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Monthly Observations.

to which we refer is too strong to require formed! Adored be the hand, which any nourishment, and too volatile to has collected, in a single focus, all the need any inflation. Crowns and scep- lights of life; and which has contres, columns and arches, garlands centred in one volume, all the truths and inscriptions, have been objects of religion! Blessed be the hour, of value, only as they have been tokens which so effectually rescued us from of distinction; nor would Britain herself darkness and doubt, from prejudice have to boast the number and virtue of and error: we need not now professedly her defenders, were there no notions engage to subdue monsters, or to of honour associated with a suit of undergo labours. Success in the resistregimentals, no ideas of elevation ance of corruption, and the mortifiattached to the profession of arms. cation of passion, is a summit of ambiHappy indeed is it, when this thirst tion adapted to our natures, and worthy for glory receives such a direction, as of our hopes.-We need not have reto combine public advantage with course to the disingenuous shifts of private gratification; as by paying the the Lybian, (Psapho,) who taught the price of utility, to insure the rewards songsters of the air to proclaim his of merit.

divinity. Our conquests shall be celeIt must be acknowledged, that there brated in sublimer strains, and our have been, in many cases, insuperable triumphs recorded by nobler heralds.oppositions in the path of those, whose Nor need we imitate the desperate exit hopes of distinction have been founded of the Sicilian poet, (Empedocles,) and on the rational resolution to deserve be like him disappointed, and betrayed it; and after employing the most ar

Deus immortalis haberi dent efforts, forming the most daring Dum capit Empedocles, ardentem frigidus Ætnam schemes, and indulging the most ani- Insiluit.

Hor. Ars. Poet. mated expectations, can the disap- He who hath created thee, O man, hath pointed candidate for public approba- shewed thee what is good. “To do tion, see, with unconcern, the laurel justly, to love mercy, and to walk encircling the head of a stranger? or humbly with thy God,” will place on hear, without emotion, the plaudits thy bead a crown of unfading lustre, bestowed on the productions of a adorn thy memory with the most competitor? If exclusively influenced valuable distinctions, and secure to by a love of fame, will he not, after thee the unalienable inheritance of the first fruitless attempt to be ranked Immortality. amongst the champions of truth, engage as eagerly in opposing her interests, and checking her conquests? or will he feel any hesitation, like a second With a Catalogue of all really British Erostratus, in committing the most

Plants, as they come into flower. daring outrage on the temple of the divinity, for the purpose of perpetuating his memory, and immortalizing A LITTLĖ after the middle of this month bis name.

Kingdoms and empires, the sun passes the boundary line of with their lofty appendages, constitúte the two hemispheres, and thereby the heights of modern ambition. causes that great variation in the state But the heroes and literati of anti-of the weather, for which March is proquity, were possessed of opportunities verbial. Frost and show, wind and of canvassing for their election to a rain, are frequently found to alternate pinnacle of grandeur, too sublime for with each other; but a continued dry the conceptions and hopes of subse- state of the atmosphere, with the wind quent ages. What envious fate pre- at east, is particularly desired by the sided over the day when these splen- farmer, for the purpose of drying up did meteors were suddenly sunk into the moisture of winter, and rendering the sullen shade of darkness? What the land fit for cultivation; hence pen, so inimical to literary labours, it is said that a bushel of March dust and heroic achievements, dashed from is worth a king's ransom. the page of the Roman moralist,

The state of the weather in this month Celum ipsum petimus,

is peculiarly important, as it affords a We aspire to heaven itself?

mode of estimating the probable dryAdored be the power, by whose ness or moisture of the following sumagency these wonders have been per- mer. Stormy weather at the equinos



Monthly Observations.

264 most commonly ushers in a favourable | deep hole or crevice, it hangs sus. summer; but when the weather is fine pended by its hind feet, enveloped in about that time, it usually happens that the membrane which forms its wings; the ensuing summer is wet and windy. sensation is presently restored, and About the beginning of the month,vege- the little creature ventures out in tation having advanced considerably, search of insects, which are its usual gives a promise of soon elothing the food. The time which it selects for hedges and groves with verdure; but this purpose is well known to be the it frequently occurs that a sudden re- twilight of the morning and evening; turn of frost not only cheeks the bud, when with noiseless flutter it wheels but destroys the young shoots, and its course after flies and moths. But considerably injures the trees. Hence occcasionally it awakes at an unseait happens, that in this month, spring sonable time, and, pressed by hunger, does not make that progress which ventures out in broad daylight, to its was anticipated at. its commence- certain destruction; for it is pursued ment.

