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Memoirs of Ļeonardo Aretino.


tive province. For what purpose, or, virtue must be esteemed as tried and in what capacity he was sent for, does approved. not appear; but in compliance with I cannot describe the respect in this public requisition, he immediately which you are held by the whole city, took leave of the Pontiff, and repaired the commendations with which your to the Tuscan capital.*

name is mentioned on all occasions, Among the companions of his youth-or the eagerness with which my townsfal studies, with whom he was, on this men commemorate your justice, your occasion, eager to renew the inter- / integrity, your moderation, and pocourses of friendship, was Antonio liteness. I pass by the qualities which Riario, who had lately held for a short are common to you with many others, period the office of Governor of Arez- but I must inform you, that they bezo. To the welfare of his native place, stow upon you a praise, which the Leonardo could not be indifferent. general evil manners of the present Antonio had most faithfully discharged age render particularly distinguished, the duties of his elevated station, by in bearing witness, that you are one promoting the happiness and prospe- of those conscientious men who do not rity of those who had been subjected regard the prerogatives of government to his temporary sway; and his friend, as a license to spoil and plunder; but having been, by a succession of acci- who look upon government itself as a dents, precluded from personally tes. trust, to be exercised for the protectifying to him the sense which he en- tion and benefit of the governed. In tertained of his merits in this particu- writing to you, I will call no one's lar, addressed him on that subject in conduct into question, nor will. I onthe following letter.

deavour to extol your virtue by pre“I deem myself to have lost a great senting the contrast of another's vices: part of the pleasure which I expected but thus much I may be permitted to to have derived from my late travels, say, that I fear that your conduct ex. because I could not meet you either cites the general admiration, because at Florence or Arezzo. For it has such examples of probity and integrity twice happened, that, whilst I was at are extremely rare. For so adverse the one of those places, you were to all propriety are the notions of men, at the other. I was, however, much and to such a height has the madness more disappointed at missing you at of cupidity attained, that they to whom Arezzo than at Florence ;--in the first the magistracy is delegated, imagine place, because I could not follow you that they may rob and plunder with from my native town, and next, be- impunity. Hence those very persons cause though I antecedently enter- are the greatest violators of justice, 10 tained the highest opinion of your whose hands tbe sword is committed, probity, the testimonies which I heard for the purpose of defending its deof the admirable virtues which you crees. Than this line of conduct, I displayed during the last six months, know nothing more perverse.. It is in quality of governor of that city, the dictate of nature that chief magisinspired me with increased regard trates should promote the welfare of and affection towards you. I was, their people, that they should punish therefore, extremely concerned not to malefactors, control the ill-disposed, have an immediate opportunity of put an end to discord; that they should offering you my congratulations. At not only themselves, in the exercise of all times, indeed, was virtue to be abstinence and integrity, refrain from admired--but in our age it is the more rapine, injury, and contumely, but admirable, in proportion to the scar- that they should also restrain others city of good men, especially in places from perpetrating these crimes. What of power and trust, in which the li- then can be more wicked, what more cense to do wrong renders it the more treasonable, than yourself to commit difficult to abstain from the exercise those offences which you are appointed of oppression. For men in general to check and punish? want not so much the will, as the pow | It may, however, he said, What ader, to play the tyrant. Whosoever, vantage or benefit then will accrue to then, has not abused his power, his the magistrate? Shall be reap for bis

exertions nothing but labour and

trouble ?-I answer, He will reap a * Leonar. Aret. Epist. lib. iii. ep. 10.

magnificent reward, a reward prefer


Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.


