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1130 praying unto God, for their parents, government is cruelty, Instead of seerelations, neighbours, friends, and ing the aged and sick cast out from even their enemies. Instead of stran- the house, which perhaps their own gling their new-born infants, they may hands had reared, and left by the side now be seen pressing them to their of a brook, beneath the shelter of a breast, nursing them at their side, or few cocoa-nut leaves, with now and dandling them on their knee, with all then a cocoa-nutor a bread-fruit taken a parent's fondness and affectionate, to them, or perhaps left to die with delight. Instead of consigning them hunger and cold, the sick and aged to the darkness of the grave almost are now attended to, and their wants as soon as the light of day had beamed supplied. Many, no doubt, are thus on their just opened infant eyes, the restored, who, formerly, after lanfond parents may now be seen placing guishing in famine and nakedness, hefore their intellectual eye, the irra- would have died a miserable death. diating beams of inspired truth, the Instead of the poor helpless sick enlightening word of God. Instead of being thrust through with a spear, or wandering about on the mountains, or even buried alive, which used to be wantonly rolling naked in the sand on the case when their attendants were the sea-beach, or committing to me- tired of waiting on them, or impatient mory the profane and obscene udes for the little property they possessed, (songs) of their warriors and idols, or or when the groans of the sick were strolling about without any one to care an obstacle to their merriment; the for their bodies or souls, the fond friends and neighbours may now be parents are now concerned if their lit- seen administering every comfort they the children are out of their sight. can obtain, to the sick and dying, They may now be found morning and weeping over them in the most affecevening at the school, and, when at tionate manner, and mingling with play on the sea-beach, frequently seen, their tears, prayers, to Him with five, six, or seven in a party, teach- whom are the issues of life and death, ing each other to write in the sand; that health may be restored; or, if or, under the shade of a tree, hearing His will be otherwise, that the passage cach other say their lesson ready of the departing spirit may be comagainst school-time. How often have posed and calm through the swellings I seen the parents on a sabbath morn- of Jordan. Instead of seeing both ing view their children, neatly dress sexes dressed in a manner from which ed, clean and healthy, walking two the eye of decency would turn aside and two, from the school-house to the with disgust, their dresses are now chapel, while joy has beamed on their modest and becoming. Instead of countenances; and the big tear of glad being in continual fear of the sly thief ness has appeared flashing and ready in open day, or the midnight plunto roll down their wrinkled cheek, derer, our little property, though not when the eye of their little boy or girl always secured by lock or bolt, rehas caught their own, as he or she has mains untouched. Instead of living passed along. The mother, perhaps, in open houses, exposed to the bleak has remembered the many dear infants winds from the mountains, or the her own hands have strangled, and drifting rains, sheltered from the infeels increased affection for, perhaps, clemency of the weather in the rainy the only one that has survived, to season, only by the leaf of cocoa-nut enjoy the blessings of the milder reign trees; the neat warm plastered cottage of Jesus Christ. The father, perhaps, here and there greets the eye. But I thinks that had the chains of idolatry must draw to a close. These are only been cast away sooner, I, instead of some of the blessings that have accomsecing one to bear my name, to inherit panied their reception of Christianity; my land, to eat of the fruit of my and much as the simple preaching of the cocoa-nut and bread-fruit trees, should cross may be spoken against, I have not have seen five or six growing up to heard of any philosophical philanthromanhood, or mingling with those who pic scheme, from which the gospel of are going to the house of prayer. How Christ was excluded, however plausidifferent must their feelings be on ble and imposing it may have appearsuch occasions, to what they were un- ed in theory, that has ever produced der the reign of the prince of darkness, such practical effects, in any age, in the distinguishing feature of whose any country, or among any people. No. 34.-Vol. III.
