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sometimes dream. By instinct is ones, where it has already made rameant the display of contrivance and vages. wisdom in animals, which tends to pre- The cheapness of this antiseptic preserve them as animals, and to maintain paration is obvious, as the old matetheir succession ; an intellectual exer- rials may be worked in again, (unless cise so perfect as cannot be improved actually rotten,) and the dry rot never by philosophy, so unvaried, that the more returns, with this advantage, that excellence of its performance cannot the wood so worked in is made more be exceeded, and it is never dimi- durable than before. nished. It does, however, appear, that I have several attestations of genanimals are not conscious of their tlemen of respectability of the merit of achievements. During the exercise of the discovery, by certificates from instinct, volition is suspended. Ani- under their hands, that I have sucmals form an estimate of that which ceeded in their houses, where I have they can accomplish. It does not ap- been employed; and I now offer my pear that instinct is acquired by ex- services on the most reasonable terms. perience, or that it can be improved, Your obedient humble servant, but it is an endowment of the supreme


Builder, &c. Falmouth. Conclusion, The subjects which have been discussed, fully establish the pre-eminence of man over all other terrestrial MR. Editor. beings. Infinite wisdom is discovered Sir,-Several persons to whom I have in the construction of the mind; and recommended the following plan of although it may be covered with a learning to spell, have practised it dense veil which cannot be penetrat- with success; and in the course of a ed, enough may be learned to satisfy little time, from being very bad, have a reasonable curiosity. Man bears in become tolerably good spellers. If his intellectual - construction, the you think it of sufficient merit as an badge of moral responsibility, and answer to your correspondent's inconsequently, the germ of future ex- quiries, in col. 863, for September, its istence;

and the only incentive which insertion will much oblige, your's, can urge him to the practice of re

J. D. B. ligion, and the advancement of sci- Bilston, Staffordshire. ence, is the reward which revelation unfolds.

1. I consider Jones's pronouncing I am, Sir, your's, respectfully,

school Dictionary the most suitable LEONARD LEDBROOK. for a learner, of all the school books I November 15th, 1821.

have seen. Carpenter's spelling-book has some merit, and is fitted for chil

dren; but for grown-up children, Jones's ANSWER TO A QUERY ON THE DRY is far preferable; therefore I advise

him to obtain one, and to write out on:

a slate ten or twenty words each day, MR. EDITOR.

according to his leisure, to regularly Sir,-On reading the Imperial Maga- divide and accent them according to zine for July, 1821, I observed an in- the rules there given, and commit quiry by Juvenis, requesting infor- them to memory. mation on the best way of preventing 2. When any words that he may the dry rot from committing rayages recollect, and not know how to spell, on buildings and shipping, and of occur, let him refer immediately to arresting its progress where it had Jones, and observe them well, how begun its depredations.

they are divided, accented, &c. and I beg leave to inform Juvenis and fix them in his memory by frequent reothers, that having studied the causes petition. 'If he does this every time of dry rot in wood for many years past, any word occurs to his mind which he and likewise its cure, I have found a knows not how to spell, he will soon remedy for the same: either to pre- acquire a just habit of spelling properly vent it from taking place in new build on all occasions, without the help of a ings or shipping, or to cure it in old lexicon.




Answers to Queries.



3. To habituate himself for a time to Crispinus and Crispanus, two write letters in his own way of spelling brothers, were born at Rome, whence first, then correct them with the help of they travelled to Soisons, in France, a dictionary; and remember if pos- about the year 300, to propagate the sible the words he has corrected, and Christian religion. Being desirous, he will acquire by a little practice a however, of rendering themselves injust method of writing letters, as it dependent, they gained a subsistence regards the spelling

by shoe-making. It having been dis4. To distinctly mark the way in covered that they privately embraced which every word is divided into syl- the Christian faith, and endeavoured lables, the number of letters in each, to make proselytes of the inhabitants, and repeat them over by way of exer- the governor of the town immediately cise ; then to put them together, and ordered them to be beheaded, about attain a just babit of pronouncing the year 308. From this time the shoeevery syllable distinctly, without makers chose them to be their tutelar minding the right pronunciation of the saints.”-Montrose Chronicle. word. After he has gained an accu

I am, &c. M. M. rate knowledge of the word, then at- Acton-place. tend to its proper pronunciation.

