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169

On Conscience.

170

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less of counsels, and regardless of re- the deficiency of the gift, but through proof. This state of the soul St. Paul the abuse of it. I conclude, that concalls by the name of a seared con- science is not a power of the soul, actscience,' or one cauterized by repeated ing by or of itself ; but a recipient faapplications of sin, and resistings of culty, in which that true light that the Holy Ghost; so that, being grieved lighteneth every man that cometh into the and quenched, He has withdrawn His world, has its especial operation.!! light and influence from it. "The word conscience itself ascer

ON Conscience. tains the above explication, with its deductions; being compounded of con, Reply by A. F. to a Query on Contogether, or with, and scio, to know, be

science, inserted col. 843. cause it knows, or convinces, by or together with the Spirit of God. The The consciousness of good and evil is, Greek word ovVELÒNOIS, which is the I believe, respecting many actions, only word used for conscience through implanted in the mind by education. the whole New Testament, has the very In our youth we are taught to distinsame meaning, being compounded of guish virtue from vice, to respect the ovv, together, or with, and eldw, to know. I one and abhor the other; which, added This is the same as QUVELÒNors, which is to the hope of happiness in the next the word generally used among eccle- world, and the fear of eternal misery, siastical writers.

early produce a deeply impressed prin" From the above view of the sub-ciple of virtue. This, our memory, in ject, I think we are warranted in draw all our thoughts or actions, presents to ing the following inferences:

our view; and we then ask ourselves, "1. All men have what is called if they are agreeable to it? It is the conscience; and conscience plainly answer our understanding gives us, supposes the Light or Spirit of God. which produces that pleasure or pain 2. The Spirit of God is given to en- we then feel. If the reply is satisfaclighten, convince, strengthen, and tory, the happiness resulting from havbring men back to God. 3. Therefore, ing obeyed the commands of God, is all men may be saved who attend to, heightened by the pleasing reflection, and coincide with, the lights and con | that we have supported our honour and victions communicated; for the God virtue unsullied; if, on the contrary, of the Christians does not give men we have yielded to temptation, we are His Spirit to enlighten, &c. merely to overwhelmed with fear and shame. leave them without excuse; but that But many, if we look around us, are it may direct, strengthen, and lead not so conscious of the distinctions them to Himself, that they may be between good and evil. I conceive finally saved. 4. That this Spirit this depends upon the degree of incomes from the grace of God, is de- formation received; if we have never monstrable from hence:- It is a good been taught that a thing is wrong, we and perfect gift;' and St. James says, cannot be aware, if we do it, that we all such come from the Father of are committing sin. Were à man lights. Again, it cannot be merited, from infancy to have no opportunity of for as it implies the influence of the intercourse with his fellow-creatures, Holy Spirit, it must be of an infinite and then be introduced into society, I value, yet it is GIVEN; that, then, which believe he would be guided entirely by is not merited, and yet is given, must his will, without any ideas of right be of grace; not ineffectual grace, there or wrong, to gratify all his desires. is no such principle in the Godhead. There are no men so ignorant as this;

“ Thus it appears all men are par but the wild barbarians that inhabit takers of the grace of God, for all ac some parts of the world are nearly as knowledge that conscience is common uninformed. They dare not injure to all; and this is buta recipient faculty, one another, because they are afraid and necessarily implies the Spirit of of revenge ; or perhaps they have an grace, given by Jesus Christ; not that idol, whom they fear to offend for the the world might be thereby condemned, same reason. But civilize one of but that it might be saved. Neverthe-these, teach him the laws of man, and less, multitudes, who are partakers of of Christianity, and his crimés multithis heavenly gift, sin against it, lose ply. Before, his only crimes were it, and perish everlastingly, not through robbing or insulting his neighbour, or No. 24.VOL. III.

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171

. On Conscience.-On Cock Fighting.

172

little more. Those who are well in

ON COCK-FIGHTING. formed of the character of virtue and of vice, must know that all their thoughts, words, or actions, are either good or Sir,-Your Studley Correspondent, bad, and it is this conviction that we according to his promise which he call Conscience.

made in his last, now sends you Cra

ham's remarks on the savage diversion ON CONSCIENCE.

of Cock-fighting:

I have frequently observed, and with By S. T. of Saltash, Cornwall.

a degree of pleasure, the beautiful A correspondent asks, “What is and sprightly appearance of a wellConscience."

feathered cock. The luxuriant pluIt is well known that the word pro- mage of his neck, and fine tail exuberperly signifies, “an accompanying antly flowing over his back in a semiknowledge,” this being the significa circular form, give him an air of grantion of the Greek, ovv-El nous, and of the deur, superior, in my opinion, to any of Latin, con-scientia ; from the latter of our domestic birds. I love to see him, which are derived the coscienza, con- surrounded with his seraglio of feciencia, and conscience, of the Italians, males, strut along with great pomp, Spaniards, Portuguese, French, and the august monarch of the dunghill, English.