1132 Third Extract, June, 13th, 1821. between the adult males and females,
With respect to the population of which is not more than one female to these islands, I am inclined to believe three or four males, as the males were that, (like every other country which generally spared during the days of is only partially known) it bas been heathenism, and the female children vastly over-rated. I cannot give you were strangled, being less useful as an accurate statement of the number warriors; and the same disproportion of inhabitants on any of the islands, exists between the sexes of the rising but from all the information I have generation, and is visible in the elder been able to obtain, I do not think I scholars of our Sanday Schools: at shall be far wrong when I say, the Huahine we have more than 200 boys, Leeward, or Society Islands, contain and little more than 100 girls. The less than 6000 inhabitants (viz.) Hua- births of the sexes are nearly equal. hine, and Sir Charles Sands Ísland, 2100 ; Raiatea and Tahua, 2300; Bo
Fourth Extract. robon and Mourua, 1000. Respecting A canoe arrived lately with some of the Windward or Georgia Islands, I the inhabitants of hao, an island sevecannot speak so correctly. Some of ral hundred miles off, to the eastward ; the brethren think they may be stated another from Chituroo, a large island at 7000; so that the population of to the south-west. Their errand is, Tabiti and the adjacent islands may be to inquire about the true God. They safely rated at 14,000. The population have embraced his gospel, and long had been most rapidly decreasing to get back to their country to burn all during the twenty or thirty years prior their idols. to the introduction of Christianity, as 3000 copics of the Gospel of John the remains of recently abandoned bave been printed at Tahiti, and I am plantations and dwelling houses in now at work at 3000 more, for the every valley all around in almost every Leeward Islands, for which the people island abundantly testify. The popu- are anxiously waiting. I have done lation appears at present at a stand, three sheets, and shall, if not interneither decreasing nor increasing; for rupted, finish in about two months. 4 by an account which we have kept of births and deaths, we find them to be nearly cqual: and if the deaths now REPLY TO A QUERY ON THE SABBATH. (which are only natural ones) equal the births, how vastly must they have
MR. Editor. exceeded them when 'so many hun- Sır.-It was with considerable pleadreds were annually strangled in their sure that I read the following Query, infancy; so many died by the unre- proposed by “Gamma, col. 962 of strained use of spirits, and from the your Magazine, " What scriptural diseases contracted from foreigners, authority is there to bind us to keep which spread generally with alarming the first day of the week, commonly rapidity; as well as the great number called Sanday, sacred to the worship killed in their frequent wars, setting of God and other religious dutics ?? aside human sacrifices, &c. &c.? My pleasure arose from the consider
The institution of marriage has been ations, that, answering such a query cnforced, and is now universally ac- would allow an opportunity of exhibitknowledged among the natives, and ing to the view of Gamma, some prinattended to by those who profess the ciples, which have been long and sinchristian religion. The parents also fully overlooked by a great majority are very fond and careful of their off- of Christian churches. Such culpabispring; so that I think we may fairly lity must necessarily have produced infer, that these islands are likely to its pernicious effects. This, Sir, 1 become in the course of another cen- would presume is strikingly apparent, tury very populous : but we cannot by the fact of this insertion of Gamexpect a very rapid increase for a few ma's query, which could only have generations to come ; Ist, because of originated in the entire negleet of the diseases of the parents, many of scriptural light on this subject. To a the children when born being sickly or mind under the conviction of the exdiseased, and the majority seldom clusive authority of Christ in his survive three or four months; 2d, on church, this, with some things that account of the great disproportion are connected with it, form a subject 1133
Reply to a Query on the Sabbath.
of deep regret; and therefore, every made for man," goes far to overturn opportunity of exhibiting that autho- all he has advanced against its moral rity for the correction of what is anti- obligation; for if it was made for man, christian, and the establishment of it would unquestionably be given to what is scriptural, is eagerly embraced. man as soon as he was in circumAs this query stands intimately con- stances to observe this appointment. .nected with the institution of the And on this conclusion we rest with seventh day as a sabbath, it will be more confidence, when we consider, requisite to make a few observations that the reasons of the institution exthereon, as preliminary to answering isted at the creation. Not but that Gamma's immediate point of inquiry. other reasons were afterwards added · We shall first observe, that the on its reappointment by Moses; but original institution of a sabbath, was this, I presume, can make nothing commemorative in its design. This against the original obligation which we safely infer from Gen. ii. 3. “God was still retained.', Others were inblessed the seventh day, and sancti- deed added, but entirely on account fied it, because that in it he had rested of the peculiar circumstances connectfrom all his work, which God created ed with that nation. and made :" (see also Exod. xx. 11.) God, in making the sabbath a memoThis institution then celebrates the rial of other things, was only acting completion of the glorious work of according to his usual plan in all his creation, which tuned the admiring works, of bringing no more means into souls of holy angels, for herein is dis operation, for the accomplishment of played that which was calculated to an end, than what are absolutely necall forth their praises. No intelli- cessary. It must be granted, that to gent creature can behold the glorious the believing children of Israel, the fabric of the earth and heavens, exhi- sabbath was a sign of their entering biting eternal power, perfect wisdom, into God's rest, and ceasing from and boundless goodness, without feel their own works, as God did from his; ing the deepest reverence for their but this could not apply at the creaAuthor. How befitting then the dig- tion, for man was in the rest God had nity of God, to appoint, and man to appointed. It also reminded them observe, the seventh day in commemo- that God had given them rest in the ration of the accomplishment of cre- land of Canaan, from Egyptian bonation.
