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LOTTERIES. It seems that the first English Lottery was drawn in 1569. It con sisted of forty thousand lots, at ten shillings each lot. The prizes were plate, and the profits were intended for the repair of the havens of the kingdom. It was drawn at the west door of St. Paul's Cathedral.-In 1612 King James, for the special encouragement of the plantation of English colonies in Virginia, granted a lottery, to be held at the west end of the Park; the prizes seem again to have consisted of plate. Lotteries were suppressed as nuisances to the public in the reign of Queen Anne ; but they were revived under that of her successor George I.

Coral Fishery, The manner of fishing is pearly the same wherever coral is found. The method used at the bastion of France, under the direction of the company established at Marseilles, is to send out seven or eight men in a boat, and when the net is thrown by the caster, the rest work the vessel, and help to draw the net in. The net is composed of two rafters of wood tied crosswise, with leads fixed to them; to these they fasten a quantity of hemp, tied loosely round, and intermingled with some large netting. This instrument is let down where they think there is coral, and pulled up again when the coral is strongly entangled in the hemp and netting. For this purpose six boats are sometimes required, and if, in hauling in, the rope happens to break, the fishermen run the hazard of being lost. Before they go to sea, they agree for the price of the coral, at so much per pound; and they engage, on pain of corporal punishment, that neither they nor their crew shall embezzle any, but deliver the whole to the proprietors. When this is accomplished, which amounts, one year with another, to twenty-five quintals for each boat, it is divided into thirteen parts ; of which the proprietors have four, the casters two, and the other six men one each, the thirteenth is claimed by the company to whom the boat belongs.

ANCIENT MATHEMATICIANS. The first who cultivated mathematics after the flood were the Assyrians and Chaldeans ; from whom Josephus says the science was carried by Abraham to the Egyptians; who proved such notable proficients, that Aristotle fixes the first rise of mathematics among them. From Egypt they passed into Greece, through the hands of Thales, A. A. c. 584 ; who having learned geometry of the Egyptian priests, taught it in his own country.

After Thales, Pythagoras, among other mathematical arts, paid a particular regard to arithmetic, fetching the greatest part of his philosophy from numbers : he was the first, as Laertius tells us, who abstracted geometry from matter; and to him we owe the doctrine of incommensurable magnitude, and the five regular bodies, besides the first principles of music and astronomy. Pythagoras was seconded by Anaxagoras, Enopides, Briso,

ANCIENT MATHEMATICIANS,

473 Antipho, and Hyppocrates of Scio; who all applied particularly to the quadrupture of the circle, the duplicature of the cube, &c. but the last with most success; this last is also mentioned by Proclus, as the first who compiled elements of mathematics. Democritus excelled in mathematics as well as physics, though none of his works in either kind is extant, the destruction of which some authors lay at the door of Aristotle..

The next in order is Plato, who not only improved geometry, but introduced it into physics, and so laid the foundation of a solid philosophy. Out of his school proceeded a crowd of mathematicians, Proclus mentions thirteen of note, among whom was Leodamus, who improved the analysis first invented by Plato ; 'Theatelus, who wrote etements; and Archiates, who was the first that applied mathematics to use is life. These were succeeded by Neocles and Theon, the last of whom contributed to the elements. Eudoxus excelled in arithmetic and geometry, and was the first founder of a system of astronomy. Menachupus invented the conic sections, and Therodius and Hermotimus improved the elements. Aristotle's works are so stored with mathematics, that Blancanus compiled a whole book of them. Out of his school came Eudemus and Theophrastus; the first of whom wrote of numbers, geometry, and invisible lines; the latter, a mathematical bistory. To Aristeus, Isidorus, and Hypsicles, we owe the books of solids; which, with the other books of elements, were improved, collected, and methodized by Euclid, who died in the year A. A. C. 284.

A century after Euclid, came Eratosthenes and Archimedes. Contemporary with the latter was Conon, a geometrician and astronomer. Soon after appeared Apollonius Pergæus, whose conics are still extant. To him are likewise ascribed the fourteenth and fifteenth books of Euclid, which are said to have been contracted by Hypsicles. Hipparchus and Menelaus wrote on the subtenses in a circle, the latter also on spherical triangles. Theodosius's three books of spherics are still extant.

All these, with the exception of Menelaus, lived before the Christian era.

