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Chemical Essays.


pamp, its temperature falls, obviously this caloric has no influence in raising from the increased rarity enabling the the temperature of the substances air to contain a larger quantity of ca- which undergo these changes. When loric at a certain temperature, and this the experiment is reversed, that caloric caloric not being absorbed by the sur- which was absorbed becomes 'disenrounding bodies, the air suffering rare- gaged, and is rendered sensible. faction must be reduced. By compressing any aeriform fluid, caloric is of the Variations of Temperature, and extricated, the capacity being dimi- the Applications of these to Practical nished by the reduction of volume. By

Chemistry. producing increased density in differ- This subject will conclude the cheent bodies, their capacities for calorie mical history of caloric. Caloric, as are diminished. Thus, if sulphuric acid we have before observed, has a tenand water be combined together, an in- deney to produce an equilibrium of crease of density takes place, and con- temperature in all bodies ; and this sequently a diminution of capacity; a equilibrium would certainly take place, considerable quantity of caloric is at were it not counteracted by different the same time evolved.

causes. As every part of the earth is It is necessary to observe, that dif- not exposed to the same action of the ferent forms of the same body contain solar rays, it is obvious that there will different quantities of calorie: a body in be variations of temperature in difthe form of a fluid contains more caloric ferent climates ; the variations depend than a body in the form of a solid; and chiefly upon the latitude of the country, a body in the form of a gas, contains although they are somewhat influenced more ihan a liquid body. This gives by elevation and distance from the sea. rise to wbat is called latent heat. The average annual heat in the torrid

Dr. Black first discovered that zone, is from 75o 10 80°; in moderate bodies in different forms took up dif- climates 50° or 52°, and towards the ferent quantities of caloric. This fact polar regions 36o. The extremes over is established from the phenomena at- the whole globe'extend from a few detending liquefaction and vaporization. grees above 100° of Fahrenheit, to 50% If, for instance, ice below 32° is ex- below the zero or commencement of the posed to a warm atmosphere, it gra- same scale. In tropical climates, the dually rises until it reaches that de- heat in the shade occasionally rises to gree, after which it becomes station- 105° or even 110°. In Siberia and ary until the whole of the ice is melted. Hudson's Bay, the temperature is suf Still, however, caloric is communicated ficiently low to freeze quicksilver. At to it; and that this caloric is absorbed Hudson Bay, the spirit thermometer is by it, is proved by a reduction of the said to have stood at 50° in the open air. temperature of the sorrounding air. In The sources of heat, 'under the control this case, therefore, a quantity of ca- of art, are, the rays of the sun, the loric disappears, or becoines latent, in electrical and galvanic fluids, combusthe water. This is'accounted for upon tion, condensation, friction, and perthe supposition that water has a greater cussion. By a lens, or concave mirror, capacity for calorio tban ice, inasmuch the solar rays are collected, and inas the former is in a state of greater tense heat may be produced. By large density than the latter. The same phe- glasses, sufficient heat is excited to nomenon is observed, if a liquid be con- melt several of the metals, and to proverted into a state of vapour. If we duce combustion in several combusapply caloric to water, its temperature tible bodies. is gradually raised until it reaches The electric fluid is capable of pro2120. At this temperature it continues ducing à sadden and very great heat. stationary, if its surface be exposed to On this account it is made use of to the air, and is converted into vapour. combine different gases, which unite at Vapour has a greater capacity for ca. a high temperature. Galvanism is caus loric than water, in consequence of pable of exciting heat, hence it is frewhich it absorbs the superabundant quently made use of to fuse the most heat, and prevents any further increase incombustible substances. Combusof temperature. These facts prove that tion is the most common source of when bodies are converted from a solid heat for the purpose of chemistry, into a fluid form, or from a fluid into an and for mechanical operations. - Comaerial state, they absorb caloric, but that I bustion arises from the oxygeu of the

Wise Mayor of Lancaster.