able to all money and gain. I mean I could hardly furnish them with the honour and glory, in comparison of requisite accommodations. Several which, wealth is of little worth. He others were daily expected, amongst who is not satisfied with this reward whom he mentions the Bishop of Bourwill never be a good chief magistrate. deaux, and some English Prelates. From their relative connection, then, He was grieved to find that a process it is fitting that the governed should had been already commenced against derive profit, and the governors ho his late master, whose conduct, to his nour. And this is, indeed, declared still greater mortification, he found it by the very insignia of office which impossible to vindicate.t Of the chaattend upon the magistrate, such as racter and dispositions of the meinbanners, and horses with their hous-bers of the council, Leonardo speaks ings, and robes, and shields, and in terms of commendation. Their crests, and other things of the same proceedings were rapid and decisive. kind, all which are the instruments of They deposed both Benedict and Gresplendour and magnificence, not like gory, and raised to the papal chair the account books of merchants, im Pietro Filardo, a native of the island plements for the obtaining of money. of Candia, who, on bis election, asThe acquisition of gain, then, requires sumed the name of Alexander V.I a different method, and a different Leonardo entered into the service apparatus from the acquisition of ho- of the new Pontiff, in quality of Secrenour. But these are now confounded tary, in which capacity he accompaby many, who refer every thing to nied him from Pisa to Pistoria, where gain, and make a trade of magistracy. the papal court was held during the I congratulate you, then, because you whole of the winter of 1409. Early in have chosen the better way, and have the spring of the ensuing year it was not considered how much profit, but removed to Bologna, where, to the how much praise, you might derive great affliction of the learned and the from your late dignity, whilst you pious, Alexander, who was distinwere neither led astray from reason guished by his talents and his virtues, by avarice, nor from justice by pride. died in the eighth month of his PonI will not, in these circumstances, tificate. propose any other character for your He was succeeded in the pontifical imitation, but shall content myself honours by Baldassare Cossa, Cardiwith exhorting you to imitate your nal of St. Eustachio, a man of a restself ; for, believe me, nothing will be less spirit and unbounded ambition, wanting to your praise, if you con and whose moral character so ill befittinue to regulate your conduct by the ted the sacredness of his office, that maxims by which it has hitherto been it was strongly suspected he had guided."*

shortened the days of his predecessor It has already been related, that by poison. It may be presumed, howthe Cardinals, who were hostile to the ever, that Leonardo did not give creinterests, or disgusted by the conduct, dence to this imputation, as he conof Gregory, had assembled at Pisa, and tinued for a time to exercise his office had adopted measures to put an end of papal secretary under the auspices to the schism which had for so long aof Cossa, who, on his accession, took space of time scandalized and affiicted the name of John XXII. the true believers in the Catholic faith. In the course of the same year, howIt appears, from a letter addressed by ever, Leonardo was appointed to the Leonardo to his friend Ruffo, that Chancellorship of the Republic of soon after his arrival at Florence, he | Florence. But, for reasons which was summoned to attend, and, as may are not recorded in his own writings, be conjectured, to assist in recording or in any of the works of his contemthe deliberations of tbis august and poraries which have survived the lapse venerable assembly. On his arrival | of time, he did not, on the present at Pisa, he found to his surprise, that occasion, hold this honourable office so great a number of ecclesiastics had for a long period. In the latter end repaired to the council, that the city of the year 1411, he resigned his iny

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Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.


nicipal dignities, and resumed his , and the other particulars, which comancient functious in the Pontifical / pose the dress of the Florentine ladies. Chancery.*

In that case, they would entertain a Early in the ensuing year, hc ex- more hamble opinion of themselves changed the freedom of celibacy for than they do at present. But this the wholesome restraints of the nup-topic I leave to be handled by my tial state. The object of his choice friend Zucharo.”f was a lady of good family, at Arezzo, The only offspring of Leonardo's to whom he was married in the month marriage was a son, who was born of January or February.t The follow- towards the close of the year 1412, ing letter, wbich he addressed to his and whose name has bcen ascertained friend Poggio, soon after the termi- by the minute researches of Mehus, to nation of his honey-moon, evinces have been Donato. $ that, the joys of matrimony had not On the accession of John XXII. to extinguished his regard to prudential the pontifical chair, his affairs wore a considerations.

face of prosperity. Whilst Benedict “On my return from Arezzo, on was sapported by no part of Christenthe 17th of March, I deviated from dom except Spain and Scotland, and the direct road, to pay a visit to your Gregory, on the death of Robert, native place, (Terranuova,) where I Emperor of Germany, held the mere found both your parents in good semblance of a court at Rimini, John health, and heard a good account of was acknowledged as the legitimate your newly married sister, and of the successor of St. Peter by the greatest rest of your relations. On my arrival part of Europe.ll His newly acquired at Florence, I received your letter; dignity was not, however, enjoyed by and though I am so much fatigued by him without uneasiness. The state of my journey that I am more inclined to Italy filled him with alarm. In the sleep than to write, I will answer it as contention which was at that time carwell as I can. In the first place, as to ried on for the throne of Naples, bethe witty remark of my excellent friend tween Louis of Anjou, and Ladislaus, Zacharo, that I was gone to consum- king of Hungary, he attached himself mate my marriage, whilst he stayed to to the fortunes of the former of those consume his patrimony; I would beg princes, under whose protection he leave to inform him that my wedding made his solemn entry into Rome, has to me effected both these purposes. where he was received with public It is incredible what expense is occa | acclamations. Soon after this Louis sioned by the new and extravagant fa- gained a signal victory over his comshions which have been lately adopted petitor. His rashness and presumpin this country. I do not, by this obser- tion, however, prevented him from vation, allude to the entertainments reaping the fruits of his success. Eswhich I have given, at which Pincio, 1 teeming his adversary as irretrievably whom you well remember for his double ruined, he quitted the theatre of the entendre, attended with a whole band war, and repaired to France. Ladisof musicians. My guests, you may laus, with the promptitude and vigibe assured, were numerous. I emp lance of an able soldier, took advantied the market and the grocers' shops, tage of his supineness. He collected and gave active employment to a va.

