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271

On Education.

272

In reading the Greek and Roman hearers go away unedified, or with little Classics, it is necessary to understand solemnity on their mind. If an hour the heathen mythology ; because there or two were allotted for this purpose on is frequent reference to ancient fable, Saturday in each week, it would have or things which were couched under a happy effect, not only to inform the that mode of instruction in early times. mind, but to improve the pronunciaBut the teacher should endeavour to tion of youth, which would probably develope these fables, and shew his accompany them to a more advanced pupil from whence they originated ; age. and that some moral truth was gene- A judicious instructor will point out rally at the foundation ; which being to his pupils the beauties and excellent conveyed in allegory, or in figurative sentiments which occur in various paslanguage, gradually became obscure, sages of the authors which they read; or was misunderstood by the vulgar. and will also add a few words by way This especially was the case, by means of comment, (vivâ voce,) to enforce the of poetic fiction, or the glosses and con- sentiment, and improve their taste. jectures of the Greeks: for even their But, if a procedure of this kind be truly wisest men, who travelled into Egypt laudable in reading the heathen auand other eastern parts in quest of thors; surely a mode somewhat similar knowledge, had not sufficient time to is still more necessary in reading the investigate or understand those hints Bible, or other writings derived there. which they got there; and when they from. It would, therefore, be well, if returned home, they dressed them up a part of the Sunday evening were ap(as Plato expressed it) in a better or propriated to this business. The Colmore elegant form. But this dress lect for the day, being concise yet served only to disguise what was at first full, will afford excellent materials for both simple and beautiful. And when this end; and a few words may be used, Plato met with things sometimes, which to enlarge upon each sentence, inculhe did not understand; he calls them cating the doctrine and the import of aporretoi, that is, ineffable ; or muthoi, the prayer that is offered up. It will fables. And when the Greeks were at likewise be always necessary to impress a loss, or could not clearly trace up upon the minds of each rising generathings, they referred them to the gods; tion, the doctrine contained in the i. e. their most early ancestors, whom Ninth Article of they had deified.

Church; that man is now in a fallen It would, therefore, be of the utmost state, and must undergo a change beservice to classical schools, if, on a new fore he can be truly or permanently -edition of mythology, notes were happy. This may be done in a few added, by way of illustration, shewing plain, simple words, suitable to the that many of the most eminent fables capacity of children ; which may be of antiquity had an affinity with, or afterwards gradually enlarged upon were derived from, the divine writings. Should this be done, it will be useful to This would not only tend to illus- them during the remainder of their trate the Classics, but would likewise life. be subservient to true religion; and would make the boys more conversant kind, has been one great cause why

The neglect of instruction in this with the Bible, which has been too men of good natural abilities, who had much neglected in most classicalschools.got what is called a classical education, Indeed, the reading of the English are grossly ignorant of what is most Bible (at least select portions of it) is important, a knowledge of the fundahighly necessary, not only to make mental principles of the Christian reliyoung persons acquainted with its con- gion, and even of the church of which tents, but to accustom them to read it they profess themselves to be members

. with due decorum, and to pronounce Too many instances of this occur from the words with such a modulation of day to day: and, what is worthy of rethe voice as may be harmonious to the mark, some gentlemen of late years ear. · A neglecť in this point has been have made very florid speeches in one cause, why many, who officiate in favour of the plan for diffusing the public, read the Scriptures in a most Bible among the ignorant and unen. disgusting manner. If the Bible be lightened part of mankind ; and yet it -read like a paragraph in the News, or appears that they themselves are but some trifling paper, no wonder if the little acquainted with its contents.

our Established

this oc

to

am, Sir,

MORTALITY.

273 Mortality.

274 They think it very fit to send such a I know, Sir, that you in your place book among the vulgar herd, which may do much to promote the good end teaches them subordination, and a pro- recommended in this paper, respecting per and decent deportment: but they the youth committed to your care; to forget that it was intended for their make them useful members of the comown edification, as well as for that of munity, and an ornament to their nathe meanest and most illiterate peasant. tive land. I know they are not destiThey are solicitous to promote the mo- tute of natural genius; but let it be rality of the lower orders; whilst their well cultivated, and it will produce own souls are in danger of being eter- / fragrant flowers, and the most benefinally lost! And what appears likewise cial fruits. You know who hath said, inconsistent, whilst they profess them- Doctrina vim promovet insitam, selves to be members of the Established Rectiq : cultus pectora roborant.Church, they deny her fundamental doc

I trust, Sir, you will pardon the freetrines, both by their practice, and in their

dom which I have taken

upon conversation. Thus they become the dapes or tools of crafty infidels, who that I can have no other motive than to

casion; and you must be convinced are secretly laying a mine to blow up stir up a spirit of laudable emulation, our constitution, both in Church and State. The magistrates and kings welfare of our country, and the true

promote the good of individuals, the among the ancient Jews were manded to have the Mosaic code of felicity of the human race.