5. I should have premised, that it is proper to gain sone knowledge of grammar, and observe its various parts, such as the different parts of MR. EDITOR. speech, tenses, moods, &c. with all the SIR, -I take the liberty of sending other parts ; not that this will assist you the following answers to the quehim in spelling, but it will materially ries of W. F. in page 962 of your Maassist him in his views of language in gazine for this month. general.

I am, your's, respectfully,


Perth, October 25th.
QUERY 2, COL. 863.

Query 1.-" Is the Assent of the

Mind,' &c. On Hydrophobia, or Dread of Water. Answer,-It depends upon the nature It is probable this dismal symptom, of the proposition. If the proposition which follows the bite of a mad dog, be one on which our affections are inis caused by the great pain which terested, they influence our assent, any liquor taken at this stage of the and influence it in proportion to the disease induces, by hurting the in- degree of vigour which they possess. flamed membrane of the jaws, and fer-“ Men love darkness, i.e. error, rather menting with the active particles dis- than light, i. e. the truth, because their charged by the blood upon the sto- deeds are evil ;" John iii, 19. The machic glands, so that the memory of love of darkness and the choosing it it gives pain and abhorrence, and is are here connected, and

on their the cause of the aversion mentioned. choice is suspended their condem

nation. It is in consequence of the

affections that the mind is prepossessANSWER TO A QUERY ON CORDWAINERS. ed either for or against any propo

sition, and the power of prepossession MR. EDITOR.

in finally determining the judgment or SIR.-In col. 1062, of November's Ma- the assent of the mind is already well gazine, Ignoramus asks,“ What gave known. rise to the festival annually celebrated by the cordwainers on the 25th of Oc- Query 2.—Can Belief,&c. tober? Was Crispin a real or a ficti- Answer,—The ascent of the mind tious character ?

given to testimony, is belief; therefore Having by accident fallen on a what is said above in reference to the statement which may probably be con- former, will in a great measure apply sidered satisfactory to your corres

to the latter. “ Ye will not come unto pondent, and thinking it likely that it me," says the Redeemer, “ that ye may may be acceptable to most of your have life ;" John v. 40. Every one rcaders, I copy it for their perusal :- acquainted with the New Testament 1205

Answers to Queries.



phraseology, knows that coming to are chargeable with all the conseChrist is another word for believing quences of their errors, as their preupon him. If there is choice in unbe- vious guilt brought the spirit of darklief, as is evident from this passage, ness and delusion into their minds. there must be choice in belief also. Man is therefore culpable for not believing the truth, and the reason why ANSWER TO A QUERY ON MILDEW IN the arguments in support of truth do not appear satisfactory to his judgment, is because his judgment is per- MR. EDITOR. verted, and perverted by his own SIR-I transmit you the following choice.

communication of Sir John Sinclair,

of Ulbster, bart. to the editor of a Query 3.-" Is the Exercise," fc. public journal, of an important agriCERTAIN moral truths are evident to cultural experiment, with salt, in the all minds. We do not inquire into the cure of mildew in corn, for insertion in origin of this evidence at present, nor your interesting work, as I am perare we shaken by the changeableness of suaded it must be highly important to virtue as pleaded by the ablest advo- those of your readers connected with cates of infidelity. In addition, how the interests of agriculture ; and as it ever, to these universally evident mo- does in a measure reply to queries ral truths, there are others, the know- of your correspondents, in vol. 2, col. ledge and belief of which are essential 962, of your miscellany, respecting to our salvation. To acquire a know-mildew in wheat. ledge and belief of these, something I am, Sir, most respectfully, more is necessary than the exercise of

Your obedient servant, that faculty by which the demonstra

ANGLO-Scotus. tion of a problem in Euclid is compre- Edinburgh, 23d Oct. 1821. hended. Great philosophers in modern, as well as in ancient times, have The rust* in wheat is by far the been great infidels. • The carnal greatest calamity to which, in an agrimind of man understandeth not many oultural point of view, this country is truths of vital importance, or, if he un- liable. As it originates from corrupderstand them, still they are foolish- tion, and the growth of the fungus ness to him." What is requisite in tribe, it seemed to me most probable addition to the exercise of judgment, that the use of saline manures would is a pure intention. “If thy eye be be found the most efficacious prevensingle, thy whole body shall be full of tive. Many circumstances, already light. But if thine eye be evil, thy communicated to the public, tended to whole body shall be full of darkness. justify that idea, and it is now in a Matt. vi. 23. A pare intention is in- great measure confirmed by an expeseparable from a constant endeavour riment that has just been reported to to reduce what we know to practice. me by Mr. Andrew Robertson, at Al" If any man will do His will, he shall mond Myrehead, near Linlithgow, know of the doctrine whether it be of about 16 miles from Edinburgh:God." John vii. 17.

