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The Sultana Valide.

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good purposes;" and with him he it is said, in no little credit with the would exclaim, when speaking of it whites, had predicted to the charming as a modish accomplishment, “I creole, prior to her departure from know no evil in it !”

Martinique, that she would one day Φιλορχησις.

become one of the greatest princesses in the world. Aline recollecting this

flattering prophecy, which her lookingTHE SULTANA VALIDE, MOTHER OF THE glass further confirmed, resolved to PRESENT SULTAN,

follow all the chances which destiny

seemed to prepare for her. It was in EVERY reader who is acyuainted with vain that solicitations were employed, Turkish manners, knows, that nothing that remonstrances were lavished, to is more difficult than to penetrate the make her renounce a resolution which mysteries of the seraglio of the Grand could not but appear extravagant and Signor. Some remarkable particu- romantic. The hope of a crown trilars have, however, lately transpired umphed over all the considerations respecting the Sultana Valide, who that were suggested to her, and Aline died not long since. She was of a remained in slavery, which was to be, French family, born at Martinique. for her, the way to a throne. Her parents sent her to France at the The event soon justified her brilliage of 14, on board of a merchantman, ant hopes. A rich and ambitious bound to Marseilles. After passing Turk, struck with her grace and the straits of Gibraltar, the vessel beauty, determined to purchase her, was attacked and captured by a and present her to the Sultan, who pirate, which took the crew and pas- very soon noticed the young Adalissengers, and sent them as slaves to que. From the favour of the handkerAlgiers. The beautiful creole was chief, to the honours of the favourite purchased by a merchant, who carried Sultana, the interval was not long; his valuable acquisition to Smyrna. and the birth of a prince whom she Meantime, news was received in gave to the Ottoman empire, in 1784, France of the loss of this interesting raised to the highest pitch the power young lady, and no methods were left of the Sultana Valide. From that untried to restore her to liberty and time she enjoyed in the seraglio an her friends. Among those who inte- ascendency which she retained till her rested themselves in her welfare, was death, and the influence of wbich has a relation, who filled one of the high-gloriously extended beyond the tomb, est posts in the department of the in the person of her son, the reigning marine, and, who was in high favour Sultan. with the prime minister, the Duc de Several Frenchmen attached to the Choiseul. This gentleman, after ma-embassy of Count Choiseul Goriffier, py inquiries, discovered the place were acquainted with the origin and where Aline, for that was her name, power of Aline; her relations were was held in slavery. The minister apprised of her exalted destiny; but then commissioned the French Consul the suspicious etiquette of the seraglio to offer a considerable sum to ransom always prevented any communication the handsome slave, and to restore The grandeur of the Sultana Valide, her to the hands of a mother, who was however, did not change the affection inconsolable for her loss. The Arme- of her family for this interesting branch mian, satisfied with the ransom, was of it; the memory of Aline has been ready to accept the sum, and the Con- perpetuated in it; a young person, sul already announced the happy re- beautiful as the first Alive, and mosult of his zeal and his negociation, dest as herself, bears this romantic when Aline, from a caprice which her name, but without aspiring to the friends were far from expecting, ren- | honours of the Seraglio. dered all the measures useless which (From another source we have gaher friends had taken to procure her thered the following particulars, which liberty.

may be considered as a continuation It is well known that the negroes, of the preceding account. The statelike all ignorant and superstitious ments have no immediate connection people, have great faith in divination with each other, but they mutually and fortune-telling. An old negress, receive and confer confirmation, and a sibyl, respected by the blacks, and, in their combined effect render the

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The Sultana Valide.

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history of Valide particularly inte, separated for ever from her parents, resting. The biograplay of this lady whose care and kindness were so would be an important acquisition ; / strongly impressed upon her mind and but with such a memoir, the public heart, that tears were ready every can never hope to be gratified. The moment to display her sensibility. seraglio, like the grave, suffers nothing The Sultana saw nothing in her to transpire.