by all the boys of the neighbourhood. At this time the birds which make Five kinds of Bats are known in this country their winter residence England: the Common Bat, (Vesperdepart northward; these are the Field- tilio Murinus,) with a tail, ears less fare, Redwing, Woodcock, Snipe, and than the head, and having no inner some others: but many Snipes remain valves; Long-eared Bat, (V. Auritus.) and breed in our moors ; and now and with a tail, ears long, and with inner then a Woodcock is found to continue valves; Great Bat, (V. Noctula,) with with us through the summer, probably a tail, ears oval, with small inner from having been wounded, and ren- valves; Whisked Bat,(V.Barbastellus,) der'd incapable of distant flight. Doc- with a tail, whisked, large ears, with tor Borlase, we believe, mentions the inner valves; and Horse-shoe Bat, (v. only instance wherein this bird has Ferrum Equinum,) without inner valves been known to breed in England. to the ears, the nose having a curious Birds also, that migrated from one resemblance to a horse-shoe. The part of this country to another in difference which exists in the habits autumn, now return to their former of these species is not well known; haunts. In most parts of England the but all have the common properties yellow Wagtail changes its quarters of lling into a state of torpidity in at the approach of winter, and returns winter, of living on insect food, and in spring; and the white Wagtail seeking their prey in the air in the does the same in the north of Eng- twilight. It is observed of all crealand: but many birds that migrate tures that seek their prey on the wing from some districts, in others remain by night, that their motion, unlike that through the year. The Wheatear, of the inhabitants of day, is without (Motacilla Oenanthe,) returns from noise; which, whilst it answers a great the south of France; and frequents purpose of nature in enabling them to downs and stony places near the surprise the object of pursuit

, conIt appears wonderful that a tributes also to the repose of those bird which seems usually to accustom which sleep at that period, by preitself only to short flights, should be ser the calm of able to cross the sea in places where The Mackarel, and its congener

the it is at least a hundred miles wide: Saad, emerge from the deep water of but we have oçular demonstration of the Atlantic, and seek the land. The the fact: many of them in their passage French fishermen first take their staalight on fishing-boats, being unable to tion off Cape Clear, about the middle proceed further; and many undoubt of this month; the first bave been edly perish. The formation of a nest, brought to Plymouth so early as the and the care of their progeny, occupy 15th, but in general British fishermen the attention of the feathered tribe. do not put to sea until about the be Straw, moss, feathers, wool from the ginning of April. The Sead has much sheep, and hair from larger animals, the same habits as the Mackarel; are laid under contribution, to form a except that they do not congregate dwelling; and the parent bird plucks into such large shoals; they keep near its own feathers to make it warm. the surface, and take a bait freely.

The increased temperature of the Smelts leave the sea, to pay their anair reaches the Bat, where, in some qual visit to fresh water i but they are




Reply to a Query on Study and Learning. 260 careful not to venture while winter yet retains its power.

Reply to a Query on Study and Insects are much increased in num

Learning ber, and the earlier species of Butter

Mr. Editor, fies are seen assuming their aerial ram- Sir, I have anxiously waited for a rebles. These creatures are generally con- ply to the queries on Study and Learnsidered as affording a very striking il- ing, inserted in col. 216; and in Numlustration of the change which will take ber 17, col.510, have been favoured with place in man at the resurrection of the But I cannot say I am quite body, and the commencement of the satisfied, it not being a complete reply, angelic state. At first, proceeding from Therefore I submit to you the followthe egg, it takes the form of a poor ing, which I conceive may claim the creeping helpless worm, extending its attention of the Enquirer, as a method views over an inch of space, and liable of study that I know may be adopted to be destroyed by every enemy that with advantage. Its insertion will approaches; it then passes into a state oblige your's respectfully, in which even this gross life appears to

A. B. D. be extinct; but, like a man in a coffin, to which even in shape it bears a re- I perfectly agree with your corresponsemblance, it waits for the coming of dent, that E. should make divinity but bright skies and warmer days. Casting a secondary study the first year, or year then aside the bonds in which it was and a half; yet some attention must be held, it rises buoyant on the air, frolics paid to it, for the purpose of forming a at pleasure where it lists, and lives on good style, and furnishing himself with the most delicious food that nature af- a variety of matter. I certainly would fords. Bees now visit flowers for the recommend E, to enter on the study of sake of their nectareous sweets ; they the languages, for I am sure an acare seen flying from plant to plant, em- quaintance with them will be well worth blems of industrious economy, and the time they will occupy. One great foretell to us how far spring is advan- advantage is, by constantly turning ced; and being very sensible of the over the pages of his lexicon, and changes in the air, and particularly searching continually for a great vaafraid of wet, their appearance in a riety of words to express the same morning inay lead us to judge that it is meaning, he will increase his vocabuprobable a fine day will follow. It is lary, and by that means will be able to the misfortune of man, rather to ad- surmount the difficulty young preachers mire the conduct of this industrious often labour under, of not commanding insect, than to imitate its example. proper and suitable words to express