employment to a va a numerous army, at the head of riety of cooks, oil-men, and poulter- / which he approached the pontifical ers. These matters, however, are capital. John, despairing of being attended with more talk than cost, and able to make any effectual resistance cause more bustle than expense. The against the superior forces of the Hunprincipal subject of my complaint is, garian monarch, fled from Rome and that there is no end of the expense of took shelter in Florence, in the sumfemale ornaments and apparel. I mer of 1413. In the beginning of the wish those Romans of yours, who have winter of the same year, he went to, nothing left of their ancient glory, be successively, Bologna, Piacenza, Lodi, sides empty boasting, could see the Cremono, and Mantua. Early in the gold, the silver, the purple, the pearls, following year he returned to Bologna,

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Religious Intelligence.


where he spent the wbole of the sum- | Mohawk tribe, dressed in the full mer. During the course of these toil-costume of his country, and, by his some peregrinations, the duties of his side, a brother Chieftain, in the dress office compelled Leonardo to accom- of an English gentleman, who, by pany his master. *

their singular, though contrasted apIn the season of his distress John pearance, excited a considerable share had earnestly entreated Sigismund, of public attention. On this occasion, the king of the Romans, to concur David Bevan, Esq. on being called to with him in the prosecution of two the chair, stated, in a pleasing and objects, namely, the enforcement of a animated manner, the object of the decree of the council of Pisa, which meeting. The Rey. J. Owen, J. W. had fulminated against Ladislaus a Freshfield, Esq. Rev. Joseph Hughes, sentence of excommunication and de- Mr. Garratt, Rev. Dr. Wardlaw, Rev. position; and, the direction of the uni-| E. S. Marsh, Rev. Peter Treschow, ted efforts of the most powerful states Luke Howard, Esg. Rev. J. Clayton, of Christendom to put an end to the Colonel Brandt, Rev. Wm. Henry, schism. Sigismund, who regarded Rev. G. Clayton, Rev. J. P. Wehlen, the successes of the king of Hungary and the Rev. J. Townsend, severally with a jealous eye, lent a willing ear addressed the audience, each taking to the proposals of the Pontiff, but a distinct view of the grand work in gave it as his decided opinion, that which they were about to engage, entheir views could only be effected by forcing its necessity, and expatiating the summoning of a general council. on its beneficial tendency, and holding From this suggestion, the Pontiff out encouragements to a patient conshrunk with instinctive dread, but the tinuance in well doing. necessity of his affairs at length com Of this society, her Royal Highness pelled him to comply with it; and after the Duchess of Kent has condescended various discussions, the city of Con- to become the President. The Vicestance was fixed upon as the place Presidents are, Lady Inglis, Lady for the assembling of the council. Mackworth, Mrs. D. Beyan, Mrs. ..." Mehi Vita Leon. Aret. p. 41, 42. Fowell Buxton, Mrs. Gillman, Mrs. (To be continued.)

Mills, Mrs. Macauley, Mrs. Shaw,
Mrs. J. Thornton, and Miss Vansittart.

The latter of these ladies not being

able to attend, forwarded a letter en

closing a donation of ten guineas. This month has been distinguished by

Mrs. Fry and Mrs. Deacon are joint several religious meetings of a very

Treasurers. interesting nature, both in and out of the metropolis. Of some of these, the

This meeting excited a considerable

degree of interest, and received the particulars have already been detailed in the public papers, on which account

most flattering prospect of support. an epitome will comprise all that it | British and Foreign Seaman's Friend will be necessary for us to record.