1142 atmosphere combining with the com- of Cockram, (Cockerham) near Lantures; the combination is attended dens, to set up a rood (that is, a with condensation, and of course calo- wooden figure of a man) both well faric is evolved; combustion therefore is voured and of tall stature, as usual in absolutely dependent upon a due sup- all churches. The churchwardens ply of atmospheric air, or oxygen gas : made their bargain, and agreed to give the more freely the air is supplied, the a price to one (most probably a Lanmore rapid is the combustion. The caster carpenter) that could cunningly construction of furnaces is founded on carve, and paint such idols for the this supply of air, inasmuch as in- framing of their rood ; who, according flammable matter cannot burn without to his promise, made them one, and set its free access. The production of heat it up in their church. This done, the from condensation, is most satisfacto-carpenter demanded his money; but rily exemplified in substances which tbey, disliking bis workmanship, refusare highly compressible and elastic, ed to pay him ; whereupon he arrested consequently in acriform fluids. By them, and the matter was brought bea condensing an aeriform body, its tem- fore the mayor of Lancaster, who was perature is reduced, and a quantity of a very fit man for such a purpose, and caloric is extricated. The mixture of an old favourer of the gospel, which was sulphuric acid with water, wbich we rare in that country: then the carver have alladed to, is another instance of began to declare how they covenanted the extrication of heat by condensation. with him for making the rood, with By a very sudden condensation, a high the appurtevances ready carved, and temperature, equal even to ignition, set up in their church ; which be, acmay be produced. It was observed, cording to his promise, had done : now that a luminous appearance is some- demanding his money, they refused to times produced by the discharge of an pay him.---Mayor. • Is this true, masair-gun in the dark. The experiment ter churchwardens ?Churchwardens. was repeated before the French Na- “ Yea, Sir."-Mayor..“ Why do you tional Institute. From the air rapidly not pay the old man his due ?”compressed in the ball of an air-gun, Churchwardens.

- An' it please you, so much beat was disengaged from the measter mayor, because the rood we first stroke of the piston, as to set fire had before was a well-favoured man, to a piece of fungus-match placed with and he promised to make us such ans in the pump. Friction and percussion other; but this he has set up now is the are also productive of increased tem- worst favoured that your worship ever perature. Two pieces of hard wood set your eyes on, gaping and grinning rubbed against each other, are so much in such sort that none of our children heated as to be kindled. This method dare once look at it.”-Mayor, “I is frequently adopted by savage na- think it good enough for the purpose : tions. The friction on the axle of a and, master wardens, howsoever you loaded carriage, or that wbich is pro- like the rood, or it is like you, the duced by the rapid revolution of a rope poor man's labour hath been nevertheround a pulley, is sometimes so great less, and it is a pity he should have as to produce fire. The heat from per- any hinderance or loss thereby. Therecussion is, no doubt, produced in the fore, I tell you, pay him the money same manner as that of friction. It is you promised: go your ways home and easily carried to the same extent. By look at it, and if it will not serve for a hammering a piece of iron on the an- god, make no more to do, but clap. vil, ignition may be produced ;, and the pair of horns on his head, and so he will sparks which are produced by striking make an excellent devil.” This the a piece of steel against flint, are par- parishioners took well--the poor man ticles of steel raised to a state of ig- had his money-divers laughed thereat nition by combining at a high tempe- -but so did not the Babylonish priests. rature with the air of the atmosphere. Fox's History of Martyrs.



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The Catholic Bishops, in 1554, com

Some workmen recently digging a manded the churchwardens of the town cave in the environs of the Cape of





1148 On the Origin of Human Knowledge.--Review. Good Hope, discovered the hull of a RevieW.-Eternal Punishment proved vessel, built of cedar, and supposed to to be not Suffering, but Privation, and be the remains of a Phenician galley. Immortality dependent on Spiritual Should this conjecture be verified, it Regeneration, &c. by a Member of the will prove beyond all contradiction the Church of England. 8vo. pp. 305. truth of what Herodotus has stated, London, Hatchard. 1817. that these adventurous Tyrians had. It is a painfnl, and yet an amusing reached the southern extremity of employment, to watch the movements Africa, upwards of 2000 years before of the human mind, in its numerous this stormy Cape was doubled by Vasco and diversified aberrations, and to de Gama, in 1497.-A circumstance of trace its progressive advances through so singular a nature will not long re

the empire of scepticism, and the main in uncertainty. As a curiosity, it region of error. would be well worth importing into

Spinoza and Hobbes undertook to Europe, to enrich the collections, if not prove that there is no God; and Mr. the cabinets, of the antiquarians.

Harris, a Unitarian minister now in

Liverpool, delivered lectures some ORIGIN OF HUMAN KNOW- months since, to prove the non-existLEDGE, RESPECTING

ence of the Devil. Dean Berkeley

denied the existence of the material (Concluded from col. 1046.)