Come into flower: Single-headed their ideas. Cotton Grass, Eriophorum vaginatum; It is also very important that he Smallest Bent Grass, Agrostis minima; should be able to read the scriptures. Sweet Violet, Viola odorata; Daffodil, in their original language, to get the Narcissus pseudo-narcissus; Two-leav- meaning of the text. Let me here obed Squill, Scilla bifolia ; Hairy Rush, serve, the studies which should engage Juncus pilosus ; Mezereon, Daphne the supreme attention of E. during his mezereum; Spurge Laurel, D. laure- twoyears, are, the languages, logic, and ola; Little Mouse-ear Chickweed, mathematics. Others, as time will alCerastium semidecandrum; Wood low, may be indulged in a little. He Spurge, Euphorbia amygdaloides ; Red should by all means begin with the S. E. Characias; Sloe, Prunus spi- Latin language, and with the Eton nosa; Barren Strawberry, Fragaria Grammar. He may, without the assiststerilis; Common Whitlow Grass, ance of any able master, soon learn to, Draba verna; Yellow Alpine, W. G. decline its nouns, and conjugate its D. aizoides ; Mountain Pepperwort

, verbs; and at the same time read the Lepidium petræum; Common Shep- other parts without labouring to get herd's Purse, Thlaspi Bursa pastoris; them by heart. When he has attained Hairy Ladies' Smock, Cardamine hir- a tolerable facility in this, he should suta; Blue Fleabane, Erigeron acre; enter on the As in presenti and syntax; Coltsfoot, Tussilago farfara; Common which, with labour, he may soon aoAlder, Betula alnus ; Butcher's broom, quire : it is not necessary he should Ruscus aculeatus; Different Poplars, learn the Latin of syntax by heart, Populus ; Yew Trée, Taxus baccata. only the rules in English. No. 25.–VOL. III.


267 Reply to a Query on Study and Learning. 268

In the mean time, if he wishes to read | tin and Greek. I would recommend a little, I would recommend Phædrus's Yeates Grammar. At first let him Fables; and for exercise, Clarke's Intro- learn the alphabet, vowels, the vowel duction to the making of Latin. This points, and the nouns, without learning much of the Latin, E. will find to be suf- the prose the first time over; this will ficient for threc months; and when he give him some idea of the language, can do the above exercises with fa- and teach him a little of the pronuncility, and still keeps his grammar in ciation. Let him then turn again to his hand, he may begin to read a little the beginning, and go through as with of Virgil and Cicero. These I would the others. recommend E. to read with a transla- With respect to mathematics, it is tion, because at present he merely necessary he should study a little of wants to get acquainted with the Latin them, and I think he will find the six words, and not to study the language first books of Euclid sufficient for him. with any critical niceness. “Why not Let E. be careful to retain the solution (says an elegant classic) let a young of each problem as he goes on, in his beginner go over the ground already memory; and I would recommend him smoothed for him, rather than impede to review every week what he has been his progress by suffering him to stumble studying : this he may do by noting along in the stony and rocky path.” down in a book, which he should keep E. will find sufficient to do with these, for that purpose. It is also very imånd labouring at his grammar, without portant he should take into his studies, any thing else ;-a good foundation logic. I would recommend Jamieson's must be laid in grammatical know- Grammar to be studied before he befedge.

gins Watts.- Note. Jamieson's GramIn a short time, I think E. may begin mar of rhetoric, E. will find a very usea little with the Greek, for by diligence ful book to keep by him, to peruse at and laborious application, he may soon his leisure ; there are good instructions acquire sufficient of Latin to introduce in it, to attain a good style of writing him to this. I would recommend the and speaking. Price six shillings Westminster Grammar as superior to each. the Eton, or to Valpy's. After having Concerning pulpit eloquence, let me Jearnt the alphabet and vowels &c.; he observe, it is not at all inconsistent may proceed to the nouns, and next to with the spirit of the gospel. In the the active, passive, and middle voice study of this, let E. be careful he does of the verbs. I would recommend, the not mistake the meaning of the word. first time going through, to go over Let his eloquence consist of beauty and the prose, and learn by heart the nouns, sublimity of idea, conveyed in striking verbs, &c. first. After having been and forcible words. As an example of over the grammar once in this super- genius and real eloquence, let E. read ficial manner, and become able to read | Robert Hall's Sermons; these he will the words in the Greek character, he find the best pieces of composition in should begin the grammar again, and existence. Let E. endeavour to get read the prose over well and atten- a fluency of words to express his tively, till he gets it well stored in his thoughts, and labour hard in exercising memory

