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63 He guards himself against the cold in the following manner : he Waars breeches made of rein-deer ckins with the hair on, and shoes zade of the same materials, the hairy part turned outwards. He puts into the shoes slender-eared broad-leaved cypress grass, that is eot in summer aud dried. This he first combs, and rubs in his hands, and then places it in such a manner, that it not only covers his feet quite round, but his legs also; and being thus guarded, he is quite secured against the intense cold. With this grass he stuffs his gloves likewise, to preserve the hands. As this grass keeps out the cold in winter, so in summer it binders the feet from sweating, and at the same time prevents them from being annoyed by striking against stones, &c. for their shoes are very thin, being made not of tanned leather, but of raw hide. The women's apparel differs very little from that of the men; only their girdles are more ornamented with rings, chains, needle-cases, and toys that sometimes weigh 20lb. la winter, both men and women lie in their furs; in summer they cover themselves entirely with coarse blankets, to defend themselves from the goats.

Marriage and Funeral Ceremonies. The manner in which the young Laplander chooses a wife is equally remarkable and ludicrous. When he has pitched upon a female, he employs some friends as mediators with the father'; and these being provided with some bottles of brandy, the suitor accompanies them to the house of his future father-in-law, who invites the mediators to enter; but the lover is left without, till the liquor is drank, and the proposal discussed; then he is called in, and entertained with such fare as the but affords; yet without seeing his mistress, who retires, or goes out. Having obtained leave of her parents to make his addresses in person, he puts on his best apparel, and is admitted to the lady, whoni he salutes with a kiss : then he presents her with the tongue of a rein-deer, a piece of beaver's flesh, or some other provisivu. She declines the offer, which is made in presence of her sisters and relations; but makes a signal to her lover to follow her into the fields, where she accepts the presents.

When the lovers are agreed, the youth is permitted to visit his intended as often as he shall think proper ; but every time he comes he must purchase this pleasure with a fresh bottle of brandy; a perquisite so agreeable to the father, that be often postpones the celebration of the nuptials for two or three years. At length the ceremony is performed at church by the priest of the parish. Even after this event the husband is obliged to serve his father-in-law a whole year, at the expiration of which time he retires to his own -habitation with his wife and her patrimony of rein-deer, and receives presents from all his friends and relations. From this period he sequesters his wife from the company of all strangers, especially of the male sex, and watches over ber conduct with the most jealous vigilance. Many Lapland women are barren, and none of them are very fruitful.

A woman, immediately after delivery, swallows a draught of whale fat; the child is washed with snow or cold water, and wrapped up in a bare-skin. The mother is seldom above five days in confinement, and in fourteen is generally quite recovered; then she carries the child to church to be baptized. Before she can reach the residence of the priest, she is often obliged to traverse large forests, mountains, lakes, and wide-extended wastes of snow. The infant is fastened in a hollow piece of wood, stretched naked on a bed of fine moss, covered with the soft skin of a young rein-deer, and slung by two straps to the back of the mother, who always suckles her own child. At home this little cradle is hung to the roof of the hut, and the child lulled to sleep by swinging it from one side to the other.

The boys from their infancy practise the bow, and they are not allowed to break their fast in the morning until they have hit the mark. The female children are as early initiated in the business peculiar to their sex.

When a Laplander is supposed to be on his death-bed, his friends exhort him to die in the faith of Christ, and bear his sufferings with resignation, remembering the passion of our Saviour. They are not, however, very ready to attend him in his last moments, and, as soon as he expires, they quit the place with precipitation, apprehending some injury from his ghost, which they believe remains with the corpse, and takes all opportunities of doing mischief to the living. The deceased is wrapped up in woollen or linen, according to his circumstances, and deposited in a coffin by a person selected for that purpose; but this office he will not perform, unless he is first secured from the ill offices of the manes by a consecrated brass ring fixed on his left arm. Together with the body, they put into the cottia an axe, a flint, a steel, a flask of brandy, some dried fish, and venison. With the axe the deceased is supposed to hew down the bushes or boughs that may obstruct his passage in the other world; the steel and Aint is designed for striking a light, should he find himself in the dark at the day of judgment; and on the provision they think he may subsist during his journey. The Muscovite Laplanders observe other ceremonies, that bear an affinity to the superstitions of the Greek church. They provide him with money for the porter of paradise, and a certificate, signed by the priest, and directed to St. Peter, specifying that the bearer had lived like a good Christian, and ought to be admitted into heaven.

At the head of the coffin they place a little image of St. Nicholas, who is greatly reverenced as a friend to the dead. Before the interment, the friends of the deceased kindle a fire of fir boughs near the coffin, and express their sorrow in tears and lamentations. They walk in procession several times round the body, demanding, in a whining tone, the reason of his leaving them, with many other ridiculous questions. Meantime the priest sprinkles the corpse and the mourners alternately with holy water. The body is at last conveyed to the place of interment on a sledge drawn by rein-deer; which, with the clothes of the deceased, are left as the priest's perquisite. Three days after the burial, the kinsman and friends of the defunct are invited to an entertainment, where they eat the flesh of the reindecr which conveyed the corpse to the burying ground. This beiog a sacrifice to the manes, the bones are collected into a basket, and interred. Two-thirds of the effects of the deceased are inherited by


65 his brothers, and the remainder divided among his sisters; but the laods, lakes, and rivers, are held in coparceny by all the children of both sexes, according to the division made by Charles IX. of Sweden, oben be assigned a certain tract of land to each family.