Ptolemy of Alexandria, the prince of ancient astronomers, and no mean geometrician, was born A. D. 70. He was succeeded by the philosopher Plutarch, of wbom we have still extant some mathematical problems. After him flourished Eutocius, who commented on Archimedes, and occasionally mentions the inventions of Philo, Diocles, Nicomedes, Sporus, and Heron, on the duplicature of the cube: to Clesibius of Alexandria, we owe pumps; and Geminus, who appeared soon after, is preferred by Proclus to Euclid himself. Diophantus of Alexandria was a great master of numbers, and the first inventor of algebra ; Nicomachus is celebrated for his arithmetical, geometrical, and musical works ; Serenus, for his books on the sections of the cylinder ; Proclus, for his comments on Euclid ; and Theon has the credit, among some,

of being the author of the books of elements ascribed to Euclid. The last among the ancient mathematicians, is Pappus of Alexandria, who flourished A. D. 400, and is celebrated for his books of mathematical collections, still extant.

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ENGLISH BALLAD-SINGERS. The minstrels were once a great and Aourishing body in Evrgland: but their dignity being interwoven with the illusory splendours of feudal institutions, declined in proportion to the advance of moral cultivation : they became in time vulgar mountebanks and jugglers, and in the reigo of Elizabeth-the reign of robust intellect-they were absolutely suppressed as rogues and vagabonds. Banished from the streets and highways, they fled to alehouses, and followed the trades of fiddlers and pipers: minstrelsy was no longer known in England. The instruments so long in use by this order of musicians would now astonish by their number, and the rudeness of their plan and fabric. There has not been for an age any trace of this peculiar order, if we except the instance of a man well known in Derbyshire, who appeared at the close of the last century in the streets of the metropolis with the canister and string, singing the fine old ballad of Lord Thomas and Fair Eleanour. From the earliest times songs were chanted in our streets; but before the reign of Elizabeth they were invariably accompanied by the sound of some musical instrument.

The suppression of the minstrel order was followed by the rise of the ballad-singers-a race that relied for success exclusively on the merits of their voices. This revolution, though a curious part of knowledge, is scarcely distinguished, or not alleged with sufficient stress, in most of our histories of literature. The subjects of many of the songs handed down by the miostrels, were still held in honour by the ballad-singers. The feats of Clym of the Clough, Randle of Chester, and Sir Topaz, grown faded under the keeping of the minstrels, were now refreshed, and brought more boldly before the sense, in the new version. Robin Hood had his honours enlarged under the new dynasty-more maidens, more heroes than ever, wept at and were inspired by the history of his fortunes. Drayton's allusion to the propagation of Robin's fame may give an idea of the diffusion of the ballad-singers.

“In this our spacious isle I think there is not one,

But he hath heard some talk of him and little John ;
And to the end of time the tales shall ne'er be done,

Of Scarlock, George-a-Green, and Muck the Miller's son."
The new race—the ballad singers-started with a full tide of popu-
larity: they had the glory of being opposed by, and triumphing over,
the unanimous hostility of the votaries of the Muses, from the highest
to the least worthy. The poets of the first rank confessed their
uneasiness at the success of the innovators. Of this fact we have
abundant evidence in Spenser's Tears of the Muses—and even the
supreme Shakespeare himself would bring their calling into contempt.
It is worth while to attend to the grounds of difference between the
minstrels and their more simple successors. The former were the
creatures of feudal vanity, and adopted some very degrading notions
of government, both domestic and politic:—the ballad-singers
addressed themselves to the people; they courted no obligation from
the rich—they wore no livery of the great-they moved in independ-

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ENGLISH BALLAD-SINGERS.

475

of each song,

ence—the members of a pure democratic institution. The times had passed away when tbe wonted phrase of subserviency at the beginning

“ Fair lordyages and ladies all, &c." was to be heard. But the ballad-singers did not enjoy alone empty popularity, as may be understood from the perseverance of the old singers, and the number of candidates that yearly sought refuge in the profession, from the risks of a more uncertain state of life. One of the most popular singers of this early time was a boy, who, from the character of his voice and manner, is distinguished by the name of Outroaring Dick; an epithet as honestly bestowed as any descriptive compound on any hero in Greek or Latiu story. He was bred to a mechanical employment; but he had a voice, the possession of which would teach a less enterprising spirit to aspire above all the gross toils of handicraft. His success was as permanent in the end, as it was steady in its growth. He first renounced the mechanical life; in time his prosperity enabled him to confine his journeys of business to the adjacent counties—the home circuit—and the decline of his life was spent in the dignified repose of an amateur. His earnings, according to Mr. Warton, amounted to about ten shillings a day: he was well known throughout Essex, and was not missed for many years from the great fair of Braintree. But Cheeke, for such was his real name, was haunted in the midst of his glory by a rival. Will Wimbars had a voice quite of as much compass and flexibility, but not of as much pathos, as Dick. Dick was the more popular man of the two; he consulted times and tastes, and had a greater variety of songs : Wimbars had a select list, from which he never departed. . Cheeke was free and easy, and had a turn for the humorous; his rival was all for doleful tragedies. The former was sought as a companion ; the latter pleased best in the public exercise of his talents.