It is pleasant to observe how this It may, then, be defined as that creature apes reason, when led by knowledge, which the mind possesses, powerful instinct; he disdains to pick of the propriety or impropriety of cer- | what the females seem to have a detain actions, that are either suggested sire for. This refusing to make use of to it, consented to by the will, or ac- the power he has over them, seems as tually performed, in consequence of a lesson to mankind, not to tyrannize that consent. It is, in fact, an ema- over the weaker, whom, as having nation from “ that light, which, coming power, he ought to protect and nouinto the world, enlighteneth every rish. It would afford, I should think, man;" it is the judgment that the more satisfaction to survey these creamind passes on itself, and with it will tures enjoying themselves in innocent the decision of the great day agree. tranquillity, than to see them expiring

in agonies occasioned by the cruelty On Conscience.

of a set of men who style themselves

Christians. I am convinced, that The following Reply to the same Query would men give themselves a little is by Edward Usher, Albion-House time to reflect on the inhumanity of Academy, Loughton, Essex.

such diversions, and look upon these Conscience is that principle or fa creatures in the light I do, there would culty, implanted in the human mind never be another cocking match, or by the finger of God, the prerogative | Welch main, fought in their time ; and of which is, to accuse or excuse, to I doubt not that our children, inapprove or condemn, our actions and fluenced by so good an example, deportment. It is called by Solomon, would hardly think of renewing such · The candle of the Lord. Others barbarity. I suppose many of these have denominated it, 'The voice of kind of sportsmen will say-_“I glory God.' It is an internal monitor; and in a cock.” But then, the misfortune a most impartial judge. It takes cog- is, they glory in them no further than nizance of every act, and erects a tri- as they are subservient to their wanton bunal in the soul, from which there is cruelty; for should his favourite flag no appeal. By long indulgence in sin, (as he calls him) after having fought it may apparently be lulled to sleep; three successive battles, and foiled his yet, like a snake re-animated with the antagonists in each, decline engaging summer's sun, it will occasionally | in a fourth, or, if engaged, and almost awake from its stupor; assert its right, spent with toil, he should endeavour and play its part.

to avoid his destiny by flight, or even

make the least effort to recede, his The remaining part of this commu- neck must be immediately twisted, as nication, describing the effects of the only reward for his prowess. Thus Conscience, adds nothing to the reply, he meets his fate from a quarter, one and is therefore omitted. EDITOR. / might imagine, the least expected;

173

On Cock Fighting.

174

and I will refer it to any man of rea- / upon which a second, and most treson, if the cruel perpetrator does not mendous roar proclaimed him the in this case, prove himself as much a victor. monster and a tyrant as the detested I have been particular in describing emperor Nero. And I know not what this kind of diversion, because, should many of my countrymen would do, if any person who never heard of such not restrained by salutary laws. things read this, he would hardly ima

I never, but once, was a spectator of gine that such practices could exist this barbarous and ignorant amuse- amongst men of sense, who live in a ment; I was at that time about thirteen civilized nation, and call themselvesyears of age, and have ever since held followers of Christ! that practice in the utmost abhorrence But setting aside the cruelty of this and detestation. The sensations I felt, diversion, what ruin has it brought upon even at that age, were painful. I was families ! How many poor mechanics shocked to behold how strangely that leave their wives and children staryonce beautiful creature was disfigured. ing at home for want of bread, when That beautiful tail which did so adorn they are rioting and revelling at a him, was now miserably lopped, and cocking match! How many of the bore great analogy to that of an higher rank have forfeited their estates, Ostrich. In a word, he was now so and entailed poverty on their poscut and mutilated, that he made a terity, in order that they may pay more despicable appearance than the what they call-debts of honour! Now meanest hen.