dage, which was a figure of the heaBut the sabbath was also moral in venly rest. But it is apparent, that its nature; the reason assigned by these things were peculiar to the IsGod for the appointment, was one in raelitish nation, and were subsequent which all the human race were impli- to the original institution, and therecated, viz. “God rested on the se- fore could form no part of the reaventh day from all his work." This sons for the first appointment. Both reason must pertain to the inhabitants the moral and typical obligations were of every pation upon the face of the indeed combined in the law given by earth, as the work of his hands; and Moses; but it is self-evident, that more especially, as the recipients of any typical purpose for which the sabthe blessings which his creatures bath was observed, could never have afford: “in him we live, and move, the least tendency to weaken its moral and have our being,” and who hath obligation. It was in one point of never left himself without witness, in view a shadow, and passed away that he did good, and gave us rain when the body came, but in another it from heaven, and fruitful seasons, was of moral obligation, and could filling our hearts with food and glad- not be rescinded but by him who made ness.”
the appointment. This I think is still Wide as the blessings of création further confirmed by the circumstance are diffused, so are its obligations that the command to observe the sabBut if the command was delivered at bath, when given by Moses to Israel, the creation, and of which I have no is found placed amongst those commanner of doubt, it must be obligatory mands, which are acknowledged by upon all the species. This point has all to be of universal obligation; which been controverted by that able writer, is a strong presumption that it was of (Paley) but I think the declaration of the same character. It is this twoour Lord, -" that the sabbath was fold relation, which it bore to the
Reply to a Query on the Sabbath.
Mosaic dispensation, that has given that what they delivered in precept, rise to diversities of opinion amongst and what they established in practice, theologians. Our way, I presume, is must be of equal authority ? Few, innow prepared for discussing the point deed, doubt the authority of their preafter which Gamma inquires.
cepts, who at the same time pay no As we have before observed, what attention to the practice of the first was typical in the seventh-day sab- churches. But that the opinion of the bath, bas passed away by virtue of its Apostle Paul was very different, wc fulfilment in Christ. “Let no' man, know of a certainty, for he praises the therefore, judge you in meat, or in Thessalonians for being followers of drink, or in respect of an holy-day, the churches of God, which in Judca or of the new-moon, or of the sabbath- are in Christ Jesus, 1 Thess. ii. 14.; days. Which are a shadow of things and in 1 Cor. xi. 16. he there appeals to come, but the body is of Christ,” to the example of the churches as a Col. iii. 16, 17. But the question re- general principle. “But if any man turns, Has the moral obligation of the seem to be contentious, we have no seventh-day sabbath been abrogated ? such custom, neither the churches of We hope that we have proved its obli- God.” On this principle we wish to gation, to the entire satisfaction of rest the universal obligation of the every unprejudiced mind. Now, if sabbath of the first day of the week. the blessings of creation did morally The evidence that the apostolic oblige to the devotion of a seventh churches statedly observed the first part of our time to the service of God, day as a sabbath, is abundant and surely the infinite blessings of redemp- satisfactory; see Acts xx. 7: also ii. 42. tion have multiplied our obligations 1 Cor. xvi. 2. The Apostle John, in indefinitely. We therefore confident- the book of Revelation, i. 10. emphaly infer; there still remains the obser- tically terms it the Lord's day; this vance of a sabbath to the Lord. not only intimates the authority, of
Christ when on earth declared him- Christ for so naming it, but also that self to be Lord of the sabbath ; per- the churches understood the designahaps this occasional declaration of his tion, previous to the Apostles having authority, was indicative of the change written to them; and it is apparent, he was about to make of the day of its that the term not only implies that the observance : but while he was Lord rose from the dead on that day, earth, we know of no positive com- but that the churches kept the day mand that Christ gave to his disciples, sacred as a memorial of his resurrecfor the observance of the first day of tion. It is that portion of time which the week as a sabbath ; but the fact he has called his own, to be set apart that he did so, we gather from their to commemorate the completion of a subsequent conduct, for we cannot greater work than that of creation; admit a doubt that they imposed any and certainly its being a greater work, thing upon the first churches for establishes the propriety of abolishing which they had not the authority of the seventh day, and of instituting the Christ.