" On the 1st of November, 1818,

Mr. Robertson sowed 28lbs. of marine Query 4.-" Is a Man," &c. salt on three falls of sandy land, mixHe is not to be blamed, if he has been ed with seed wheat. This is at the rate always sincere. Otherwise, because of 26 bushels per Scotch, or about 20 when he knew the truth, he neither bushels per English acre. The crop embraced nor loved it, God may have was reaped on the 27th of August, 1819, given him up judicially to a reprobate and the part salted produced at tho mind, to believe a lie. From what I rate of about three bushels per acre have read and observed, I feel con

more than the rest of the field. The vinced that those who hold opinions whole crop was much injured by the opposed to what are styled the essen- rust, excepting the part that was salted, tials of religion, never did search the which, though not altogether free from scriptures, or inquire after the truth, with a sincere and unprejudiced mind.

* In some districts, it is called blight or Therefore, though they now believe mildew. It affects the straw, and not the kernel, what appears to them to be truth, they | as smat.


Answer to a Query.


it, yet the injury was very inconsider this sense; and to make known the able, and perhaps would have been ideas of the querist more fully, there totally avoided, had a greater quantity should have been a comma inserted been made use of. Mr. Robertson after the word perfect, thus not allow. thinks that it will be better first to ing the action of the verb made, to pass sow the wheat separately, the salt to on to the object knowledge. be sowed and harrowed in afterwards, Sprigg considers the affirmative for he found that the wheat did not idea as neither scriptural nor philospring up so well, in consequence of sophical; but as he has not advanced its being sown in immediate contact any proofs of the correctness of his with the salt.

ideas, from either of these sources, I “ Crushed rock salt will answer as should have considered it totally usewell as marine salt, and the quantity less to make any remarks of a controshould be varied from 20 to 30 bushels versial description, had I not regarded per English acre. It would be ex- the subject as one fraught with iniremely desirable that the result of struction and interest. I proceed to any experiments tried should be com- remark, that, “ there are many, who, municated to the public, that the ques- having lost their godly friends, have tion may, if possible, be put to rest. rather been disposed to wish that their

“ John SINCLAIR." friends might know what was taking Edinburgh, 12th October, 1819.

place among their connections on earth, that they might carry on a sort

of mental converse with them :"a very ANSWER TO A QUERY ON THE KNOW- natural wish, surely! Such a one LEDGE OF DEPARTED SPIRITS. inspired that beautiful sentiment of

Cowper, In reference to the subject discussed “My mother, when I knew that thou wast in the following article, we have re- dead, ceived several papers, the writers of Say, wast thou conscious of the tears I shed ? which take the same side of the ques- Hover'd thy spirit o'er thy sorrowing son?. tion with the author of this which is Wretch even then, life's journey just begun! inserted. One of these, written by Perhaps a tear, if souls can weep in bliss! Biblicus, avowedly controverts the Ah! that maternal smile, it answers-yes. reasonings and conclusions of Sprigg. The others refer to the original ques- When Samuel rose from the dead tion. But as the substance of what to announce to Saul the result of his they have respectively advanced is battle with the Philistines, the procomprised in the selection we have phet's denunciation was a proof that made, they will perceive the reasons he was acquainted with the present why their communications are not gi- circumstances of the king, and that ven to the public. Editor. he also knew what would happen to

him, for, " to-morrow," saith Samuel, MR. Editor.

shalt thou and thy sons be with me," Sir, I have to beg your indulgence, 1 Samuel, xxviii 19.-—When Moses while I make a few remarks in reply and Elias appeared on the mount at to an essay (col. 988) on the state of the transfiguration of our Lord, we separate spirits, by Sprigg.In are informed, that they “ spake of his referring to the query, (col. 863) which decease which he should accomplish gave rise to the above article, I find it at Jerusalem,” Luke ix. 31. Hence extremely ambiguous : judging from we may infer, that they knew the the punctuation, it appears to be al- time, place, and circumstances, conlowed by the querist, that the souls nected with that great event; and we of the dead have some acquaintance may moreover conjecture, that in with the events which occur in this their conversation they would particuworld; but the object of the inquiry is, larly remark the great ends to be anwhether their knowledge is of conside-swered by this sacrifice; and if so, rable extent, and to render it more we may reasonably suppose that they explicit, it should have been express- would attentively regard the state of ed,“ Have the spirits of the dead form- the earth, ulterior to the introduction ed any perfect' knowledge of what of the christian dispensation, that transpires in this world ?" But your they might ascertain, whether those correspondent has not understood it in I purposes were accomplished, for which 1209

Answer to a Query.