PECULIAR Customs OF THE BABYLONIANS. We shall first notice the peculiar and surprising construction of their boats of skins, in which they sailed along the river to Babylon. These boats were invented by the Armenians, whose country lay north from Babylonia. They made them with poles of willow, which they bent, and covered with skins; the bare side of the skins they put outward, and they made them so tight, that they resembled boards. The boats had peither prow nor stern, but were of a round form like a buckler. They put straw on the bottom. Two men, each with an oar, rowed them down the river, laden with different wares, but cbiefly palm wines. Of these boats, some were very large, and some very small. The largest carried the weight of five hundred talents. There was room for au ass in their small boats ; they put many into a large one. When they had uploaded after their arrival at Babylon, they sold the poles of their boats and the straw; and loading their asses with the skins, returned to Armenia, for they could not sail up the river, its current was so rapid. For this reason, they made their boats of skins instead of wood, and on their return to Armenia with their asses, they applied their skins to their former use.

As to their dress, they wore a linen shirt, which came down to their feet; over it they wore a woollen robe; their outer garment was a white vest. Their shoes resembled those of the Thebans. They let their hair grow. On their heads they wore a turban. They ruba bed their bodies all over with fragrant liquors. Each man had a ring on his finger and an elegant cane in his hand, with an apple at the top, or a rose, a lily, or an eagle, or some other figure ; for they were not suffered to use canes without devices.

When the Pabylonians had become poor by the ruin of their metropolis, fathers used to prostitute their daughters for gain. There was one custom among the Babylonians worthy to be related. They brought their sick into the forum, to consult those who passed, on their diseases, for they had no physicians: they asked those who approached the sick, if they ever had the same distemper? if they knew any one who had it? and how it was cured? Hence, in this country, every one who saw a sick person was obliged to go to him and inquire into his distemper. They embalmed their dead with honey; and their mourning was like that of the Egyptians. There were three Babylopian tribes who lived only upon fish, which they prepared by drying them in the sun, and then beating them in a sort of mortar to a kind of flour, which, after they had sifted through a linen sieve, they baked in rolls.

Marriage Laws. When the girls were marriageable, they were ordered to meet in a certain place, where the young men likewise assembled. They were


then sold by the public crier; but he first sold the most beautiful

When he had sold her at an immense price, he put up others to sale, according to their degrees of beauty. The rich Babyloriaos were emulous to carry off the finest women, who were sold to the highest bidders. But as the young men who were poor could not aspire to have fine women, they were content to take the less handsome with the money which was given them; for when the crier had sold the handsomest, he ordered the ugliest of all the women to be brought, and asked if any one was willing to take her with a small sum of money. Thus she became the wife of him who was most easily satisfied ; and thus the finest women were sold, and from the money which they sold for, small fortnnes were given to the ugliest, and to those who had any bodily intirmity. A father could not give his daughter in marriage as he pleased; nor was he who bought her allowed to take her home, without giving security that he would marry her. But, after the sale, if the parties were not agreeable to each other, the law enjoined that the money should be restored. The inhabitants of any of their towns were allowed to marry wives at those auctions. Such were the early customs of the Babylonians. But they afterwards made a law, which prohibited the inhabitants to intermarry, by which husbands were punished for treating their wives ill.


Atoor is one of the Sandwich islands. The natives of this island are of the middle size, and in general stoutly made. They are neither remarkable for a beautiful shape nor for striking features. Their visage, particularly that of the women, is sometimes round, but others have it long; nor can it justly be said that they are distinguished as a nation by any general cast of countenance. Their complexion is nearly of a nut-brown, but some individuals are of a darker hue. They are far from being ugly, and have to all appearance few natural deformities of any kind. Their skin is not very soit nor shining ; but their eyes and teeth are for the most part pretty good. Their bair in general is straight; and though its natural colour is usually black, they stain it, as at the Friendly and other islands. They are active, vigorous, and most expert swimmers, leaving their canoes upon the most frivolous occasions, diving under them, and swimming to others, though at a considerable distance. Women with infants at the breast, when the surf was so high as to prevent their landing in the canoes, frequently leapt overboard and swam to the shore, without endangering their little ones. They appear to be of a frank cheerful disposition, and are equally free from the fickle levity which characterizes the inbabitants of Otaheite, and the sedate cast which is observable among many of those of Tongataboo. They seem to cultivate a sociable intercourse with each other; and, except the propensity to thieving, which is as it were innate in most of the people in those seas, they appeared extremely friendly.

It was pleasing to observe with what affection the women managed their infants, and with what alacrity the men contributed their assistance in such a tender office; thus distinguishing themselves from

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