first for a superior purpose ; for all Before his ascension, he commis- things, both in creation and provisioned and qualified his Apostles, dence, do, and must, subserve the "10 teach and disciple all nations, interests of the Redeemer's kingdom. teaching them to observe all things on the first day he rose from the dead whatsoever he had commanded them.” a triumphant Saviour, having finished For after his resurrection, “ he was the great work of redemption. This seen of them forty days, speaking of was the day of his triumph; and shall the things pertaining to the kingdom we not keep it an holy festival to the of God:” now the things they were to Lord, when every return of the day is teach, were the commandments of calculated to cheer our minds with the Christ; this was the extent of their certainty of our own resurrection for commission; and to preserve them from our Lord has risen as the first-fruits, every thing contrary to his will, the afterwards they that are Christ's at Spirit was given, as a monitor to them his coming. Through his resurrection in every supposable case. The Apos- which we commemorate on this day, tles, thus qualified, went forth to we are begotten to a lively hope of evangelize ihe world ; under these entering into the heavenly rest; and circumstances, will it not be admitted, I observing the first day in faith, we
1137 Chemical Essays.
1138 enjoy the earnest of that rest that re- | absorbed different quantities of calomains for the people of God,
ric; the water will have absorbed more From the above reasons we would than the oil, and the oil more than the infer, as from the most certain data, mercury. By exposing other bodies the indispensable obligations upon all to measured quantities of caloric, we Christians to observe the first day of obtain different results. That quanthe week sacred to the service of God; tity which elevates one body one defor they who presume to controvert the gree only, will elevate another body known and established practice of the ten or twenty degrees. Dr. BLACK apostolic churches, oppose that order first established the opinion, that the which inspiration dictated; they are quantities of caloric which heterogehastile to the Apostles, and rebellious neous bodies contain at the same temagainst the authority of the King of perature, are proportioned neither to Zion. But it is a pleasing consider their weight nor their volumes, but are ation, that however powerful this hos- in proportiou regulated by the force of tility may now be, the time is fast ap- that attraction which they have for this proaching, when every yestige of the principle. If equal weights of water, man of sin shall be destroyed by the of glass, of tin, of copper, and of lead, breath of his mouth and brightness of be subjected to experiments, we find his coming. If the modern had been that they do not at the same temperamore observant of the practices of the ture contain the same quantities of caprimitive churches, the special duties loric. If we wish to determine the of the first day.could not have fallen quantities of caloric which bodies coninto such total disregard, neither would tain, it will be necessary to mix togethe diversity of orders which are so ther equal weights of two different anomalous, have had any existence. kinds of matter at different tempera
The judgment of Christians would tures, and observe the temperature have been established by a reference which results from their mixture. Ifwe to examples, where precept were not make use of the same kind of matter, given ; but now they are agitated by at different degrees of temperature, the the conflicting sentiments of the titled arithmetical medium between the two and the learned, who, on the shallow temperatures will be produced. If, for argument of expediency, have rejected instance, we mix one pint of water at the plain and apposite example of the 120°, and another pint of the same apostolic churches ; so that on these fluid at 212°, the temperature resulting points the Christian world exhibits a from their mixture will be 1669. But perfect chaos. How consummate the when the experiment is made with two dissimilarity to the unity the apostle different bodies, the temperature prodescribes : “ There is one body, and duced is never the arithmetical mean one spirit, as ye are called in one hope of the two temperatures. Thus, if one of your calling: one Lord, one faith, pound of water at 166o, be mixed with one baptism.'
That this unity may one pound of mercury at 40°, the respeedily take the place of every.com- sulting temperature is not the mean mandment of men, in the Christian 98°, but is not less than 1520 ; of churches, is, Sir, the prayer of your course the water is only reduced four obedient servant,
AMICUS. degrees, whilst the loss of these four deSunderland, Oct. 15th, 1821.
grees has been sufficient to elevate the
mercury to 152o. The quantity of caCHEMICAL ESSAYS. ESSAY V. loric in water, at any point in the scale ( Caloric, concluded from col. 797.) of heat, is to that contained in the same
weight of mercury, as 28 to 1. Of the comparative quantities of Caloric
Itis observed, that those bodies which which bodies contain,
contain the least quantity of caloric at The capacities of homogeneous bo- a given temperature, or, in other words, dies for caloric, are according to their have the least capacity, are those of temperatures and quantities of matter. greatest density, such as the metals, This however is not the case with hete- and their more dense combinations ; rogeneous bodies.
If oil, mercury, and on the other hand, substances of and water, be exposed to certain de- the greatest rarity, the elastic fluids grees of caloric, they all arrive at a and gases, are those which have the common temperature ; but it will be greatest capacities for caloric. When found that in rising to this, they have any species of air is rarefied by the ai