I laws in their possession, to meditate

With due deference and esteem, in them, not only for their private edi

Your humble servant, fication, but to understand and execute

AN OLD STUDENT, OF TRIN. them. Let lawyers and lawgivers, as

COL. DUBLIN. well as the clergy, attend to this, and

Aug. 30, 1819. practise the same. Let them study and understand what is necessary for all to know; and endeavour to promote, according to their power, the good of The tenure of man upon his present their fellow men.

existence is uncertain as that of the Though these things belong princi- autumnal leaf upon its stem. The leaf pally to those who are somewhat ad, may hang for many days, while thouvanced in years, yet the rudiments and sands around it fall successively to the principles may be inculcated in early earth; but the blast, or the silent proyouth; and the good seed which is gress of decay, loosens it in its turn, sown and watered with a little care, and its “place knows it no more.' may grow up to maturity, and produce How similar is the condition of humaplentiful and useful crop. Surely a nity! Yet, how inconsiderate we are boy of fourteen years of age, or even of an event, which we know will ceryounger, may be informed of the nature tainly come upon us, though we are and design of laws; and that they are, wholly uncertain when! or should be, founded on, or derived I have met with the following calcufrom, the will of the supreme and uni-lation, which makes my meditations versal LAWGIVER.

He
may
likewise

solemn: be instructed, that whoever is about to

The aggregate population on the minister in divine things, should be surface of the known habitable globe, sure that he is commissioned by Him is estimated at 895,300,000 persons. who alone has a right to send; and, If we reckon, with the ancients, that a that human learning, however useful in generation lasts 30 years, then, in that

no means the chief qua- space, 895,300,000 human beings will lification of an ambassador of the King be born and die: consequently 81,760 of kings. A physician should first must, on an average, be dropping into examine and well understand the na-eternity every day; 3,407, every hour; ture of a disease, before he ventures

or about 56 every minute ! to prescribe a medicine and the mode of cure; for an error in this case may Dar untouch'd hearts ? what miracle turns off

“ And yet we will not hear! what mail defends prove fatal to the patient, and in the The pointed sting ; which from a thousand quisame proportion must ultimately injure if not destroy his own reputation. Is daily darted, and is daily shunn’d ?"

W

a

its place, is by

vers

275

Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.

276

MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE AND TIMES OF

LEONARDO ARETINO.

no sooner were the civil dissensions of his conntrymen appeased by the cession

of their territory into the hands of the AMONGST the accomplished scholars who Florentines, than he repaired to the Aourished in Italy during the fourteenth Tuscan capital, which was at that and fifteenth centuries, no one holds a time the favoured residence of the liberal higher rank than Leonardo Bruni, who is arts. Here he diligently applied himself more commonly distinguished by the sur- to his studies, under the guidance of the name of Aretino, which he derived from celebrated Giovanni Malpaghino, or John Arezzo, the place of his nativity. The of Ravenna. Great as were his obligatime of his birth has not been exactly tions to this able preceptor, he was not ascertained. Matteo Palmerio, and So- less indebted to Colucio Salutati, chancelzomen presbyter of Pistoia, referring lor of the Florentine Republic, who was so that event to the year 1370, whilst deeply impressed with a sense of his brilGianozzo Manetti, in his funeral oration liant talents and of his virtues, that he not on the death of Leonardo, asserts that he only honoured him with his esteem, but was born in 1369. His father, Francesco regarded him with the affection of a faBruni, appears to have lived in good cir- ther.ll Notwithstanding the disparity of cumstances, and to have attained to emi- their years, these two illustrious scholars nence in civic honours. Francesco did pursued their studies in common, and, to not, however, enjoy the satisfaction of wit- adopt the words of Colucio, “ they munessing the rising reputation of his son, tually encouraged each other to literary as he died whilst Leonardo was yet a exertions, as steel gives an edge to steel.” youth.

When Leonardo had finished his rhe. Arezzo, like most of the other cities of torical studies, he applied himself for two Italy, was at this period distracted by years to the study of the Aristotelian civil discord, in consequence of which the philosophy, in which he made such prochiefs of the weaker party were com- gress, that he qualified himself to mainpelled to flee for refuge into the neigh- tain public disputations upon the subtile bouring districts. These exiles naturally topics, which present themselves in the taking advantage of every circumstance shadowy regions of logic and metaphy. likely to enable them to retrieve their sics. Had he been enabled to follow fortune, induced the commander of a body the bent of his inclinations, he wonld, in of French troops, who were marching to all probability, have exclusively devoted support the pretensions of the Duke of himself to the cultivation of polite literaAnjou to the crown of Naples, to make an tare. But the poverty of his circumattack on Arezzo. In the tumult which en