his mind, to supply it with new and When E. is well acquainted with the original ideas., nouns and verbs, while he is going The frequent practice of composing, through the grammar a second time, E. will find absolutely necessary, in he should by all means read a little of order to form a good style. And the the language, and he will find nothing frequent practice of speaking extem easier than the Gospel by John. Daw- pore may be attended with two advanson's Lexicon he will find necessary at tages : first, the gaining a facility in first, till he gets a little acquainted with speaking; secondly, it will exercise the language. And let him, above all, his genius in producing a variety of lay a good foundation, by becoming matter. The books he may peruse, to well acquainted with his grammar. acquire a good style, or rather that are He may read also the Odes of Ana- works of taste, (for he must form his creon, &c. see col. 512.

style after the impulse of his own genius The second year E. will probably and taste,) are such as the above menenter on the Hebrew. This he will tioned sermons, Dr. Chalmers' works, hind to be somewhat easier than La- Watts' and Doddridge's Sermons, &G.

On Education.

270 He will find the style of Zimmerman ) great is attained without personal exervery good.

tion of either body or mind; and comThe poetical works of Pope, Milton, monly there need of the combined Shakspeare, Cowper, and Montgo- efforts of both. A general or leader mery, will supply him with thoughts, should be duly skilled in military tacand a variety of words. Let E. be tics; but he must also have a cool, careful of burdening his memory too firm, and collected mind. He must much with particular phrases, expres- use proper discipline; but not merely sions, and select paragraphs from dif- to indulge passion, wantonness, or ca. ferent writers; but let him remember price. It is scarcely needful to remind that he reads merely to gain knowledge you, that these ideas peculiarly apply of the different subjects which should to your situation, and you have aloccupy and exercise his mind. For ready been initiated in the theory. the cultivation of his reasoning powers, To understand fully the rudiments of he may read to advantage, Paley's language, and to have a tolerable Works, Butler's Analogy, Locke on knowledge of the principal classic the Understanding, Mason on Self- authors, is, indeed, necessary: but it knowledge; and for relaxation from constitutes only a small portion of what other studies, Raffles' Life of Spencer, belongs to the master of a classical Orton's Life of Doddridge, Fuller's Life school. Much depends on the mode to of Pearce, Maurice and Ryland's Life be adopted in conveying instruction, for of Fuller, and Southey's Life of Kirke many men of learning and good sense White. These he will find highly in-are deficient in imparting their knowteresting and instructing.

ledge with facility to others; or perhaps I would not recommend E. to begin they adopt an improper method of doing his studies before six in the morning ; it. Therefore the teacher should study four he will find too early. From six how he may be most useful; and he till ten, with two hours' relaxation in the may learn more and more himself every day, he will find sufficient time to day by practice; and by closely observstudy. Let him employ his thoughts ing the various tempers, and different about something profitable at all times. degrees of intellect, in those who are I would not recommend him to engage committed to his care. Though much in other studies, such as algebra, as- has been said and written on the subtronomy, anatomy, &c.; he will find ject of Education, yet much still reenough to do with the study of the mains in respect to the practical part. three languages, mathematics, logic, There will be a constant need of disand the cultivation of a good style of cernment and discrimination ; and of preaching. For other_books to read, treating boys somewhat differently, ac1 refer him to col. 58, Imperial Maga- cording to their capacity, disposition, zine, where he will find a judicious and age.

Man was made to be a social being : A. B. D. and as he is endowed with faculties and

intellect for that end, he should use them, both to receive and communicate

to the rest of his species whatever may Having obtained a copy of the follow- tend to the mutual good of both. The ing Letter, addressed to the Master of faculty of speech is of the first impora Grammar School in Ireland, we think tance in this case; by which the

may perhaps be useful to others of thoughts are conveyed from the mind like occupation here.

of one to that of another, in a mysteri

ous manner. The mode of this operaTo the Rev. Mr. ****, Master of the

tion is, indeed, a mystery, which no Free Grammar School at

philosopher has yet been able to develope or comprehend : for, who can

comprehend how the sound of the voice I CONGRATULATE you on your appoint-is made a channel of conveyance of ment to superintend the school at and I trust you are ambitious to possess other? It is, however, the business of every qualification for such a post. In the teacher to convey such instruction deed, the office of an instructor is ar- ) into the mind of his pupil, as may renduous and laborious: but it is honour- der him a useful member of the commuable and important too.

Nothing nity in some station of life,



Rev. Sir,

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