But the most universally esteemed ballad-singer of his age was Mat Nash, a man from the “ North Countrie,” the officina of ballad-singers, as it had been formerly of the minstrels. Nash had a masculine vehement style ; all the border ballads he had nearly made his own, by the force and enthusiasm of his manner of singing them. His “ Hunts-up,” a song which obtained for the author so much favour in a former reign, was one of his most celebrated efforts. But undoubtedly bis forte was the famous old ballad of Chevy Chase, then called the Hunting of Cheviot. This was the song which Sir Philip Sidney declared, moved his heart more than a trumpet. If instead of the “Blind Crowder, with no rougher voice than rude style," to whom he alludes, he had heard Nash accompany the words with the liveliest dramatic action-had he seen hin fall suddenly on bis knees, and move about cutting and thrusting on all sides, as if to realize the description of Witherington fighting on his stumps—it is easy to suppose what would have been the result in favour of Nash. However, it so happened that the date of Nash's fortune was fixed at a later period; for the great secretary Cecil was once so captivated with his singing, that he soon enabled him to retire from the profession.

The accident that led to this fortunate reconnoitre is not impertinent to our subject :-in the time of a dearth, which was severely felt in the city, the famous ballad-maker Delone composed a song reflecting on her majesty. The ballad-singer and the publisher were both committed to the Compter; but the poet defied the government from his retreat. In a letter to the lord mayor, he avowed the ballad, justified his satire, and concluded with these lines from the Mirror of Magistrates, descriptive of the duties of a true poet. They were composed by one Collingbourne, put to death in the reign of Richard III. for making a foolish rhyme.

“ Things that import, bemust be quick to pen,

Reproving vices sharply now and then;
He must be swift, when touched tyrants chafe,

To gallop thence to keep his carcase safe.” Nash, in the mean time, in an interview with the secretary, fully established bis innocence, and laid the foundation of his future prosperity.

The gipsies furnished a number of female ballad-singers about this time. The laws, and the prejudices of society in that age, concurred in denouncing this race. But how just is nature! the most esteemed and the best received ballad-singers of their time belong to the outlawed tribe. Alice Boyce, for instance, with the bronzed face, dark eyes and bair, of her nation, came to London from Cumberland. She sang her way to the metropolis, and, when there, very quickly gained the ears of the great. She was even appointed to sing, “O the broom," and "Lady Greenleaves," before the queen.

The reigns of King James I. and his successor were remarkable for nothing connected with our purpose, except that the taste of the population, for nature and simplicity, kept up the profession of balladsinging. The poets of the day, in the mean time, became so learned, that they were scarcely to be understood, even by the great. Henceforward' ballad-singing maintained a prosperous and respectable

The singers had no state enemies to contend with. Their employment was too lucrative, and custom had too firmly sanctioned it, to permit the persecutions of parish fiends. But, better than all, the law as yet furnished no pretext for stopping the free circulation of the lower ranks throughout the country. The government, and still more frequently the corporation of London, had been alarmed at the influx of tumble strangers into the metropolis.

There were issued bulls of penal annunciation, street proclamations, circumstantial and minute, embracing the professors of all manner of arts and employments, whether for use or amusement; yet not a word of ballad singers. Fiddlers put the whole council into consternation ; minstrels (such as they were) had a price set upon their bodies; but there was no vice assumed of the meinbers of the vocal throng. Cromwell was disturbed by the presence of low visitors to the metropolis ; he again excommunicated minstrels and fiddlers, but left ballad-singers to pursue their business unmolested. And yet the Protector found not in that order a friendly or even a neutral power. They sang of bold cavaliers and ladies bright, themes that did not fail to keep the memory of past times “ green in the souls of men." But as soon as the Restoration removed all restraint from the ballad-singers, the streets re-echoed to the strains either of thanksgiving for the return of the monarch, or in ridicule of the fallen power. The song begin

course.

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