hundred livres should be given to Messrs. Montgolfier for the year 1783. In the experiments above recited, the machine was secured by ropes; but they were soon succeeded by unconfined aërial navigation. Accordingly, the balloon of seventy-four feet in height, above mentioned, was removed to a royal palace in the Bois de Boulogue, and all things being ready, on the twenty-first of Decenber, M. Pilatier de Rozier and the Marquis de Arlandes took their respective posts in the car, and at fifty-four minutes after, one the machine was absolutely abandoned to the element, and ascended calmly and majestically in the atmosphere. The aëronants having reached the height of about two hundred and eighty feet, waved their bats to the astonished multitude; but they soon rose too high to be distinguished, and were thought to have soared to an elevation of about three thousand feet. They were at first driven by a north-west wind horizontally over the river Seine and over Paris, taking care to clear the steeples and high buildings by increasing the fire, and in rising met with a current of air, which carried them southward. Having passed the Boulevard, and desisting from supplying the fire with fuel, they descended very gently in a field beyond the New Boulevard, about nine thousand yards distant from the palace, having been in the air twenty-five minutes. The weight of the whole apparatus, including that of the two travellers, was between sixteen hundred and seventeen hundred pounds.
Notwithstanding the rapid progress of aërostation in France, we have no account of any aërostatic experiments haviog been performed in other countries till about the close of the year 1783. The first experiment of this kind publicly exhibited in our own country was performed in London on the twenty-fifth of November by count Zambeccari, an ingenious Italian, with a balloon of oiled silk, ten feet in diameter, and weighing eleven pounds. It was gilt in order to render it more beautiful, and more impermeable to the gas. This balloon, three-fourths of which were filled with inflammable air, was launched from the Artillery Ground in the presence of a vast concourse of spectators, at one o'clock in the afternoon, and at half past three was taken up near Petworth in Sussex, forty-eight miles distant from London; so that it travelled at the rate of nearly twenty miles an honr. Its descent was occasioned by a rent, which must have been the effect of the rarefaction of the inflammable air, when the balloon ascended to the lighter parts of the atmosphere.
Aërostatic experiments and aërial voyages became so frequent in the course of the year 1784, that the limits of this article will not allow our particularly recording them. We shall, therefore, merely mention those which were attended with any peculiar circumstances.
451 Messrs. de Morveau and Bertrand ascended from Dijon in April, to the height of about thirteen thousand feet, with an inflammable airballoon; the thermometer was observed to stand at twenty-five degrees. They were in the air during an hour and twenty-five minutes, and went to the distance of about eighteen miles. The clouds floated beneath them, and secluded them from the earth; and they jointly repeated the motto inscribed on their aërostat: :-“Surgit nunc gallus ad æthera.” In May, four ladies and two gentlemen ascended with a montgolfier at Paris above the highest buildings: the machine was confined by ropes; it was seventy-four feet high, and seventy-two in diameter.
In a second voyage, performed by M. Blanchard from Rouen, in May, it was observed that his wings and oars could not carry him in any other direction than that of the wind. The mercury in the barometer descended as low as 20.57 inches ; but on the earth, before he ascended, it stood at 30.16. On the twenty-third of June, a large aërostat, on the principle of rarefied air, ninety-one and a half feet high, and seventy-nine in diameter, was elevated by Montgolfier at Versailles, in the presence of the royal family and the king of Sweden. M. Pilatier de Rozier, and M. Proust ascended with it, and continued fortwentyeight minntes at the height of eleven thousand seven hundred and thirty-two feet, and observed the clouds below them, that reflected the rays of the sun to the region which they occupied ; the temperature of the air being five degrees below the freezing point; and in three-quarters of an hour they travelled to the distance of thirty-six miles. In consequence of this experiment, the king granted to M. Rozier a pension of two thousand livres.
On the twenty-fifth of July, the Duke of Chartres, the two brothers, Roberts, and another person, ascended with an inflammable air-balloon of an oblong form, fifty-five and a half feet long, and thirty-four feet in diameter, from the park of St. Cloud : the machine remained in the atmosphere about forty-five minutes. This machine coutained an interior small balloon, filled with common air, by which means it was proposed to make it ascend or descend without any loss of inflammable air or ballast. The boat was furnished with a helm and oars, intended for guiding it. _At the place of departure the barometer stood at 30.12 inches. Three minutes after ascending, the balloon was lost in the clouds, and involved in a dense vapour. An agitation of the wind, resembling a whirlwind, alarmed the aërial voyagers, and occasioned several shocks, which prevented their using any of the instruments and contrivances prepared for the direction of the balloon. Other circumstances concurred to increase their danger; and when the mercury, standing in the barometer at 24.36 inches, indicated their height to be about five thousand one hundred feet, they found it necessary to make holes in the bottom for discharging the inflammable air ; and having made a vent of between seven and eight feet, they descended very rapidly, and at last came safely to the ground.
The longest and most interesting voyage, which was performed about this time, was that of Messrs. Roberts and M. Collin Hullini, at Paris, on the nineteenth of September. This aërostat was filled with inflammable air. Its diameter was twenty-seven feet and three-quarters,