sovereign and son, but his love and

extreme deference for her. His tenA foreign writer who has addressedderness for his children, and his power a letter to the editor of the Journal and glory, which made the Ottoman des Debats, under the signature of arms flourish in all parts of the empire St. Raymond, lays claim to all the of the crescent. The Princess of interesting inforniation circulated in Wales said little of the Duke of the Regulateur, and other works pub- Brunswick, her illustrious father. The lished on the Continent, respecting power of England, and the Prince of the secret history of Sultana Valide, a Wales, were not mentioned; but she French woman, and mother of the could not suppress a sigh at the present Grand Seigneur. In answer thought of the death of the unfortuto doubts which have been expressed nate Princess Charlotte, her daughon the correctness of his information, ter. he asserts, that he was permitted, as The Sultana incessantly alluded to the countryman of the Sultana, to her family at Martinique, the habitahold conversation with the Sultan, tion of her parents, and particularly from whom he acquired the informa-1 an old negress, who had clearly pretion--that Valide was a French wo-dicted her destiny. She also begged man, of American origin, born at to introduce to the Princess, her comNantes. He adds in his letter fur. panions in adventures, the good Zeze ther details respecting the extraordi and the handsome Ara, from whom nary fortune of the Sultana.

she had never been separated. Ara · One of the most curious episodes is was a paroquet, which appeared beauconnected with the travels of the late tiful, and spoke well. Zeze, who was unfortunate Queen of England, in the advancing in years, still possessed Levant. The following is the pas. eyes full of penetration and finesse. sage. “Every one knows that the She asked the Princess for news of Princess of Wales landed at Constan- Martinique, and her old masters. tinople, on the 6th of June, 1816. The Princess took a note of the inShe remained there twelve days, dur-quiry, and promised the Sultana to ing which she employed all the means procure correct intelligence from the in her power to obtain an interview West-Indies, and send it privately to with the Sultana Valide. The wish the Seraglio. The Sultana, on the of the Princess was granted by Mah-other hand, assured the Princess that moud II. This interview took place she would recommend her to all pernot in the palace, near Bechik-Tash, sons in authority on her way to Jeruwhere the Sultana had been in the salem, and particularly to Mahomet habit of satisfying European curiosity, Ali Pacha, Viceroy of Egypt, her but in one of the apartments of the brother. The two Princesses sepaSeraglio, under a disguise, wbich the rated with marks of friendship. They Princess, notwithstanding her rank, were animated by the highest regard was obliged to wear, in order to com- } for each other, and their farewell was ply with the religious and political most expressive. feeling of the Mussulmans." If she The Princess of Wales re-embarked had entered as a Christian woman on the 17th of June, and the next day the Seraglio of the Sublime Porte, she she received on board, from the hands might have been compelled by the of the Sultana's officer, India shawls, laws to remain there. The conversa- cachemire, silks, perfumes, hair-pins, tion was long and interesting. The pearls, and diamonds, of the value of Sultana, without regarding the su 45,000 piastres. The Princess only preme rank to which fortune had accepted the articles, on condition raised her, regretted deeply the that she should be at liberty to send charms of European and American them to Martinique, for the parents society, and manifested sincerely the of the Sultana, whose names had been pain she every moment experienced, confided to her.

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Soundness of Mind.

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ON SOUNDNESS OF MIND.' of right reasoning, false or inconclu

sive reasoning, absard reasoning.Or Thought or Reflection. These epithets are perfectly correct.

Here language is the vehicle by which (Concluded from col. 992.)

reasoning is performed. - The term MR. Epitor.

reason implies ratio, estimate, proporSir,--Those recollected objects which tion. Arithmetic is the parest and have been transmitted by the senses, most certain system of reasoning, and are the subjects of our thoughts or liable, when properly conducted, to no retlections. Thought may be defined, difference of opinion, because the the shadow of perception. Animals meaning of number is definite, and have no power of thinking. Language universally agreed on; and although is the vehicle of our thoughts. Thought in different languages they are called or reflection can only consist of the by different names, yet they have an terms which represent our reflections. identical meaning, and denominate Whoever will watch the operations of the same thing. It seems that reason his own mind, will find that he makes is not peculiar, inherent, and an indeuse of language to conduct the process pendent faculty of the human mind, of thought. The exertion of voluntary because it cannot be voluntarily excontrol over the thoughts has been erted on things of discussion, but redenied. Confusion ensues, when quires the basis of knowledge, which thought is racked. The mind which means the result of observation and can cultivate and discipline the en- experiment; for the mere employment ergies of thought, may be ranked of language on a subject with which we among the highest order of intellects. are unacquainted, is but idle prating, That which the recollection retains, and a lavishment of words. To reason, becomes with them the subject of is to adapt our knowledge for the atmental examination. An event is not tainment of the object proposed; this registered from having merely occur- is pure reasoning. The materials by red; but the causes which produced it which reasoning is conducted, are lanare investigated. Words are subjected guage and numeration. Reasoning to analysis. Their senses are little may be defined thus, the means we awake to external impressions; their employ for the attainment of the end curiosity is not attracted froin without, proposed ; the employment of knowbut excited from within ; they are more ledge for the discovery of truth; or the consulted as oracles, than selected as process of demonstration. Part of companions. They are strangers to the process of reasoning consists in dissipation. This constant occupation comparison either of things or of geof thought produces the philosophical neral terms. Dr. Johnson defines the historian, profound linguist and cri- term reason, “ the power by which tic, physiologist, mathematician, ge man deduces one proposition from neral grammarian, etymologist, and another, or proceeds from premises to mctaphysician. However great the consequences.” There is great ambipains may be, which we may take to fix guity in the statement. our thoughts on any particular sub