world, and David Hume the reality

of spirits. Dr. Priestley, and some On this subject but one topic more more modern divines, have treated remains to be noticed, that is, the con- the immateriality of the human soul duct of the mind in its conception of with something like contempt; and, spiritual objects; and on this it is ne- to finish this climax of speculative cessary to be very brief. Those per- absurdity, the author of the work besons who have acquired the habit of fore us boldly asserts, that the eternal attending to the action of their minds, punishment threatened in the sacred and who are capable of separating and writings consists not in suffering, but distinguishing its varied operations, in a privation of existence; and that may easily satisfy themselves that their the soul's immortality, instead of resultmost refined notions of the spiritual ing from that constitution of being world, are not formed without the aid which the Almighty primarily conof those impressions produced by the nected with its essence, is dependent thing's of time and sense. But to as- upon spiritual regeneration. certain the general operations of the Common charity would lead us to human intellect in this department of suppose, that all these metaphysical knowledge, it is necessary to investi- speculators conceive their théories to gate the monuments it has left in every be correct, and their reasonings conspecies of mental picture. And here a clusive ; but we must be indebted to wide field presents itself; whatever something more liberal than charity, poets have song, or painters depicted, before we can conceive that all these or philosophers written, or divines wild reveries can be true. preached, is relevant to the subject in to give to their various authors, as hand. Each of these sources would much credit for the legitimacy of their furnish more matter than could well be arguments, as we are disposed to compressed in a single article for your allow them on the ground of charity Magazine ; the reader is therefore re- for their sincerity, our minds would quested to examine them at his lei- be reduced to a more disordered consure, he will then find, that nothing in- dition than that in which the primortelligible has yet been produced in re- dials of matter appeared, before ference to spiritual things, without its

" the heavens and earth rose out of chaos.". containing some allusion to the sensible objects of nature, or to the qualities, Admitting the various theories to feelings, or actions, of the human mind. be genuine, of which we have just I now take my leave of your sensible taken a transient survey, the belief correspondent, whose communication will be induced, that there is no God, produced the preceding remarks, no Devil, no Material World, no SpiAnd am, Sir, your's, respectfully,

rit; that the Human Soul is neither WM.

Ss. Immaterial nor Immortal; and, that Liverpool, Nov. 16th, 1821.

eternal sufferings consist in eternal

Were we 1145

Review-Eternal Punishment.


non-existence. Archimedes could not particular term, such as election, reheave the world, unless he could find demption, grace, faith, or hope, happens a fulcrum on which to rest bis lever; to be found in them. Such an arrangebut our metaphysical theorists have ment of terms wears a formidable contrived to annihilate all existences, aspect towards the unlearned, among and, by the friction of their logical their polemical adversaries. The more milstones, they have ground us to non-considerate, however, will smile at entities.

these petty artifices, and ask, For what Whether the human soul be any purpose is such a mighty phalanx marthing more than the result of mere shalled ? organization; whether it be a sub- We do not, however, intend to insistance physically capable of subsist- nuate that this method has been ence distinct from the body; whether adopted by our author. He has the it be an accident or a quality of mat- happy art of accomplishing his purter; or a something superadded,-the poses without using such dexterity. author has not informed us; neither He quotes chapter after chapter, and can we gather from his book, whether book after book, to prove that the it possess the properties of matter, or doctrine which he opposes is not menwhether it may or may not be ranked tioned in the passages he has introamong the entities of being; and even duced. If he had pursued this method admitting it to exist under any modi- with spirit, he might have stretched fication whatever, we are at a loss to bis publication to an extent as voluknow whether its existence be posi- minous as Doddington on Gingertive or negative.

bread, and alarmed the world with Of one point, however, the author two ponderous volumes in quarto. appears to be fully confident ; namely,

Against the doctrine of eternal that immortality is the result of spiri- misery, the author advances many of tual regeneration; but the simple pos- the old objections and arguments, sibility that moral influence may pro- which have been often urged, and as duce a physical change in the essence often refuted; but finding himself of this substance, or accident, or result beset with difficulties, from which he of organization, is a point which the can discover no way of retreating with cbildren of credulity are invited to honour, he compels the incorrigible, receive without inquiry or examina who are unfit for heaven, and whom tion. If the author can only establish it would be unjust in God, he conhis credit with the public, there can ceives, to punish with eternal misery, be no doubt that he will make many to dive into the whirlpool of annihilaconverts.

tion, and to disappear for ever. To a person who has no conception To prove that the doctrine of endof the author's theory, some parts of less woe can furnish no motive to his preface will appear rather obscure, obedience, the author thus argues : but to those who are acquainted with

God having been pleased to make man a it, it will appear in perfect accordance moral agent, he deals with him as such, and with his book. The abstract of the ofl'ers to his understanding blessings and contents runs through nearly thirteen threats, as motives to enforce the law he has

further pages, and nearly as much information promulged. These can operate no

than the anderstanding can embrace them : may be gathered from the perusal of but the understanding can forın no idea of this syllabus, as from that of the vo- infinite; it is therefore no moral motive. Now, lume itself.