stances compelling him to enter upon sued upon this unexpected act of hostility, some pursuit which might be eventually Francesco and his son were taken pri- rendered a source of emolument, he sedusoners by different parties of the adverse lously directed his attention to the civil faction, and conducted to separate places law, a knowledge of which was indisped. of confinement. The imprisonment of the sably necessary to qualify him for an former was long and rigorous; but the honourable situation in the pontifical tender years of Leonardo exciting the court, or for a place of trust and profit compassion of those to whose custody he in any of the Italian states. He had de. was consigned, the hardships of his cap- dicated four years to the Pandects, tivity were alleviated by his being per. when the celebrated Manțel Chrysoloras mitted to reside in a spacious and com- was induced, by the offer of a large sti. fortable chamber. On the wall of this pend, to read lectures on the Greek lanapartment there happened to be delineated guage, in the Florentine university**(A. a portrait of Petrarca, by the daily con- D. 1399.) On this occasion Leonardo templation of which, Leonardo was in experienced no small degree of hesitation famed with a most ardent ambition of with regard to the future direction of his distinguishing himself by literary attain- studies. On the one hand, he was appre. ments.

hensive that a dereliction of the civil law Nor was this a transient emotion : for would involve him in disgrace, and oh* Mehi Vita Leonardi Bruni Aretini, p. 23. + Jannotü Manetti Oratio Funebris, apud + Ibid. p. 23, 24.

Mehi Vitam Leon. Bruni p. 92. # Ibid. p. 25.

I Mehi Vita Leon. Bruni, p. 25. || Ibid. p. 26. Ibid. p. 24.

Ibid. p. 29. Jannotii Manetti Oratio Funebris, apud S' Ibid. Jannotü Manetti Oratio, p. 93. Mehi Vitam Leon. Bruni, p. 91, 92,

* Ibid.

277

Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.

278

stract his promotion on the other hand, tions of his fellow student. Soon after the praises of Homer, Plato, and Demos- the accession of Innocent VII. to the pathenes, were daily sounding his ears, pal throne, he took occasion, by the meand excited in his mind a most ardent dium of two eminent dignitaries of the desire to become acquainted with their church, so strongly to impress that ponwritings. He reflected, that for the tiff with a sense of Leonardo's merits, space of seven hundred years, Grecian that he determined to invite him to Rome. literature had lain dormant in Italy, and In consequence of this flattering sumhe could not but regard its revival, as the mons, Leonardo immediately repaired to effect of the direct interposition of Provi- the pontifical capital, where he arrived dence. Influenced by these considerá- on the 25th of March, 1405. Of his intions, he laid aside the code of Justinian, troduction to his future master, he gave and enrolled himself as a disciple of Chry- the following account in an epistle to soloras; whose instructions he imbibed his worthy patron, Colucio Salutati. with such eagerness, that the lessons of “I arrived at Rome on the 25th of the day were frequently the subject of March, and took the earliest opportunity his nightly dreams.* He continued to of paying my respects to His Holiness, attend public lectures on the Greek lan- from whom I met with a kind and graguage for the space of nearly three years, cious reception. At his first view of me, at the end of which time, his preceptor, however, before I had spoken a word, he being summoned to meet his sovereign, turned to those who stood near him, and the eastern emperor Palæologus, at the said, “He is a younger man than I imagincourt of Giovanni Galeazzo, duke of Mi. ed him to be.” This was the first speech lan, (A. D. 1402,) was obliged to resign which I heard him utter. After I had his honourable situation in the Floren- paid him the customary homage, he retine university. The departure of Chry- plied in a few words, and repeated the soloras did not, however, extinguish the remark which he had made when he first zeal of Leonardo for the cultivation of saw me. The substance of his observaGrecian literature. On the contrary, he tions was this, that the office, to the acendeavoured, by the assiduity of private ceptance of which he had invited me, was study, to compensate the loss which he an office of great weight and importance, had sustained, in being deprived of so en- the proper discharge of the duties of lightened an instructor. The first-fruits which, required not only learning, but disof his lucubrations were soon exhibited cretion, and a maturity of judgment and in a Latin version of Basilius's treatise on dignity, which could hardly be expected Education ; by the publication of which, in youthful years. “ You seem to me,” he gained from his contemporary scholars said he,“ to have every requisite except a grateful tribute of applause.t