On Instinct. ject, we shall find that other thoughts, anconnected with that subject, will The mental phenomena which apifrequently intrude themselves. This mals display, is a subject of great wandering of thought may be termed curiosity and interest. There is a lie morbid, and it is a symptom of indo- beral portion of inherent wisdom suflence. Thoughts necessarily involve ficient for the individual protection of reason, but these are only recollection the animal world, and for the continuwithout reason.

ation of their race. The perceptive

organs of animals are very often more On Reason.

acute than those of man. The memory The signification of this term is in is also more perfect in animals than in fact unknown. Some entertain an men; but the recollection can only be opinion, that this power is exclusively refreshed by the appearance of the in the possession of man. Those who object which originally excited perare of this opinion, in general misun- ception, whereas in man the name of derstand the nature of this faculty. We the object is quite sufficient. Animals "ery often meet with the expressions are incapable of thinking, though they

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Answers to Queries.

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sometimes dream. By instinct is ones, where it has already made rameant the display of contrivance and vages. wisdom in animals, which tends to pre- The cheapness of this antiseptic preserve them as animals, and to maintain paration is obvious, as the old matetheir succession ; an intellectual exer- rials may be worked in again, (unless cise so perfect as cannot be improved actually rotten,) and the dry rot never by philosophy, so unvaried, that the more returns, with this advantage, that excellence of its performance cannot the wood so worked in is made more be exceeded, and it is never dimi- durable than before. nished. It does, however, appear, that I have several attestations of genanimals are not conscious of their tlemen of respectability of the merit of achievements. During the exercise of the discovery, by certificates from instinct, volition is suspended. Ani under their hands, that I have sucmals form an estimate of that which ceeded in their houses, where I have they can accomplish. It does not ap- been employed; and I now offer my pear that instinct is acquired by ex- services on the most reasonable terms. perience, or that it can be improved, Your obedient humble servant, but it is an endowment of the supreme

BENJAMIN CHELEW, Being.

Builder, &c. Falmouth. Conclusion, The subjects which have been dis- | REPLY TO A QUERY ON SPELLING.. cussed, fully establish the pre-eminence of man over all other terrestrial MR. Editor. beings. Infinite wisdom is discovered Sir,-Several persons to whom I have in the construction of the mind; and recommended the following plan of although it may be covered with a learning to spell, have practised it dense veil which cannot be penetrat- with success; and in the course of a ed, enough may be learned to satisfy little time, fronu being very bad, have a reasonable curiosity. Man bears in become tolerably good spellers. If his intellectual · construction, the you think it of sufficient merit as an badge of moral responsibility, and answer to your correspondent's inconsequently, the germ of future ex- quiries, in col. 863, for September, its istence; and the only incentive which insertion will much oblige, your's, can urge him to the practice of re

J. D. B. ligion, and the advancement of sci Bilston, Staffordshire. ence, is the reward which revelation unfolds.

1. I consider Jones's pronouncing I am, Sir, your's, respectfully,

school Dictionary the most suitable LEONARD LEDBROOK.

for a learner, of all the school books I November 15th, 1821.

have seen. Carpenter's spelling-book has some merit, and is fitted for chil

dren; but for grown-up children, Jones's ANSWER TO A QUERY ON THE DRY is far preferable ; therefore I advise ROT.

him to obtain one, and to write out on

a slate ten or twenty words each day, MR. EDITOR.