when such men as these commence In this condition he was led to the fathers and heads of families, what field of battle, and because nature had kind of morals can they be supposed not furnished him with weapons fatally to instil into their children? can they keen, he was now supplied with artifi- be supposed to teach them benevocial ones. I took notice of two men in lence, gratitude, charity, compassion, striped jackets, whom I after under- and the rest of the social virtues ? stood styled themselves pitters. Their Alas! the contrary is evident. For business was to encourage these little many of these kind of sportsmen have combatants to destroy each other. been known to abuse and beat their The engagement began, and these children for no other reason than belittle creatures exerted much agility, cause they gave instances of a humane, and mighty valorous they were in their pacific disposition, in refusing to saw way. Oft were the bloody weapons off the heads of poultry, or dash out extracted by these doughty seconds, the brains of a cat.-“ Why,” they will and as oft did they urge them to the exclaim,“ are not all creatures made fight. During all which time the for man's use?” But granting this, vociferous company almost stunned (which many of our philosophers remy ears with their discordant din. Ifuse to grant,) does it follow from would gladly have retired, but it was hence, that they were made to be the no easy task to extricate myself from objects of our wanton cruelty! Man is amongst them; I therefore was obliged always ready to style himself“ lord to wait the conclusion. After many of the creation,” but his pride makes severe onsets, one of these poor crea- him forget that he is a poor dependent tures had an eye struck out by his an- creature himself. tagonist's spur, which went with such The following sensible and pathetic violence as to pierce quite through the sentences, extracted from the Economy bead. The barbarous company, instead of Human Life, may not be improperly of commiserating, announced their joy introduced on this occasion; and with with a loud cheer, which was echoed which I shall conclude this letter.through the whole circle. The weapon “ Exalt not thyself to the heavens, was again extracted: yet this did not for, lo! the angels are above thee! nor suffice; the combat must be again disdain thy fellow inhabitants of the renewed. After a few more faint strug- earth, for that they are beneath thee. gles, being now almost spent, and their Are not they the work of the same spirits quite exhausted, they fell to the hand? Thou who art happy by the ground, gasping in agonies, with their mercy of thy Creator, how darest thou heads reclined on the grass. After a in wantonness put others of his creafew seconds, one of them raised his tures to torture. Beware that it re. head, and made a motion with his bill; I turn not upon thee.”- Penrith, 1775.

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175
Memoir of Dr. Isaac Watts.

176 Tricommons BRIEF MEMOIR OF DR. ISAAC WATTS.

sities. This, however," he declined,

and ayowed his intention to continue (With an Engraving.)

among the non-conformists, notwithIf learning, piety, moderation, humi- standing the persecution, which his lity, and public usefulness, can recom father and family had endured, by admend any individual to the notice of hering to their interests. the Biographer, the justly celebrated At the age of sixteen, he was removDr. Watts has claims that cannot beed to London, and placed under the resisted. Detailed accounts of his care of the Rev. Thomas Rowe, who life, have indeed been long before the kept an academy there. Here he conworld ; but as we have given a repre- tinued until he attained the age of sentation of the Monument that has twenty, when he returned to his fabeen erected to his memory, we cannot ther's house, where he remained two resist the inducement that it affords, years, devoting his time to his own to accompany it with a brief sketch of mental and spiritual improvement. one, who was honoured in life, re- Twenty-two Latin dissertations found gretted in death, and whose name will among his papers, on metaphysical continue to be cherished with pleasing and theological subjects, during his *remembrance, so long as piety and abode in London, furnish proof of his learning shall command the veneration unwearied application; and a Pindaric of mankind.

Ode, addressed to his early preceptor, Isaac Watts, the eldest of nine chil- Mr. Pinkhorne, at the age of fifteen, dren, was born at Southampton, on established his early reputation as a July 17th, 1674. In this place his poet. father kept a boarding-school, and Having attained the age of twentysupported an unblemished reputation; two, he was solicited to become pribut being a decided non-conformist, vate tutor to the son of Sir John Harand “ falling on evil days,” he was topp, Bart, at Stoke Newington. Of committed to gaol, which reduced his this he accepted, and continued in family to great distress. During his this situation five years, during which confinement, his wife, with Isaac at period he gained universal esteem, her breast, has been known to sit on a and laid the foundation of a friendstone at the prison door, to console a ship with his pupil, which lasted husband whose company she was for- through life. bidden to enjoy, and who could no l Possessed of talents, learning, and longer provide for her wants, and those piety, for the ministerial office, he was of their children.

frequently solicited to take upon himIn early life, even before he had self the sacred charge; but such was learned to articulate distinctly, a book his diffidence, that no inducement was Isaac's chief delight and most could prevail upon him to ascend the pleasing companion, and the pence pulpit, until he was twenty-four years which were occasionally given him by of age, at which time he was chosen visitors, were sacredly devoted to the assistant to Dr. Isaac Chauncy, whom purchase of books. When only about he succeeded as pastor in the year eight years old, he composed verses to 1702. But for this labour, he soon please his mother. Many of these found his bodily strength, inadequate, have been preserved, and they dis- | and was therefore unable to go through cover not only strong indications of su- the whole service : and so much was perior genius, but, what is more re- his constitution impaired by a fever, markable, a devotional spirit, and fer- | in 1712, as to disqualify him for the vent piety.

duties of his profession during four He received the first rudiments of years. his education from the Rev. Mr. Pink- In this state of debility, he was horne, a minister of the established kindly received into the hospitable. church, in the town that gave him mansion of Sir Thomas Abney, by birth : and such was the proficiency whose indulgent care, he was restored which he had made at an early age, in to health, and under whose friendly the acquirement of Latin, Greek, and roof he found a permanent abode durHebrew, that his talents attracted the ing the remaining thirty-six years of notice of some gentlemen, who kindly his life. offered to bear the charges of his edu- His advance in years was accompacation in one of the English Univer-I nied with an increase of his reputa

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