Society, and Bethel Union. City of London Auxiliary Bible The third anniversary of this beneSociety.

volent society was held at the City of On Monday the 8th, a public meet- London Tavern, on the evening of ing was held in the great room of the Wednesday, October the 10th. PreCity of London Tavern, for the express paratory to this anniversary, a sermon purpose of instituting “A Ladies was preached on the Monday precedBranch Society, and ten Female Bible ing, by the Rev. G. C. Smith, of PenAssociations,” in connection with the zance, Cornwall, in a spacious chapel “ City of London Auxiliary Bible belonging to the Wesleyan Methodists, Society.”

in Great Queen-street. On Tuesday, About balf-past twelve a great num- the 9th, a sermon was preached in faber of ladies had assembled, who vour of the same institution, by the were afterwards addressed by various Rev. R. Marks, Vicar of Great speakers from an elevated platform, Missenden, Buckinghamshire, in St. erected for their reception, and that Bride's Church, in the morning, and of the President, Secretary, and Com- in the evening, another at Zion Cha. mittee. On this platform were also pel, by the Rev. T. Roberts, of Bristol. seated an Indian Chieftain, of the During these different services, the

Religious Intelligence.

1056 congregations were large, and deeply | bility, and supported by the pious of attentive to the subjects discussed by almost every denomination. the respective preachers. The collec- ! The principal speakers in the upper tions amounted to nearly £100. room were, the Rev. Mr. Smith, Rev.

Although the hour appointed for the Mr. Marks, Rev. Mr. Irons, Rev. Mr. commencement of the general meeting Brown, of South Oakenden, Rev. C. on Wednesday, was six, so early as Hyat, R. H. Marten, Esq. the Amefour in the afternoon a considerable rican Chief, Rev. T. Roberts, Mr. number began to assemble. Soon Stephenson, Rev. Mr. Sharp, Mr. after five, the great room was crowded Phillips, and several others, whose to excess, and a general cry was rais- names we do not recollect. ed that no more could be admitted ; During the animated speeches which bat on the arrival of many very re-were delivered by the above gentlespectable gentlemen and ladies, this men, many pleasing anecdotes were resolution was abandoned, and both introduced ; and the reiterated plauthe orchestra and the committee-room dits which followed the statement of were completely filled.

whatever was striking and important, As multitudes still continued to evinced, in the most unequivocal manthrong, it was soon found necessary ner, how much every one present was that another room should be engaged, pleased with the success that had which was accordingly done; but this attended the institution. In the hearts also was soon filled, and many were of all present the welfare of the sailors obliged to go away from the want of appeared to have cast anchor. Their room. The assembly being thus divi- rough and boisterous manners were ded, Sir G. Keith, of the Royal Navy, lost in that open and undisguised condescended to take the chair in the frankness which associates with their lower room, where several speak- character; a character that can triers also remained; among whom were umph over danger in seasons of hostithe Rev. Mr. Norris, from Norfolk, lity, and command benevolence in Rev. Mr. Evans, from Collington, times of peace. Captain Allen, R. N. Rev. Wm. Gur- Among the various speakers who ney, Rector of St. Clement Danes, honoured the meeting with their preand several others. In addition to sence, there was not one who excited these, different speakers hastened more attention than the Indian Chief, from one room to another, to address who appeared in the costume of the the auditors, so that the whole of this Mobawk tribe. When he rose to large assemblage was highly gratified speak, every eye was fixed upon him, with the interesting tidings they had and every ear was listening to catch to communicate. The committee also the observations which he made. But were constantly on the alert, devoting although a breathless silence prevailed their utmost attention to the accom- throughout the whole assembly, his modation of the people assembled, accents were so low, that those only whose orderly and solemn bebaviour who sat near him were able distinctly did honour to their character as Chris- to understand what he delivered. On tians, and coincided with the momen- this account, his pleasing and juditous occasion for which they were cious remarks, couched in the followconvened.

ing language, will be the more accepAt six o'clock, the chair was taken table to our readers. in the upper room by the Right Hon. “My Lord, from the connection of Admiral Lord Gambier. The Report, my late father with this country, I which was read by the Secretary, after gained in my youth a little acquaintrecognizing the grand object of the ance with the English language. We society, took a circuit round the Bri- reside on the great river Erie, and we tish shores, including Scotland and have many seamen on our lakes. As Wales, and taking a transient glance I was coming to this country, supat Ireland. From this Report it appear-ported only by a single plank from the ed, that in the various ports, creeks, deep below us, I could not but think and inlets on the surrounding coasts, how vain and how insufficient were the Bethel Flag bad been hoisted in the help of man, without the blessing nearly fourscore places; and that the of God. I am happy to be present on noble design had been countenanced this occasion, where you are labouring by gentlemen of the highest respecta. I to promote the welfare, not only of

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