according to his leisure, to regularly SIR, ---On reading the Imperial Maga- divide and accent them according to zine for July, 1821, I observed an in- the rules there given, and commit quiry by Juvenis, requesting infor- them to memory. mation on the best way of preventing 2. When any words that he may the dry rot from committing ravages recollect, and not know how to spell, on buildings and shipping, and of occur, let him refer immediately to arresting its progress where it had Jones, and observe them well, how begun its depredations.

they are divided, accented, &c. and - I beg leave to inform Juvenis and fix them in bis memory by frequent reothers, that having studied the causes petition. If he does this every time of dry rot in wood for many years past, any word occurs to his mind which he and likewise its cure, I have found a knows not how to spell, he will soon remedy for the same: either to pre-acquire a just habit of spelling properly vent it from taking place in new build- on all occasions, without the help of a ings or shipping, or to cure it in old lexicon.

3

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Answers to Queries.

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3. To habituate himself for a time to. “ Crispinus and Crispanus, two write letters in his own way of spelling brothers, were born at Rome, whence first, then correct them with the help of they, travelled to Soisons, in France, a dictionary; and remember if pos- about the year 300, to propagate the sible the words he has corrected, and Christian religion. Being desirous, he will acquire by a little practice a however, of rendering themselves injust method of writing letters, as it dependent, they gained a subsistence regards the spelling.

| by shoe-making. It having been dis4. To distinctly mark the way in covered that they privately, embraced which every word is divided into syl the Christian faith, and endeavoured lables, the number of letters in each, to make proselytes of the inhabitants, and repeat them over by way of exer- the governor of the town immediately cise ; then to put them together, and ordered them to be beheaded, about attain a just babit of pronouncing the year 308. From this time the shoeevery syllable distinctly, without makers chose them to be their tutelar minding the right pronunciation of the saints.”-Montrose Chronicle. word. After he has gained an accu

I am, &c. M. M. rate knowledge of the word, then at1 Acton-place. tend to its proper pronunciation

5. I should have premised, that it is proper to gain some knowledge of ANSWER TO QUERIES BY W. F. grammar, and observe its various parts, such as the different parts of MR. Editor. speech, tenses, moods, &c. with all the SIR,-take the liberty of sending other parts ; not that this will assist you the following answers to the quehim in spelling, but it will materially ries of W.F. in page 962 of your Maassist him in his views of language in gazine for this month. general.

I am, your's, respectfully,

DONALD FRASER.

Perth, October 25th.
ANSWER, BY WILLIAM OAKES, TO
QUERY 2, COL. 863.

Query 1.-" Is the Assent of the

Mind," &c. On Hydrophobia, or Dread of Water. ANSWER,-It depends upon the nature It is probable this dismal symptom, of the proposition. If the proposition which follows the bite of a mad dog, be one on which our affections are inis caused by the great pain which terested, they influence our assent, any liquor taken at this stage of the and influence it in proportion to the disease induces, by hurting the in- degree of vigour which they possess. flamed membrane of the jaws, and fer-“ Men love darkness, i.e. error, rather menting with the active particles dis-than light, i. e. the truth, because their charged by the blood upon the sto- deeds are evil ;" John iii, 19. The machic glands, so that the memory of love of darkness and the choosing it it gives pain and abhorrence, and is are here connected, and on their the cause of the aversion mentioned. choice is suspended their condem

nation. It is in consequence of the

affections that the mind is prepossessANSWER TO A QUERY ON CORDWAINERS. ed either for or against any propo

sition, and the power of prepossession MR. EDITOR.

in finally determining the judgment or SIR, - In col. 1062, of November's Ma- the assent of the mind is already well gazine, Ignoramus asks,“ What gave

known. rise to the festival annually celebrated by the cordwainers on the 25th of Oc Query 2.-" Can Belief," &c. tober? Was Crispin a real or a ficti- Answer, --The ascent of the mind tious character ?

given to testimony, is belief; therefore · Having by accident fallen on a what is said above in reference to the statement which may probably be con- former, will in a great measure apply sidered satisfactory to your corres- | to the latter. “ Ye will not come unto pondent, and thinking it likely that it me," says the Redeemer," that ye may may be acceptable to most of your have life ;" John v. 40. Every one rcaders, I copy it for their perusal: acquainted with the New Testament

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