Christ“ gave himself a ransom. Je- | are thus dignified, may not human sus told the Sadducees, relative to spirits unbodied have the same office? separate spirits, “They neither marry, Our Saviour, when he rewards the nor are given in marriage, but are as faithful servant that had gained ten the angels which are in heaven," pounds, bids him take authority over Mark xii. 25. “Neither can they die ten cities, Luke xix. 17. And Jesus any more, for they are equal to the told bis disciples, that they should sit angels, and are the children of God," on twelve thrones, judging the Luke xx. 36. Angels are “minister- twelve tribes of Israel,” Matthew ing spirits, sent forth to minister for xix. 28. them who shall be heirs of salva- Another argument in favour of this tion,” Heb. i. 14. The spirits of the idea, may be gathered from the apjust are as angels, in their enjoyments pearance of apparitions, whether it and engagements: ergo, they are mi-be by some peculiar garb of etherial nistering spirits also. Ănd how subtlety, or any other way,

that they much,” says Mr. Wesley, “will it add appear, we know that “millions of to the happiness of those who are spiritual creatures walk the earth,” already discharged from the body, and that they sometimes become visithat they are permitted to minister ble to the eye of mortals; thus, when unto those they have left behind! the Syrians encompassed the city of An indisputable proof of this we have Dothan, to take Elisha : “ And when in the 22d chapter of Revelation, the servant of the man of God was When the Apostle fell down to worship risen early, and gone forth, behold, the glorious spirit, whom he seems to a host compassed the city with horses have mistaken for Christ, he told him and chariots; and his servant said plainly, I am of thy fellow-servants unto him, Alas, my master! how shall the prophets ;” not God, not an angel, we do? And he answered, Fear not: but a human spirit. Angels are for they that be with us, are more messengers from earth to heaven, as than they that be with them. And is the case of Elias, 2 Kings ii. 11, Elisha prayed, and said, Lord, I pray and from heaven to earth, as in the thee, open his eyes, that he may see. case of Gideon, Judges vi. 12; of And the Lord opened the eyes of the Manoah's wife, Judges xiii. 3; of the young man, and he saw, and behold Virgin Mary, Luke i. 26; and of the the mountain was full of horses and birth of Jesus Christ, when a hierar- chariots of fire, round about Elisha," chy of the heavenly host united, and 2 Kings vi. 14, 15, 16. “To popular sang, Glory to God in the highest,” stories of ghosts and goblins,” (says a &c. Luke ii. 19-23; and we may

late publication,*) we give no crereasonably suppose, that it is through dit; but we certainly do hear on some their communications, that there is occasions, such positive assertions, joy in heaven over one sinner that made by most sensible and respectarepenteth, Luke xv. 7. This repent- ble persons, that we can scarcely deny ant sinner may have connections in the fact, that the spirits of departed heaven; and will not they join in the friends do sometimes appear.” celestial joy?

But to proceed. S. remarks, “ But

we little think how new, how strange, “Can the grave those ties dissever, With the very heart-strings twin'd?"

how absorbing, must the things of the

eternal state be, to those entering “To proceed one step farther," upon them.” Allowing this to be corsays Dr. Watts, some part of the rect, it it quite irrelevant to the prehappiness of heaven is described in sent subject; the query does not rescripture by crowns and thrones : why gard the commencement of that etermay not we suppose that such souls, nal state, but the continuation of it. whose sublimer graces have qualified True it is, they are new beyond our them for this dignity, may rule the conception, and that as yet we are nations even in a literal sense? The strangers to the glory that shall be scripture gives a hint of such employ- revealed ; “for eye hath not seen, ments in the angelic world. Do we nor ear heard, neither have entered not read of Gabriel and Michael, and into the heart of man, the things their management of the affairs of which God hath prepared for them Persia, and Judea, and Greece, in the book of Daniel ? Now if angels

Encyclopedia Londinensis. No. 35,- VOL. III.

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