since God can do nothing in vain, eternal torIt cannot, however, be denied, that ments cannot be proposed as moral motives, the author has made copious appeals for they must be infinitely more than can opeto the book of God; but nearly nine- rate, because the highest idea we can form of

them must be essentially different from, and tenths of the passages he has quoted, ipfinitely less than, the thing threatened; have no more connection with the sub- therefore the largest part must be in vain.” ject in hand, than if he had cited the first chapter of Genesis, or the last of In urging this argument, the author the Revelation. Some writers bave seems to have forgotten, that its con, been accused of taking a common- clusion will bear with equal force upon place book, and of inserting passage the felicities of heaven, and prevent after passage, mentioning chapter and eternal happiness from operating as a verse, to shew that the scriptures are moral notive. On grounds equally strongly in their favour, because some fallacious, it is argued, that misery No. 34.- VOL. III.

4 D

p. 11.


Reviero-Eternal Punishment.


cannot be eternal, because there can | wbich at length they have not even be no proportion between crime and faculties to discern."--p.42. Depart, punishment on such a supposition. ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared With equal propriety it might be con- for the devil and his angels. “That tended, that happiness cannot be eter- | those who have misused a temporal nal, because we can trace no propor- existence, shall then be made eternal, tion between obedience and reward. who can believe?"'--p. 53. “The

On points which involve Deity, Mo- wicked, after death, are neither of ral Government, Justice, Infinity, and him, nor through him, nor to him : Eternity, we doubt the propriety of they are nothing"-p. 103. introducing earthly analogies. But if Of the author's adroitness as a comthese must be introduced, we would mentator, and the facility with wbich recommend to the author's serious he can remove difficulties, the precedexamination this important questioning påssages and expositions furnish Whether it be utterly impossible for fair specimens. Nor can be be accused a finite being to perform an action, or of viewing his exertions with suspia series of actions, that shall involve cion. The following passage is strongly moral consequences, which may con- marked with his opinion of his own tinue during the existence of the actor? success. “ As he (the apostle) has If this be admitted possible, on the exhibited it, (the destruction of death) ground of justice, the consequences it is a consummation devoutly to be will be interminable, if existence be wished ; that a veil has so long dimimmortal; and consequently both will med its glory, and that I, who am less be lengthened into infinity.

than the least of the lights of the The author informs us, that the doc- earth, should have pierced its gloom, trine of eternal misery, which he op- ! scarcely dare believe, though I know poses, instead of pervading the Chris- it: but the weaker the instrument, tian system, rests on detached pas- the more apparent the divine agency. sages of scripture; and these he finally Glorify thyself, O God! and unspeakreduces to two. There are, however, able happiness will attend those whom various others which appear before thou blessést as thy instruments."him, with an aspect not altogether p. 115. smiling on his theory, but these he Having humbly taken his seat on dispatches with admirable dexterity. this exalted eminence, the author pro. The parable of the unmerciful servant ceeds to prove, that man is naturally is thús explained: That he should be mortal; and after quoting various pasdelivered to the tormentors, till he should sages of scripture, which have no conpay all that was due. “It is clear, that nection with the subject, and drawing the principle proceeded on is, that he inferences from others, which few should be made to part from all that besides himself would have the ingehe possessed: now existence is a pos- nuity to discover, he assumes bis consession, a talent, a blessing, and when clusion, and, “wrapped in " literary it is surrendered, full payment is immortality," made.”-p. 37. The parable of the “Sheds generous tears on wretches born to wicked husbandmen, we are told, is to the same effect; and the guest The well-known passage, Matt. XXV. found at the marriage feast shares the 45. “These shall go away into eversame fate. Bind him hand and foot, lasting punishment,

&c. the author and take him away:" (ill furnished he explains by comparing it with 1 Thesmust be for eternity.) - p. 38. On the salonians ii. 7. Z taking vengeance or parable of Dives and Lazarus, we are them that know not God, who shall be told, the rich man is tormented in the punished with everlasting destruction flame; “that is, to dissolve the ves- from the presence of the Lord,&c. sels of wrath, fitted for destruction.”- On quoting these passages, he asks,

And in continuation we are Do not these words explain those of furthermore informed, that "the con- our Saviour's, to which they plainly duct and motives ascribed to God, are allude,-destruction from the presence perfectly irreconcileable with dooming of God? What can that be but extincto eternal misery poor, weak, blind, tion, since our existence depends on perishing sinners, for preferring the his Spirit animating our mortal bodies? gratification of the senses which God And as no person contradicts him, he hath given them, to spiritual joys, triumphs in a victory that he has


P. 40.

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