that of age; but I shall reserve this matIn the mean time, Leonardo was im- ter for further consideration.” With this pelled, by a laudable desire of procuring observation I was dismissed. During this for himself an honourable subsistence, to transaction the court was crowded with resume his researches into the principles attendants, who instantly spread abroad of the civil law. Having acquired a a report that I was rejected on account of competent knowledge of the science and my youth. This rumour excited the practice of jurisprudence, he began to hopes of many other candidates, and eslook out for some situation in which he pecially of your friend Jacopo d'Angelo, might be enabled to obtain a suitable re-who, though he had not before given any muneration for the exertion of his talents. intimation of his intention, is now exertIn these circumstances, his views were ing all his interest to obtain the office in directed to the Roman chancery. His question. I understand that he is insti. hopes of gaining some lucrative employ- gated to this conduct by some of his par. ment in the pontifical court, were prin- tizans, who assert, that it will redound to cipally founded on the friendly assistance his disgrace, if an entire stranger

is

prewhich he expected to receive from Pog- ferred to him, who has resided for the gio Bracciolini, who had been the associ- space of four years in the Roman court, ate of his literary pursuits in the Tuscan and has attained to an age sufficiently aniversity, and who had lately been pro- mature for the discharge of the duties of moted to the office of Writer of the the vacant office. Stimulated by these Apostolic Letters. Nor did that cele

suggestions, and elate with hope, he and brated scholar disappoint the expecta- his friends are unremittingly active, and Mehi Vita Leon. Bruni. p. 29, 30.

* Mehi Vita Leon. Bruni. 31. p.

† Ibid. p. 30. 31.

rence.

279
On Improving Time.--Happiness.

280 are endeavouring, by numerous applica- | cannot with oertainty call to-morrow, tions, to influence the mind of the Pon- nor even the next moment, our own: tiff-and, what is most disagreeable to then “boast not thyself of tomorrow, my feelings, they institute odious compa- for thou knowest not what a day may risons between Angelo and myself. Thus bring forth.”-Alfred the Great was so am I destined to contend for honour and sensible of the value of this blessing, dignity with the same individual who was that he divided not only the day, but my literary rival in the university of Flo- also the night, into three parts, of eight

I must, however, observe, that I hours each. He assigned only eight have proceeded honourably, without set- hours to sleep, meals, and exercise ; ting myself up in opposition to any one ; and the other sixteen, one half to readbut as to his attempt to obstruct my pre- ing, writing, and prayer, and the other ferment, I am fully persuaded that you will to public business. regard it as base, unjust, and invidious. When ground is industriously cultiFor if he wished for this situation, why did vated, the God of nature will bestow a not he solicit for it before my arrival? If crop even superior to the expectations he did not wish for it, what is the meaning of the humble tiller. of his present eagerness? I have too Be careful then to improve the golden great reason to suspect that he is taking moments of youth, and the no less imadvantage of my embarrassment, and that portant ones of age ; for“ Life's a short instead of lending me that assistance summer. Man's a flower. He dies, alas which he ought to afford me, he inhu- | how soon he dies !” maply wishes to lasten my ruin. As to

F, K. myself, though I am somewhat distressed by the novelty of my present situation, An Essay on Happiness. by my want of acquaintance, and many other circumstances, yet I will exert myself to the utmost, in order to prove, that If these observations on Happiness

MR. EDITOR, if Angelo surpasses me in years, he is my meet your approbation, an early inserinferior in every other respect.

tion will much oblige Rome, April 3d, 1405.""

A SUBSCRIBER. This contest between the rival scholars was not of long continuance. In the

Addressed To M. Gor-, course of a little time after its commence- It seems to be the condition of man ment, Leonardo apprized Colucio Salu- to seek all bis consolations in futurity. tati of its termination.

The time present is very seldom able * Leon. Aret. Epist. lib. i. ep. 1.

to fill desire or imagination with im(To be continued.)

mediate enjoyment, and we are there

fore forced to supply the deficiencies IMPROVING by recollection or anticipatión. Every

one so often experiences the fallaciousThere is nothing which is of more im- ness of hope, and the inconveniencies portance than a right improvement of of teaching himself to expect what a every moment of our tinie, and of the thousand accidents may preclude, that, spending of that upon which our pre- when time has abated the confidence sent and future happiness, in this, and with which youth rushes out to take also in another world, depends. possession of the world, we naturally

Time is continually hasting on, nor endeavour, or wish at least, to find endoes he ever wait, or quicken his pace, tertainment in the review of life, and to accommodate us. Whatever we to repose upon real facts and certain may be doing, or whether we are em-experience. ployed at all, time is hurrying on, and But so full is the world of calamity, stealing almost imperceptibly' away; that every source of pleasure is poland while we are the possessors of this luted, and tranquillity disturbed. When inestimable treasure, we must not only time has supplied us with events suffifill our stations here with diligence, cient to employ our thoughts, it has but prepare for death, eternity, and mingled them with so many disasters judgment, and accordingly we shall be and afflictions, that we sbrink from the rewarded.

remembrance of them, dread their inTime is also the most uncertain of trusion on our mind, and fly from them all our numerous blessings; and we to company and diversion.

ON

THE

NECESSITY OF

TIME.

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